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Physicians and Surgeons

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physician assistants. Podiatrists. Veterinarians. Physicians and Surgeons. Additional Information ... American Dental Association http://www.ada.org ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Physicians and Surgeons


1
Physicians and Surgeons
  • Significant Points
  • Formal education and training requirements are
    among the most demanding of any occupation, but
    earnings are among the highest.

2
Physicians and Surgeons
  • Nature of the Work
  • Physicians and surgeons
  • diagnose illnesses
  • prescribe and administer treatment
  • This is accomplished by
  • obtaining medical histories
  • Performing and interpreting diagnostic tests

3
Physicians and Surgeons
  • Two Types of Physicians
  • M.D.-Doctor of Medicine-
  • D.O.-Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine.
  • M.D.s also are known as allopathic physicians.
  • D.O.s place special emphasis on the body's
    musculoskeletal system, preventive medicine, and
    holistic patient care.
  • About a third of M.D.s-and more than half of
    D.O.s-are primary care physicians.

4
Physicians and Surgeons
  • Distribution of Physicians by Specialty

5
Physicians and Surgeons
  • Working Conditions
  • Many physicians work in small private offices or
    clinics.
  • Increasingly, physicians practice in groups or
    healthcare organizations. They are less
    independent than solo practitioners of the past.
  • Almost one-third of physicians work 60 hours or
    more a week.
  • Physicians and surgeons often have to take call,
    and may make emergency visits to hospitals.

6
Physicians and Surgeons
  • Employment
  • Currently about 598,000 jobs in the U.S.
  • About 7 out of 10 were in office-based practice
  • About 2 out of 10 were employed by hospitals.
  • Others practiced in the Federal Government

7
Physicians and Surgeons
  • Undergraduate Training
  • Academic
  • Physics, biology, mathematics, english, and
    inorganic and organic chemistry. Students also
    take courses in the humanities and the social
    sciences.
  • Non-Academic
  • Volunteer work
  • Community Service
  • Shadowing
  • Other clinical Exposure

8
Physicians and Surgeons
  • Medical School Training,
  • Minimum educational requirement for entry into a
    medical school is 3 years of college.
  • Most applicants, however, have at least a
    bachelor's degree, and many have advanced
    degrees.
  • There are 144 medical schools in the United
    States
  • 125 teach allopathic medicine and award a Doctor
    of Medicine (M.D.) degree
  • 19 teach osteopathic medicine and award the
    Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) degree.

9
Physicians and Surgeons
  • Medical School Training
  • First 2 years
  • Courses in anatomy, biochemistry, physiology,
    pharmacology, psychology, microbiology,
    pathology, medical ethics, and laws governing
    medicine.
  • Last 2 years
  • Students work with patients under the supervision
    of experienced physicians in hospitals and
    clinics.
  • Following medical school
  • M.D.s enter a residency which may last 3 to 9
    years.
  • Most D.O.s serve a 12-month rotating internship
    after graduation before entering a residency
    which may last 2 to 6 years.

10
Physicians and Surgeons
  • Getting into
  • Acceptance to medical school is very competitive.
  • Applicants must submit transcripts, scores from
    the Medical College Admission Test, and letters
    of recommendation.
  • Schools also consider character, personality,
    leadership qualities, and participation in
    extracurricular activities. Most schools require
    an interview with members of the admissions
    committee.

11
Physicians and Surgeons
  • Practicing Medicine
  • To be a licensed physician
  • One must graduate from an accredited medical
    school, pass a licensing examination, and
    complete 1 to 7 years of graduate medical
    education.
  • A physician's training is costly
  • 80 percent of medical students leave medical
    school with over 120,000 in debt.

12
Physicians and Surgeons
  • Earnings
  • Physicians have among the highest earnings of any
    occupation.
  • Median income for allopathic physicians is about
    160,000
  • Link to table 2

13
Physicians and Surgeons
  • Related Occupations
  • Physicians work to prevent, diagnose, and treat
    diseases, disorders, and injuries. Professionals
    in other occupations requiring similar skills and
    critical judgment include
  • Chiropractors
  • Dentists
  • Optometrists
  • physician assistants
  • Podiatrists
  • Veterinarians

14
Physicians and Surgeons
  • Additional Information
  • Association of American Medical Colleges
    http//www.aamc.org
  • American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic
    Medicine http//www.aacom.org
  • American Medical Association http//www.ama-assn.
    org
  • American Osteopathic Association
    http//www.aoa-net.org

15
Dentists
  • Significant Points
  • Although employment growth will provide some job
    opportunities, most jobs will result from the
    need to replace the large number of dentists
    projected to retire.
  • Dental care will increasingly focus on
    prevention, which involves teaching people how
    better to care for their teeth.

16
Dentists
  • Nature of the Work
  • Dentists diagnose, prevent, and treat teeth and
    tissue problems.
  • Dentists use a variety of equipment, including
    x-ray machines, drills, and instruments such as
    mouth mirrors, probes, forceps, brushes, and
    scalpels.
  • Dentists in private practice oversee a variety of
    administrative tasks, including bookkeeping, and
    buying equipment and supplies.

17
Dentists
  • Working Conditions
  • Most full-time dentists work about 40 hours a
    week.
  • Most dentists are solo practitioners
  • Some dentists have partners
  • A few work for other dentists as associate
    dentists.

