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Difficult Students, Whats An Educator to Do

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Dysfunctional families who don't know how to teach behaviors or who are not capable ... Teach students how to give and receive encouragement and compliments. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Difficult Students, Whats An Educator to Do


1
Difficult Students, Whats An Educator to Do?
  • Presented by
  • Kim Marcum
  • kimmarcum_at_comcast.net

2
OBJECTIVES
  • Review and refine strategies which create a fair
    discipline system which teaches and reinforces
    desired behaviors
  • Provide information based upon present realities
    instead of myths

3
Haim Ginott
  • Ive come to a frightening conclusion that I am
    the decisive element in the classroom. Its my
    personal approach that creates the climate. Its
    my daily mood that makes the weather. As a
    teacher, I possess a tremendous power to make a
    childs life miserable or joyous. I can be a
    tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration.
    I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal. In all
    situations, it is my response that decides
    whether a crisis will be escalated or
    de-escalated and a child humanized or
    dehumanized

4
DISCIPLINE MYTHS AND MISCONCEPTIONS
  • Discipline worked better
  • Graduation rates
  • 1990 75-79
  • 1946 48
  • 1900 6

5
PUNISHMENT HAS POWER
  • Role-bound authority
  • Get tough attitude
  • Take my recess
  • Call my mom
  • In school suspension
  • After school detention

6
THE BASICS
  • Monitor
  • Reinforce
  • Mild reprimands
  • Continuous feedback
  • Behavior is Learned
  • Teach the behaviors
  • Structure for success

7
BEHAVIOR IS LEARNED
  • Was taught at home
  • Today children are raising children
  • Dysfunctional families who dont know how to
    teach behaviors or who are not capable

8
TEACH THE BEHAVIORS
  • Determine what the behavior looks and sounds
    like
  • Determine the steps needed to teach the behavior
  • Teach I do, we do, you do
  • Provide plenty of practice

9
T Charts
What Should it Look Like? What should
it sound like?
10
Seat Work
What should it look like? What should it
sound like?
Students sitting at their desks 0
level voice working on their assignments Askin
g a partner for assistance Level 1
voice when there is a question Partners checki
ng each others Level 1 voice
Assignments Students walking quietly
0 level voice to the assignment box to
turn in completed work Reading one of three
library 0 level voice books
11
Packing Up
What should it look like? What should it
sound like?
Students sitting at their desks 0
level voice working on their assignments, or fo
cused on the teacher until the signal is given t
o clean up Students writing assignments
0 level voice in assignment logs
Students cleaning up their area level 1
voice Students standing quietly waiting to be
dismissed 0 level voice
12
BEHAVIOR INSTRUCTION PRACTICE
  • Please choose one classroom procedure such as
    turning in papers, and construct a T-chart for
    it. You will have 5 minutes for this task, then
    we will ask you to share with the group.

13
MONITOR
  • Monitor
  • Monitor
  • Monitor

14
REINFORCEMENT
  • Praise-high level
  • -proximity-dont wait for thanks
  • Specific
  • High rate in the beginning
  • Use unpredictable and intermittent reinforcement
    to maintain the behavior

15
REINFORCEMENT REMINDERS
  • Use the lowest level reinforcer that works
  • Praise
  • Special Privileges
  • Preferred Activities
  • Stars/Written Praise Statements
  • Stickers
  • Phone calls home
  • The list is endless...

16
Students Who Respond Negatively to Positive
Feedback
  • Is the student embarrassed by the feedback?
    Provide Private Feedback
  • The student needs to maintain a tough image.
  • Provide Private Feedback, or Non-contingent
    attention.
  • The student lacks control and is passive
    resistant. Provide Non-contingent Attention

17
Reinforcement Cautions
  • Avoid reinforcing older students publicly for
    compliant behavior
  • Use non-contingent reinforcement for those
    students who respond negatively to praise
  • Try 2x10

18
REINFORCEMENT PRACTICE
  • Share reinforcement you would give to a student
    who is working quietly on their assignment.
  • Share reinforcement you would give to a student
    who has written an excellent summary.

19
Intermittent Celebrations
  • Special acknowledgement- Immature students and
    students with behavior problems are good
    candidates for celebrations.
  • Ratio of Interactions 31

20
Motivation
  • Expectancy X Value Motivation (Feather, 1982)

  • Expectancy The degree to which an individual
    expects to be successful at the task.
  • Value The degree to which and individual values
    the rewards that accompany that success.

21
So Motivate Me
  • Enthusiasm Be an effective coach.
  • Explain how the task will be useful.
  • Give students a vision of what they will be able
    to do eventually.
  • Relate new tasks to previously learned skills.
  • Rally the troops!

