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World War I


Causes of World War I. Militarism glorification of war led to ... Causes of World War I. 3. System of Alliances. Web of treaties to protect themselves ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War I

World War I
  • The War, the Realities, and the Results

Causes of World War I
  • Europe at its peak
  • Industrial Revolution at its peak
  • Europe had 25 of worlds population
  • Modernization led to sense that Europe was at
    the peak of world civilization
  • Imperial Tensions European nations competed for

Causes of World War I
  • Militarism glorification of war led to increase
    in military spending
  • Germany competed with Britain for naval
  • War portrayed as romantic

Causes of the War
  • 2. Nationalism
  • Great pride in country or aspiring to become
    own country
  • Germany Italy recently unified, independent
  • Countries torn by tensions of different
    nationalist groups
  • Militarism and imperial competition increased
    European tensions

Causes of World War I
  • 3. System of Alliances
  • Web of treaties to protect themselves
  • Triple Alliance Germany, Austria-Hungary, and
  • Triple Entente France, Russia, and Great
    Britain - when war broke out became known as the

War Breaks Out
  • 4. Nationalism in the Balkans
  • People of diverse religions, ethnicities, and
  • As Ottoman Empire declined, new nations were
  • Russia and Austria competed for control of new
  • Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia 1908 and Serbia
    resents this

War Breaks Out
  • The Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
  • Archduke visits Sarajevo, Bosnia June, 1914
  • 7 assassins Black Hand, Serbian nationalists
    plot assassination
  • Archduke and wife, Sophia, are shot

War Breaks Out
  • Austria-Hungary Ultimatum
  • Germany gave blank check of military support
    to A-H
  • A-H delivers severe ultimatum to Serbia
  • Serbia refuses to allow A-H to run investigation
    of assassination
  • A-H declares war on Serbia, July 28, 1914

War Breaks Out
  • Alliance system leads to war
  • Russia supports Serbia and Germany supports A-H
  • Within one week, almost all of Europe plunged
    into war
  • Germany declares war on Russia and France
  • Britain declares war on Germany

The Alliances
  • Triple Entente/Triple Alliance Britain, France,
    Russia, eventually the U.S. and 32 other nations
  • Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary,
    Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire, Italy for a time

The Fronts
  • Western Front Germany tried to take France
    quickly on western front then turned to Russia on
    eastern front
  • Battle lines formed in northeast France and
  • Long, bloody battles Verdun 680,000
    casualties Somme over 1 mln casualties

The Fronts
  • Eastern front Russia lacked modern
  • Signed peace treaty Brest-Litovsk Treaty- with
    Germany because of overthrow of tsartist regime
  • Balkan Front allies abandon attempts to land in
    Balkans after losing at Galipoli
  • Italian Front joined Triple Entente in 1915 to
    fight A-H

The War Ends
  • Bulgaria and Ottoman Empire first Central Powers
    to be defeated
  • Revolts inside A-H and Germany help to end war

New Weapons of War
  • Machine guns, 75 types of poison gas, tanks,
    planes, flame throwers
  • Casualties of modern war total losses over 10
    million men
  • Casualties of modern weaponry tactics of
    sending masses of men toward enemy ineffective
    against weapons, British lost 57,470 on day 1 of
    Battle of Somme

Realities of War
  • Patriotic fervor many looked forward to war in
  • Attitude change soldiers changed optimism as
    they sent letters home about horrors of war
  • At the return home there were no parades or
    crowds to welcome the heroes home

Trench Warfare
  • The Race to the Sea
  • 475 miles of trenches dug across northern
  • France
  • British troops used over 10 million shovels
  • during the war

Trench Warfare
  • Life in the Trenches
  • Charging over the top, crossing no mans land
  • to reach enemy trenches
  • Boring, terrifying and caused shell shock
  • Horrible living conditions

Trench Warfare
Social Changes Caused by War
  • Mobilizing for total war civilian sacrifices,
    rationing, govt controlled industries
  • New jobs for women worked in traditional male
    jobs, worked to support soldiers
  • Womens wages still paid less than men,
    discovered benefits of financial independence,
    won right to vote throughout Europe

Paris Peace Conference
  • Peace of Justice Allied and Central powers meet
    at Versailles
  • Wilson presents 14 Points self-determination
    for all nations and a just peace
  • Peace of Vengence Italy and Britain want
    territory, France punish Germany, U.S. Italy
    leave peace settlement to France and Britain

Treaty of Versailles
  • Big Four Italy, U.S., Britain, France Orland,
    Wilson, George, Clemenceau
  • France Britain want severe treaty
  • Germany had to return Alsace/Lorraine region to
    France, demilitarized Rhineland near France, pay
    32 billion in reparations, agree to guilt clause

Creating a New Europe
  • Similar treaties signed by Central Power nations
  • Change in borders throughout Europe
  • Bulgaria, Austria-Hungary, Russia all lost
  • Many new countries created

Conditions of the Treaty of Versailles
  • Created League of Nations
  • Germany limited army, no military supplies to
    be created, no warships or subs
  • Allies lacked ability to enforce conditions of

Fates of Former Territories
  • A-H becomes 2 countries Austria Hungary
  • New nations Czechoslovakia Yugoslavia,
    Poland, Romania

Ethnic Populations
  • Treaty solved some problems created new ones
  • - self-determination of nations new boundaries
    did not match ethnic boundaries
  • - oppressed peoples Armenians of Turkey
    victims of genocide 1.5 of 2 mln were killed

Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire, Russia
  • Bulgaria lost outlet to Aegean Sea
  • Ottoman Empire territory became protectorate of
    Britain France, Dardanelles Bosporus under
    internatl control
  • Russia isolated from rest of Allies, Baltic
    states claim independence, lost land in Poland

League of Nations
  • Created to fix injustices of Treaty of
  • 2 aims promote international cooperation keep
    peace among nations

Organization of L. of N.
  • 3 agencies assembly, council, secretariat
  • World Court determined cases involving
    international law The Hague, Netherlands
  • Assembly all member nations
  • Council main peacekeeper body 9 members 5

League of Nations
  • Members agreed to bring disputes to World court
  • If members broke agreement economic sanctions
  • Dealt w/ colonies of defeated nations as
    protectorates mandates to prepare colonies for

League of Nations
  • U.S. never becomes a member
  • feared involvement in another war
  • 42 members joined, later Germany Russia, 59
    nations at one point