18
Dentists
  • Employment
  • Currently about 152,000 jobs in the U.S.
  • Most new jobs will grow out of retirement of
    dentists and aging population.

19
Dentists
  • Undergraduate Training
  • Minimum of 2 years of college-level predental
    education.
  • Most dental students have at least a bachelor's
    degree.
  • Predental education emphasizes coursework in the
    sciences.
  • All dental schools require applicants to take the
    Dental Admissions Test (DAT).
  • Dental schools consider scores earned on the DAT,
    applicants' grade point average, and information
    gathered through recommendations and interviews.

20
Dentists
  • Dental School Training
  • First 2 years.
  • Instruction and laboratory work in basic
    sciences, including anatomy, microbiology,
    biochemistry, and physiology. Beginning courses
    in clinical sciences, including laboratory
    techniques, also are provided at this time.
  • Last 2 Years
  • During the last 2 years, students treat patients,
    usually in dental clinics, under the supervision
    of licensed dentists.

21
Dentists
  • Postgraduate Training
  • Most schools award the degree of Doctor of Dental
    Surgery (DDS). The rest award a Doctor of Dental
    Medicine (DMD) degree.
  • About one-fourth to one-third of new graduates
    enroll in postgraduate training programs to
    prepare for a dental specialty.

22
Dentists
  • Earnings
  • Median annual earnings of salaried dentists is
    129,030.
  • Self-employed dentists in private practice tend
    to earn more than do salaried dentists.

23
Dentists
  • Additional Information
  • American Dental Association http//www.ada.org
  • American Dental Education Association
    http//www.adea.org

24
Optometrists
  • Significant Points
  • Competition for admission to optometry school is
    high.
  • Because optometrists usually remain in practice
    until they retire, replacement needs arise almost
    entirely from retirements.

25
Optometrists
  • Nature of the Work
  • Optometrists provide primary vision care to the
    50 of Americans who were corrective lenses.
  • Optometrists examine people's eyes to diagnose
    vision problems and eye diseases.
  • Optometrists prescribe eyeglasses and contact
    lenses
  • Optometrists provide preoperative and
    postoperative care to cataract, laser vision
    correction, and other eye surgery patients.

26
Optometrists
  • Nature of the Work
  • Dont confuse Optometrists with ophthalmologists
    or opticians.
  • Ophthalmologists are physicians who perform eye
    surgery, and diagnose and treat eye diseases and
    injuries. Like optometrists, they also examine
    eyes and prescribe eyeglasses and contact lenses.
  • Opticians fit and adjust eyeglasses and in some
    States may fit contact lenses according to
    prescriptions written by ophthalmologists or
    optometrists.
  • Most optometrists are in general, private
    practice.

27
Optometrists
  • Working Conditions
  • Optometrists usually work in their own offices.
  • Most full-time optometrists work about 40 hours a
    week. Many work Saturdays and evenings to suit
    the needs of patients.

28
Optometrists
  • Employment
  • Currently about 31,000 jobs in the U.S.
  • Although many optometrists practice alone, a
    growing number are in a partnership or group
    practice.
  • Some optometrists work as salaried employees of
    other optometrists or of ophthalmologists,
    hospitals, health maintenance organizations
    (HMOs), or retail optical stores.

29
Optometrists
  • Training
  • The Doctor of Optometry degree requires
    completion of a 4-year program at one of the 17
    accredited optometry schools preceded by at least
    3 years of preoptometric study at an accredited
    college or university (most optometry students
    hold a bachelor's or higher degree).

30
Optometrists
  • Undergraduate Training
  • Prerequisite courses in English, mathematics,
    physics, chemistry, and biology.
  • Applicants must take the Optometry Admissions
    Test, which measures academic ability and
    scientific comprehension.
  • Most applicants take the test after their
    sophomore or junior year.

31
Optometrists
  • Optometry School Training
  • Optometry programs include classroom and
    laboratory study of health and visual sciences,
    as well as clinical training in the diagnosis and
    treatment of eye disorders. Courses in
    pharmacology, optics, vision science,
    biochemistry, and systemic disease are included.
  • Business ability, self-discipline, and the
    ability to deal tactfully with patients are
    important for success.

32
Optometrists
  • Postgraduate Training
  • Optometrists wishing to teach or do research may
    study for a master's or Ph.D. degree
  • One-year postgraduate clinical residency programs
    are available for optometrists who wish to
    specialize in family practice optometry,
    pediatric optometry, geriatric optometry, vision
    therapy, contact lenses, hospital-based
    optometry, primary care optometry, or ocular
    disease.

33
Optometrists
  • Job Outlook
  • Employment of optometrists is expected to grow.
  • Baby boomers aging
  • Growth in the oldest age group, with their
    increased likelihood of cataracts, glaucoma,
    diabetes, and hypertension.
  • Greater recognition of the importance of vision
    care, rising personal incomes, and growth in
    employee vision care plans.

34
Optometrists
  • Earnings
  • Median annual earnings of salaried optometrists
    is 82,860.
  • Salaried optometrists tend to earn more initially
    than do optometrists who set up their own
    independent practice.
  • Median net income for all optometrists in private
    practice rang from about 115,000 to 120,000.

35
Optometrists
  • Additional Information
  • Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry
    http//www.opted.org
  • American Optometric Association
    http//www.aoanet.org
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