22
WHY THEY MISBEHAVE
  • The student doesnt know what you expect.
  • The student doesnt know how to exhibit
    responsible behavior.
  • The student is experiencing pleasant outcomes
    from exhibiting the misbehavior
  • The student is successfully avoiding some
    unpleasant outcome by misbehaving. (Doesnt have
    to do the work.)

23
TEACHER ACTIONS
  • Modify conditions Lessons to teach the
    behaviors
  • Assign a different seat.
  • Pick up the pace of the lesson.
  • Avoid the void.
  • Remove pleasant outcomes that result from the
    misbehavior.
  • Ignore misbehavior designed to get attention.
  • Respond calmly when they push your buttons.
  • Ensure they are not getting out of doing the
    assignment.

24
Ability Type Misbehavior
  • Determine if the student is physiologically
    capable of exhibiting the goal behavior.
  • If not, modify the environment.
  • Use the following steps for a student who lacks
    the knowledge
  • Lessons/Discussion
  • Respond in an instructional manner.
  • Make accommodations
  • Provide positive feedback

25
Attention-Seeking Misbehaviors
  • Is the misbehavior really attention-seeking in
    nature?
  • Is the behavior itself acceptable and the problem
    is with the amount of the behavior?
  • Is the misbehavior to severe to ignore?
  • Will I ignore the behavior from all students or
    just the target student.

26
What To Do?
  • Develop a plan to ignore and present the plan to
    the student (and family).
  • Respond to all instances of the behavior by
    ignoring the student, continuing what I was
    doing, and provide positive feedback to the other
    students.
  • Give the student attention when the misbehavior
    ceases.
  • Maintain frequent interactions with the student
    when he/she is not misbehaving.
  • Monitor the behavior.

27
Purposeful/Habitual Misbehaviors
  • For chronic misbehavior that does not stem from a
    lack of awareness or ability, or a need for
    attention
  • remove any positive/satisfying aspects of
    demonstrating the misbehavior for the student.
  • continually show the student that positive
    behavior leads to positive results.
  • use appropriate corrective consequences.

28
Steps in Dealing With Chronic Misbehavior
  • Analyze the nature of the problem (collect
    data).
  • Develop a preliminary plan based on your
    analysis.
  • Discuss the plan with the student (and family).
  • Implement the plan for at least two weeks,
    collecting data to determine progress.

29
MILD REPRIMANDS
  • Unemotional
  • Specific positive direction
  • Move away quickly

30
REPRIMAND PRACTICE
  • Students are to be working on math problems at
    their seats. Jeanie is cutting paper at her
    desk.
  • Give an example of a mild reprimand for Jeanie
    and share this with your group.

31
CONSEQUENCES
  • It isnt the severity of consequences, but the
    consistency that makes them effective
  • We need a repertoire of small consequences that
    we will use consistently
  • 1 minute timeout/loss of recess
  • Go to the back of the line
  • Change seats

32
CONTINUOUS GROUP FEEDBACK
  • Three positives to one negative
  • ALL YEAR LONG!
  • Include non-contingent attention

33
STRUCTURE FOR SUCCESS FIRST DAY
  • Meet at the door with a positive greeting
  • Daily routine assignment
  • Teach your attention signal
  • Teach your most important rules
  • Teach procedures as needed

34
STRUCTURING FOR SUCCESS
  • Avoid the void
  • Design the classroom for easy monitoring
  • Create procedures for everything and use them
    consistently

35
AS IF RULE
  • TREAT YOUR STUDENTS AS IF THEY HAVE ALREADY MET
    YOUR EXPECTATIONS.

36
Dealing with students who have misbehaved
  • This is not you. You are a person who
  • We all make mistakes
  • How are you going to repair the damage?
  • Consequence
  • I know you will be successful

37
ESCALATING BEHAVIOR
  • Avoiding the good theater
  • Why sending them to the hall can backfire
  • How is the student getting attention
  • What is the motivation for the behavior

38
PRACTICE SESSION
  • A student new to your school comes the first day
    without records. He does what is asked, but
    responds with flat monosyllable answers. After
    complimenting other students the teacher
    compliments him on the fine job he is doing on
    his math work. The student responds Yeah, like
    you care.

39
PRACTICE
  • What could you say that would deescalate the
    situation?
  • What could you say that would escalate the
    situation?

40
Active Participation
  • Think Pair Share
  • What are ways that students can respond in a
    lesson?
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8.

