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1839 Louis Daguerre and William Fox Talbot invented silver-based photographic processes ... global problem, a sort of 'kit' designed to respond to a desired ' ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • By
  • AT
  • DATE
  • 10TH - 13TH FEBRUARY, 2009.

  • The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary defined
    materials as substances that things can be made
    from or things that are needed in order to do a
    particular activity or production. Materials from
    science and technological point of view are
    classified into metals(alloys, steel, cast iron,
    aluminium, copper, tin, etc) and non
    metals(ceramics,plastics, wood, chemicals,
    textile, etc.)
  • These materials have been in existence for our
    utilization and manipulation for the control and
    development of our environment when properly
    manipulated. Below are the appearance and
    invention of some materials in the world by
  • 25000BC First ceramic
  • 3rd Millennium BC Copper metallurgy was invented
  • and copper is used for ornamentation
  • 2nd Millennium BC Bronze is used for weapons and
  • 1st Millennium BC Pewter(alloy of between
    85-95Sn, Cu and Sb)
  • beginning
    to be used in China and Egypt
  • 16th Century BC The Hittites
    developed crude iron metallurgy
  • 13th Century BC Invention of steel
    when iron and charcoal are
    combined properly

  • 700s BC Porcelains is invented in Tang Dynasphy
    at China
  • 8th Century Geber (Jabir) invented artificial
    pearls and described
  • the
    purification of greasy or discolored pearls, and
  • the
    first recipes for the dying and artificial

  • coloring of gemstones and pearls.
  • 8th Century Lustreware is invented by Geber in
  • 8th Century Geber described the first recipes
    for the
  • manufacture
    of glue from cheese.
  • 8th Century The streets of Baghdad are the
    first to be poured with tar,
  • derived
    from petroleum through destructive distillation.
  • 700sBC Tin glazing of ceramics invented by
    Arabic Chemist and potters in Bazra Iraq
  • 9th Century Stone-paste ceramics invented in
  • 11th Century Damascus Steet developed in the
    Middle East.
  • 1448 Johann Guternberg developes type metal
  • 1450 Cristallo, a clear soda-based glass is
    invented by Angelo Barovier

  • 1590 Glass lenses were developed in the
    Netherlands and
  • used for
    the first time in microscopes and
  • telescopes
  • 1738 William Champion patents a process for the
  • production
    of metallic zinc by distillation from
  • calamine
    and charcoal
  • 1740 Benjamin Huntsman developed the crucible
  • technique
  • 1779 Bry Higgins issued a patent for hydraulic
  • (stucco) for use
    as an exterior plaster
  • 1799 Alessandro Volta made a copper/zinc acid
  • 1821 Thomas Johann Seebeck invented the
  • 1824 Patent issued to Joseph Aspin for Portland
  • 1839 Charles Goodyear invented vulcanized
  • 1825 Hans Christian produced metallic aluminium
  • 1839 Louis Daguerre and William Fox Talbot
    invented silver-based photographic processes
  • Bessemer Process for mass production of
    steel patented

  • Materials have always played an essential role in
    every economic cycle, largely shaping every
    technological system.
  • However, in the presently emerging
    techno-economic paradigm, their role tends to be
    very different no single material seems to be
    associated with the paradigm, but rather a kind
    of global dynamics in the conception and
    diffusion of a vast variety of homogeneous and
    heterogeneous materials, in what has been called
  • This dynamic applies not just to "recent"
    high-performance materials such as composites,
    but equally to more "traditional" materials such
    as metallic alloys or ceramics.

  • It is based on increasing knowledge of the
    microscopic properties of matter and on mastering
    industrial reproduction processes of these
    microscopic properties, enabling different
    materials to be combined to make new alloys or
    composites and to customize their properties.
  • The concept of "advance materials" refers to
    substances possessing compositions,
    microstructures, properties, performances, or
    application potentials derived from the
    industrial enhancement of their microscopic
  • There are no "primitive materials," but only
    outdated industrial techniques, processes, and
    equipment. Every traditional material can become
    "advanced" through the adoption of advance
    shaping and manufacturing techniques and
    processes permitting the control of its
    microscopic structure.

