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Wood Energy Opportunities for Communities


State and Private Forestry is primarily focused on ensuring sustainable ... Emerald Ash Borer, Sirex wood wasp. Disasters like Katrina...is the East Coast next? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Wood Energy Opportunities for Communities

Wood EnergyOpportunities for Communities
  • Lew McCreery
  • lmccreery_at_fs.fed.us

Todays Presentation
  • Northeastern Area
  • Wood Education and Resource Center
  • Woody Biomass for Energy
  • District Heating Concepts
  • Funding Options

State and Private Forestry is primarily focused
on ensuring sustainable management of non-Federal
forest lands.
The Northeastern Area works with the 20
Northeastern and Midwestern States, and the
District of Columbia.
Wood Education and Resource Center
Main Office Building
The WERC Mission
  • Foster interaction and information exchange
    with the forest products industry to enhance
    opportunities for sustained forest products
    production in the eastern hardwood region of the
    United States.

WERC States - Eastern Hardwoods
Eastern Hardwood Forest 162 Million Acres 35
93 total Eastern forest private other
public83 total Eastern forest private only
  • Sustainability
  • Industry
  • Communities
  • Forests

  • Industry Challenges
  • Job Losses - 5 years
  • Wood Products 20,000
  • Paper approx. 100,000

WERC Current Focus
  • Maintain and expand partnerships
  • Annual competitive grants program
  • Utilize new training center
  • Technology evaluation/upgrade
  • Investigate woody biomass opportunities

Biomass 101
  • Woody Biomass Sources
  • Small-diameter trees
  • Forest Residues
  • Clearings and timberland conversions
  • Residues
  • Processing
  • Construction/demolition
  • Yard trimmings
  • Production
  • Conventional harvests
  • Short-rotation woody crops
  • Land use change
  • Woody Biomass Uses
  • Power (any scale)
  • Electricity
  • Heat and cooling
  • Process Energy
  • Fuels
  • Ethanol
  • Bio-diesel
  • Jet fuels
  • Methanol/bio-butanol, etc
  • Bio-products (offset fossil energy)
  • Building materials
  • Chemicals
  • Medicines

More Biomass 101
  • Wood Biomass Technologies
  • Direct Combustion chips, pellets, bricks,
  • Fermentation converting sugars to ethanol
  • Gasification heating biomass in a reduced
    oxygen environment to produce synthetic gas
  • Pyrolysis heating biomass without oxygen and
    cooling gases to create pyrolysis oils
  • Fractionation reducing biomass to cellulose,
    hemicellulose and lignin and processing these
  • Bio-refineries - Integration of above processes
    with existing industries

Wood as a Fuel
  • Low energy density
  • Contains water
  • Renewable
  • Carbon neutral

Wood Offers Fuel Cost Savings and Low Emissions
Domestic Energy Prices
  • Heating Oil
  • 2001 - NE Household spent 775 on 630 gal.
  • 2008 - NE household spent 2053 on 630 gal
  • Natural Gas
  • 2001 Household spent 698 on 70 MCF
  • 2007 Household spent 900 on 70 MCF

Institutional Scale Biomass Energy
  • 26 schools in Vermont are heated with wood
  • Cooley-Dickinson Hospital in North Hampton, MA
    and North Country Hospital in Newport, VT are
    heated, cooled, and powered with wood

VT North Country Hospital Powers with Wood
What is District Heating or Cooling
  • Distribution of hot water or steam through
    networks of insulated pipes
  • Meet the space heating, process heating, domestic
    hot water, or cooling needs of multiple buildings
  • Sources of heat central plant, waste heat from a
    utility or industry, or geothermal wells

Hot Water District Heating with Combined Heat and
  • First used in an English Asylum in 1876
  • 150 small systems installed in the U.S. between
    1898 and 1905 using waste heat from electric
    power plants
  • The last of these hot water systems was shut down
    in 1985.
  • Reintroduced in the U.S. in the 1980s.
  • Very widespread in Europe

District Energy in Europe
  • Europe and especially Scandinavia were hit hard
    by the oil shocks of the 1970s.
  • Many countries pursued programs to reduce imports
    and increase energy efficiency.
  • Denmark has rebuilt its entire energy
    infrastructure over the past 30 years.
  • In Jutland (the mainland part of Denmark), all
    electricity is produced by cogeneration and wind

Danish Biomass District Heating Plant
  • 2 to 5 MWe biomass CHP plants canachieve thermal
    efficiencies above 90

Hot Water Thermal Storage
  • Unlike electricity, hot water can be stored in a
    simple tank, allowing it to be produced at the
    most economical time and used when necessary

Hot Water District Heating in US
  • Many high temperature (gt175C) systems on college
    campuses and military bases
  • District Energy St. Paul - 278 MWTh
  • Largest hot water system in North America
  • 80 of the downtown business district
  • 180 buildings and 300 homes
  • Jamestown, NY 41 MWTh