41
Active Participation
  • Think
  • Have students think and record responses.
  • As students are writing, move around the
    classroom and record their ideas and their names
    on an overhead transparency.
  • Pair
  • Have students share their ideas with their
    partners. Have them record their partners
    best ideas.
  • As students are sharing, continue to record ideas
    on the overhead.
  • Share
  • Use the transparency for sharing with the class.


42
Active Participation - Choral Responses
  • Choral ResponsesStudents are looking at the
    teacher.
  • Ask a question.
  • Put up your hands to indicate silence.
  • Give thinking time.
  • Lower your hands as you say, Everyone.
  • Students are looking at a common stimulus.
  • Point to the stimulus.
  • Ask a question.
  • Give thinking time.
  • Tap for a response.

43
Active Participation
  • Think
  • Have students think and record responses.
  • As students are writing, move around the
    classroom and record their ideas and their names
    on an overhead transparency.
  • Pair
  • Have students share their ideas with their
    partners. Have them record their partners
    best ideas.
  • As students are sharing, continue to record ideas
    on the overhead.
  • Share
  • Use the transparency for sharing with the class.


44
Active Participation - Choral Responses
  • Choral ResponsesStudents are looking at their
    own book/paper.
  • Ask a question.
  • Use an auditory signal (Everyone.).
  • Hints for Choral Responses
  • Give adequate thinking time.
  • Have students put up their thumbs OR look at you
    to indicate enough thinking time.
  • If students dont respond or blurt, repeat.

45
Active Participation - Partners
  • Partners Assign partners.
  • Pair lower performing students with middle
    performing students.
  • Give the partners a number.
  • Sit partners next to each other.
  • Utilize triads when appropriate.

46
Active Participation - Partners
  • Other hints for partners
  • Teach students how to work together. LOOK,
    LEAN, AND WHISPER.
  • Teach students how to give and receive
    encouragement and compliments.
  • Teach students that cooperative practice relates
    to the work place not to friendship.
  • Change the partnerships occasionally (every three
    to six weeks).
  • Join two partnerships to form cooperative teams.
    If you plan to use cooperative teams often, give
    students in team numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4. Make 1
    and 2 partners and 3 and 4 partners. When
    requesting responses on partnerships, refer to
    evens and odds.

47
Active Participation - Partners
  • Uses of partners.
  • 1. Say answer to partner.
  • 2. Retell content of lesson using a graphic
    organizer.
  • 3. Review content (Tell, Help, Check).
  • 4. Brainstorm (Think, Pair, Share).
  • 5. Explain process, strategy, or algorithm using
    examples.
  • 6. Read to or with partner.

48
Active Participation - Partners
  • Other Uses of partners.
  • 1. Monitor partner to see if directions are
    followed.
  • 2. Share materials with partners.
  • 3. Assist partners during independent work.
  • 4. Collect papers, handouts, assignments for
    absent partners.
  • 5. Provide feedback on written products of
    partner.
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8.

49
THE BASICS
  • Monitor
  • Reinforce
  • Mild reprimands
  • Continuous feedback
  • Behavior is Learned
  • Teach the behaviors
  • Structure for success

50
COMMON AREA IDENTIFICATION
  • Any area that is not consistently under the
    direction of the students classroom teacher
  • cafeteria -bus rides
  • hallways -playground
  • bus lines -assemblies
  • bathrooms -library

51
GROUP DISCUSSION
  • DETERMINE THE COMMON AREAS FOR WHICH YOU WISH TO
    HAVE RULES
  • DECIDE HOW YOU WILL HAVE RULES FORMULATED
  • Whole staff?
  • Committees?
  • Will non-teaching staff be involved?

52
What are the behaviors we need to teach?
  • Plan to teach what you expect
  • salad bar
  • assemblies
  • substitutes
  • Keep it simple and positive
  • Practice Practice Practice

53
TEACH THE BEHAVIORS
  • Determine what the behavior looks like and sounds
    like
  • Determine the steps to teach
  • Teach I do We do You do
  • Provide plenty of practice

54
T Charts
Looks Like Sound Like
55
Cafeteria Behavior
Looks Like Sounds Like
People standing in line one behind the other
People sitting at tables eating
Students make room for others at tables
People clean their own table Students stay in caf
eteria until dismissed
1-2 Voice level Thank you. to food servers App
ropriate language used at all times
56
Next
  • Determine
  • Who will teach these behaviors?
  • When will they be taught?
  • How will new students learn these skills?

