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World War I

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World War I. European powers : France: torn by religious, political tensions. Dreyfus Affair ... Causes of World War I. Long terms causes: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War I


1
World War I
  • European powers
  • France torn by religious, political tensions
  • Dreyfus Affair
  • 43 governments /26 presidents 1890-1914
  • hatred of Germany
  • England new king Edward VII 1901-09
  • suffragettes
  • labor tensions

2
  • Germany Wilhelm II
  • build a navy to rival the British
  • strengthen the army
  • increase imperial strength
  • Austria
  • Austria-Hungary after 1867
  • unrest among ethnic groups desirous of
    independence
  • Balkan Wars

3
  • Russia Tsar Nicholas II
  • Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905
  • Revolution of 1905
  • World War I 1914-1918
  • (Great War, or European War)
  • The worst war in modern history up to that point

4
  • June 28, 1914 the Austria-Hungary Habsburg heir
    to the throne Archduke Franz Ferdinand was
    killed in Sarajevo--capital of the province of
    Bosnia.
  • Bosnia claimed by both Austria-Hungary
    andSerbia.
  • Serbian terrorist groups organized acts of
    violence against A-H

5
  • One such groups--the Black Hand--succeeded in
    assassinating Franz Ferdinand.
  • Gavrilo Princip--Serbian nationalist and member
    of terrorist group killed the heir to the A-H
    throne to end Austrian control over Bosnia and
    seize Bosnia for Serbia
  • Austria-Hungary issued ultimatum against Serbian
    government

6
  • Serbia refused terms
  • War between A-H and Serbia
  • July 28, 1914
  • Within one week all the great powers of Europe
    will be at war with each other.
  • Princips bullet would eventually cost 36 million
    casualties in killed, wounded, and missing.

7
  • Why?
  • Causes of World War I
  • Long terms causes
  • tensions within European political system brought
    about by German and Italian unification--altering
    traditional balance of power
  • too many powerful nations too close together

8
  • Aggressive nationalism, or extreme nationalism
  • superiority in nation
  • national honor
  • military strength
  • invincibility
  • if any question why we died, tell them because
    our fathers lied.

9
  • Imperialist rivalry led to more tension in
    Europe.
  • Wars of imperialism
  • Economic rivalry for limited trade
  • Militarism--
  • glory of war combined with accumulation of
    weapons of war
  • greatness of war--duty, honor, country
  • war as a game test of strength

10
  • German naval threat
  • Britain vs. Germany
  • HMS Dreadnought--1906 Sir J. Fisher
  • battleship design--newest features guns
  • British navy traditionally twice as large as any
    other rival
  • Germany wanted to build a larger navy
  • stole the design for the Dreadnought and began
    production of their own

11
  • British government angry at Germans but could
    really do nothing but protest.
  • Tensions building between Germany and Britain

12
  • System of Alliances
  • Triple Entente
  • France in need of allies after 1871 joined with
    Russia in the Dual Entente.
  • France and Britain became allies after Boer War
  • France, Russia, Britain allies in 1907 to form
    Triple Entente.

13
  • Triple Alliance 1882
  • Germany, Italy, and Austria Hungary came together
    in alliance of central European powers
  • Both alliances had mutual guarantees of support
    in time of war. If one goes to war their allies
    go to war. Only the British held out the option
    of not going to war.

14
  • War Plans
  • Germany 1894 Schlieffen Plan
  • Plan for a two front war against France and
    Russia
  • France/ Germany/Russia
  • Germans had a 6 week time table to first attack
    France--take Paris--then use the railroads to
    cross Germany to take on the Russians

15
  • This plan counted on victory and British
    neutrality
  • Schlieffen plan scheduled and planned to the last
    detail
  • Balkan Crises
  • Austria-Hungary and its troubled provinces in a
    series of wars 1912-1913

16
  • Sarajevo, June 28 1914--assassination of Archduke
    Ferdinand
  • Austria-Hungary and Serbia at War
  • Austria called on ally Germany in Triple
    Alliance. German government gave the Austrian
    government a blank check support.
  • Germans wanting a little war

17
  • Serbia called on its ally Russia for aid.
  • Russia mobilized against A-H and Germany July 25
    but waited.
  • Germany did the same against Russia--
  • A stand-off
  • Germany issued ultimatum to France to stay
    neutral. France had to support Russia as a member
    of Triple Entente.
  • Germans had Schlieffen plan that called for war
    against France and Germany

18
  • France and Russia mobilized against Germany
    August 1914
  • British government waited until last possible
    moment --hoping for a diplomatic solution.
  • Germans began invasion of France by crossing
    neutral Belgium. This gave the British the
    opportunity to enter war against Germany.
  • Triple Entente vs. Triple Alliance

19
  • Short War Illusion
  • home by Christmas
  • great and glorious and short
  • manliness and strength
  • destiny of their nation to win
  • Tragic reality? The real war will be more
    horrible than any of the soldiers could imagine.
    Horror beyond imagination.
  • Pray God you may never know the Hell where youth
    and laughter go.
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