Efficiency and Emissions Benefits
  • Waste heat from power plants and industries 30
    of nations energy use
  • District heating/cooling systems improve energy
    efficiency and reduce emissions
  • Europeans refer to these systems as highways for
    low-carbon heat

District Energy Outcomes
  • Use local renewable resources to reduce use of
    imported oil for building heating
  • Keep energy dollars in the local community
  • Reduce energy costs and alleviate fuel poverty
  • Increase efficiency of energy production,
    distribution use
  • Increase local electric generation capacity
  • Use low cost thermal energy to promote economic
  • Give communities control over their energy future

District Energy Systems
  • Large Scale
  • St. Paul, MN -289 megawatts thermal (987 million
    Btu per hour)
  • Akron, OH - 375,000 pounds of steam per hour 20
    miles of distribution piping and serves more than
    200 businesses and residences
  • Small Scale
  • Barre, VT Apartment Complex -2.2 mmbtu/hr
  • Ouje-Bougoumou, Quebec - 8.6 mmbtu/hr

Small Scale will work
  • Barre, VT Green Acres Apartments
  • 50 units 2.2 MMBTU/hr since 1991
  • Hot water distribution with wood chip fired
    heating plant
  • Heating bills from 200-300/month to 24/month
  • Wood supplies about 80 of space heat and hot

Financing Projects
  • Private financing Energy Service Companies
  • Bond sales taxable or tax-exempt
  • Loan programs
  • Grants
  • Renewable Energy Credits
  • Carbon Credits

USDA RD Support
  • Rural Energy for America (REAP) Title IX
    Section 9007
  • Value Added Ag Product Market Development Grants
  • Intermediary Re-lending Program
  • Rural Economic Development 0-interest Loans and
  • Cooperative Development Grants and Loans

Forest Service Support
  • Woody Biomass Utilization Grants - FPL
  • Market Development and Industry Competitiveness
    Grants - WERC
  • Community Wildfire Protection Program
  • Community Wood Energy Program

Community Wood Energy Program
  • 2008 Farm Bill (PL 110-246)Title IXENERGY,
    Section. 9013 Goals
  • encourage the development of community wood
    energy plans
  • help communities acquire or upgrade community
    wood energy systems.
  • The program is authorized to receive
    appropriation of 5 million dollars annually till
    the year 2012.

Community Wood Energy
  • 50-50 match is required
  • Planning Grants and Implementation Funds
  • Implementation Funds - system size limits
  • 50,000,000 Btu per hour for heating and
  • 2 megawatts for electric power production.

  • 25x25

Biomass Future
  • Expanded use is coming
  • Energy, climate, farm and forest policy push
  • Using biomass makes economic, climate and energy
  • Biomass offers opportunities to
  • Reduce energy costs
  • Support energy independence
  • Mitigate climate change
  • Support sustainable forest management

Increased Use Requires Planning
  • Address sustainability issues
  • Wildlife
  • Nutrients
  • Water Air quality
  • Impacts on existing industry
  • Value added industries must be maintained
  • Focus on highest value utilization
  • Maintain management capability
  • Public perception and support

Renewable Portfolio Standards
  • Policy that ensures the public benefits of wind,
    solar, biomass, and geothermal energy are
    recognized within electricity markets
  • A Renewable Energy Credit (REC) is a tradable
    certificate of proof that one kWh of electricity
    was generated by a renewable-fueled source.
  • Renewable goals, eligible technologies, and
    financial support vary among states.
  • MA RPS has had major impacts on the renewable
    energy market in the Northeast.

Fire, Invasives, Disaster, Forest Health
  • Fuel load reduction, fire risk reduction, air
    quality issues
  • Emerald Ash Borer, Sirex wood wasp
  • Disasters like Katrinais the East Coast next?
  • Southern Pine Beetle, Mtn. Pine Beetle

Keys to our Bio-energy Future
  • Sustainability
  • Part of production and management system
  • How much, where, managed impacts
  • Cost Competitiveness
  • Creditable financial analysis
  • Documentable cost data
  • Investment in infrastructure
  • Focus on Efficiency

Potential Opportunities Exist in the Use of Woody
  • Improved forest management
  • Reduced fire danger
  • Move toward energy independence
  • Reduced competition with food crops
  • GHG reductions and carbon offsets
  • New revenue streams for landowners and existing
    forest industries
  • Support to Keep Forests as Forests!

Results and Outcomes WERCs Investment in
  • Demonstration projects
  • More diverse energy portfolio
  • Healthier forests
  • Less waste along the entire supply and
    manufacturing chain
  • Sustainable forest-based rural communities

WERC Future Biomass Directions
  • Feasibility assessments
  • Expand biomass emphasis in grants program
  • Develop portfolio of successful demonstration
  • Develop analytical tools for use by interested
  • Information dissemination for impact outreach
    and library
  • Regional biomass conferences and meetings at WERC

For more information
  • http//www.na.fs.fed.us/ea/werc/werc.shtm/
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