57
Take Action!
  • Join a group working on a topic you would like to
    see taught at your school
  • Make a T chart for how the area should look and
    sound if everyone is meeting expectations
  • Discuss who will teach the behaviors and when
    they will be taught
  • Be prepared to share your T chart with the large
    group

58
Attention Signal
  • Attention.3.2.1
  • Microphone Signal
  • Lights Low
  • Band begins alma mater
  • None needed

59
Take Action Decide What You Will Use As An
Attention Signal
60
How will you reinforce the behavior?
  • Reinforcement
  • Praise
  • High Level
  • Specific
  • High Rate in the Beginning
  • Unpredictable Intermittent

61
Take Action!Create a Menu of Reinforcers That
Might be Appropriate in Your Area
62
What mild reprimand will you use?
  • Consequences fit the crime
  • Repeat the behavior appropriately
  • One minute time out
  • Turn around and walk 10 steps
  • Stand on the wall at the playground and notice
    ten appropriate behaviors
  • Unemotional
  • Move away quickly

63
Take Action Create a menu of mild consequences
you will use
64
How Will You Give Students Feedback About How
They Are Doing?
  • Use the intercom
  • Announce at public gatherings
  • Newsletters
  • Classroom visits
  • Daily bulletin
  • Use the broadcast system

65
Take ActionDiscuss How Students Might Be Given
Long Term Feedback About their Behavior in Your
Area
66
In Review
  • If you expect it, teach it
  • Model it yourself
  • Practice expectations
  • Be Proactive
  • You Have the Power!

67
BUILDING CONSENSUS
  • Techniques for determining staff commitment
  • Operating principles
  • Consensus votes

68
Operating Principles
  • Procedures and Practices that define how we make
    decisions and resolve conflicts in our
    organization

69
Sample Operating Principles
  • Decisions must support student achievement
  • Disagreement does not equal disloyalty
  • Conflicts need to be resolved at the lowest
    level
  • Those affected by a decision will be a part of
    the making the decision
  • The person with whom I disagree needs to know of
    it before I share it with others

70
Sample Operating Principles Continued
  • I will be courageous and honest when
    participating in decisions. This means I will
    express my concerns and only agree to a decision
    when I can live with the results of that
    decision
  • If I disagree with a decision I will work with
    the group to find an acceptable alternative
  • Once a decision is made I will work hard to see
    that it is successfully implemented
  • If, after we have given a decision a fair chance
    to work, I still feel it is flawed, I will bring
    it back up to the group to be reconsidered

71
FIST OF FIVE
  • Five Fingers I support and will provide
    leadership
  • Four Fingers- I support, but will not provide
    leadership
  • Three Fingers I do not care either way
  • Two Fingers I do not support
  • One Finger I do not support and will work to
    scuttle the decision

72
INTERPRETING THE VOTE
  • A vote of all threes or greater equals consensus
  • A vote with any twos or ones is not consensus and
    requires that concerns and interests be addressed

73
RED, GREEN, YELLOW CONSENSUS VOTE
  • Consensus is reached when all cards showing are
    either green or yellow
  • Consensus is not reached if any reds are showing
  • Concerns and interests must be addressed

74
Thumbs up, thumbs down, thumbs sideways
75
(No Transcript)
76
Interest Based Vs. Positional Negotiations
  • What is the interest behind your position?
  • How can the interest be met with another
    solution?
  • How can we compromise and still have a win-win
    situation?
  • This approach can be used with staff, parents,
    students and the community

77
B.A.T.N.A
  • Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement

78
Interest A
Interest B
79
Your school facilitator team decides that
everyone is required to be in the hall way
supervising when the bell rings at the end of the
day. The after school drama teacher is opposed
to this idea. Discuss What might be the interes
t behind the facilitator teams decision?
What might be the interest behind the after
school drama teacher resistance?
What compromises might be made?
80
Interest A
Interest B
81
  • Your school improvement team has been given the
    task of coming up with some effective
    consequences for misbehavior. They are
    recommending that an after school detention
    program be established, staffed on a rotational
    basis by every certificated staff member. You
    have had a consensus vote and 3 staff members
    strongly object to this idea. They are the
    football coach who has practice after school each
    night in the fall, an English teacher who
    doesnt plan to send students to detention so
    wants no part of the plan and a special ed.
    teacher who is afraid of this option as being too
    negative for some of his students
  • Identify the interests of the school improvement
    team
  • Identify the interests of the staff members who
    are objecting to this proposal

82
Interest A
Interest B
83
Overview of Referral Procedures
  • Types of Misbehaviors Which Warrant Office
    Referral
  • Creating a continuum of consequences
  • Establish Effective Record Keeping
  • Set up Well Defined Procedures When Students
    Report to Office
  • Arrange for an Array of Resources

84
Office Referral
  • When to Refer
  • Illegal Behavior
  • Physically Dangerous Behavior
  • Defiance-The Overt and immediate refusal to
    follow a staff persons direction
  • Think about it as a DUI
  • Referral as part of a Plan

85
Illegal Behavior
  • Possession of controlled substance, threats, etc
  • Must be Reported to an Administrator
  • May need to be reported to law enforcement

86
Defiance-The overt and immediate refusal to
follow a staff persons direction within a
specified Time
  • Overt (Observable)
  • Sit down and begin your assignment-observable
  • Change you attitude (not observable)

87
  • Immediate
  • Finish your assignment by the end of the
    period-not immediate
  • Allen, stop running in the hall and come speak
    to me. -immediate
  • Reasonable Adult Direction
  • Considered reasonable unless it is unsafe

88
HAVE A PLAN
  • Ask student to comply - Give time

  • Walk away - If yes Thank you If no
  • Calmly and quietly share possible consequence
    Ask again and walk away
  • If yes Thank you No- Quietly share
    consequence and move away

89
Physically Dangerous Behavior
  • Assault
  • Fighting
  • Any behavior that has a high likelihood of
    physical harm

90
Procedures for Responding to Office Referral
  • Notice must be given when supervision is being
    given to office personnel
  • Identify where the student should wait
  • Supervised
  • Uninteresting
  • Not near teacher mail boxes
  • All staff should know not to respond
  • What if the administrator isnt available?
  • Chain of Command

91
Training Office Staff
  • Staff need to know how to interact
  • Little Attention
  • Neutral Demeanor
  • Avoid Lecturing
  • Inappropriate Language
  • One Time-Tell them its inappropriate
  • If misbehavior continues, refer to an
    administrator/designee immediately

92
Office Referral (Contd)
  • When the student is waiting
  • If short time, they can sit
  • Longer than 5 minutes, provide a debriefing form
  • What did you do?
  • Why did you do it?
  • What should you have done instead?
  • What do you need to do next?
  • Can you do it?

93
Take Action!
  • How will you insure adequate supervision of
    students at the time of a referral?
  • Where is a referred student supposed to wait for
    the administrator?
  • What happens when two or more students have been
    referred at the same time?
  • Who will intervene when the administrator is
    gone?
  • When the administrator is in a conference or on
    the phone should they be interrupted?
  • What will students do while they wait?
  • What should be done if the student is out of
    control or appears likely to become so?

94
Take Action!
  • Identify those behavior which constitute office
    referrals in your building. Give definitions and
    examples. Discuss a plan for reaching consensus
    with the entire staff.

95
Planning for Responding to Emergency Situations
  • Develop primary and backup procedures to summons
    help
  • Intercom
  • Phone
  • Radios
  • Red Card

96
Red Card-This is an Emergency
  • Preprinted Location, i.e. PLAYGROUND
  • Fighting or out of control-send help
  • Serious Injury! Call 911
  • Student Hurt. Send trained Personnel
  • Stranger on the playground
  • Student left the grounds
  • Abduction. Call 911
  • Other_____________

97
Red Card Procedures
  • Student takes to office
  • Office staff immediately respond

98
Planning for Emergency Response (Contd)
  • Chain of Command 4 Deep
  • Principal, Counselor, Special Ed. Teacher, Head
    Teacher
  • Code for Responding
  • Would the CARE team report immediately to the
    lunch room, please?
  • Crisis training
  • De-escalation Training

99
Why Physical Restraint Should be Avoided
  • Problems with physical restraint
  • Possibility of injury to staff or students
  • Restraint can be a reinforcing event
  • May be reinforced by peers
  • Communicates that the student cant control her
    own behavior
  • Avoid whenever possible

100
Room Clears-An Alternative to Physical Restraint
  • Room clear procedures are explained to students
    in advance
  • All students are removed from the area
  • Reduces possibility of injury
  • Removes attention
  • Gives student message he needs to and is capable
    of getting under control

101
Room Clear Procedures
  • Evacuate the classroom to a pre-assigned buddy
    classroom
  • Receiving teacher notifies the office of the
    current problem
  • One adult supervises out of control student to
    insure student safety

102
  • Staff not expected to intervene when materials or
    property are being damaged
  • After the behavior is under control, assign a
    corrective consequence, including responsibility
    for any damaged property

103
Take Action
  • Examine current procedures for dealing with
    emergencies. Determine when a room clear should
    be used. Determine what procedures exist and
    what procedures need to be identified. Make a
    plan for accomplishing these tasks during the
    school year.
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