  • When examined under the light of the present
    paradigm change, the trend with the greatest
    force in advance materials seems to be the one
    leading to a growing diversity in materials use.
    Three factors have recently acted in this
    direction the increase in the relative cost in
    energy the requirements of the micro-electronic
    components industry the specific demands
    generated by the use of micro-electronics in
    advanced products and processes.
  • The vast growth of innovation possibilities in
    programmable capital goods has been not only the
    main impetus for downstream innovations in
    products and services, but also a powerful
    impetus for upstream innovations in materials.
  • This contrasts with the previous paradigm, in
    which the dynamics of innovation in the areas of
    materials, chemistry, and final goods set the
    requirements for innovation in capital goods.
  • Under the old paradigm, materials were typical
    examples of technical constraints imposed from
    the outside designers and engineers chose a
    material for a principal property or physical
    characteristic that imposed itself technically
    upon the desired product under the new paradigm,
    the modular character of the material, made
    possible by the industrial reproduction of its
    microscopic properties and

  • by intensive use of computer-aided design and
    manufacturing, permits the prior identification
    of a technical need and the ex post development
    of a material specifically adapted to that need.
    In other words, from an exogenous constraint on
    industrial design and engineering, advanced
    materials have become an endogenous production
  • The specific requirements of the micro-electronic
    components industry have already led to the
    development of a vast supplier network for
    semi-conductive, conductive, and photosensitive
    materials crystals of various types high-purity
    chemicals engineering ceramics and resins.
  • The changes occurring in the functional
    characteristics of products and machines, i.e.
    the replacement of moving mechanical parts by
    electronic circuits and the subsequent reduction
    in the size of the products, reduce part of the
    demand for the more common engineering materials
    such as metals and plastics in favour of lighter
    ones, as well as those that present several
    characteristics simultaneously (e.g. the
    lightness of plastics plus the resistance of

  • New diverse means of interfacing with the user
    have required the development of advance
    materials that are sensitive to light, to touch,
    to sound, to heat and others with countless
    special characteristics for particular purposes.
  • At the same time, the utilization of
    micro-electronics in the design and production of
    advance materials has rejuvenated the
    technological trajectories in "primitive"
    materials like metals and polymers, and has
    created new trajectories in glass and ceramics.
  • The convergence between these two different sets
    of trajectories has led to the development of
    several types of composite materials. In short,
    there is a growing richness in the information
    content of materials and a proliferation of
    alternative patterns of materials consumption, in
    line with the general characteristics of the new
    techno-economic paradigm.

  • The technical objectives at stake in the
    competition between different materials have
    become more numerous. Historically, competition
    between materials expressed itself through
    economic advantages that were obtained
    essentially by searching for alternative sources
    of higher quality minerals and ores, cheaper
    processes and transport costs.
  • For any specific technical application, there was
    generally a single material that dominated more
    or less durably
  • it was the regime of "mono-choice,"
    characterized by economies of scale and
    standardization. Variety, when it existed,
    occurred within the same family of materials e.g.
    metals, plastics, ceramics, etc., not by creating
    a new family. In economic terms, the lack of
    variety of these "commodity" materials reflected
    rigidity in the processes of production.

  • In the present transition period toward a new
    techno-economic paradigm, this situation is
    changing. Competition may still end up with a
    radical substitution of one material for another,
    but increasingly frequently it is a new
    complementary association of materials that
    presents the best technical solution. The new
    forms of utilization are as varied as the objects
    to which they are applied.
  • Often, several new materials compete with each
    other in offering alternative technical solutions
    for a particular technical device the variety is
    both within and between families of materials.
    This movement toward diversification expresses
    itself in the multiplication of groups,
    subgroups, classes, grades, and nuances of
  • Never before has mankind had available such an
    enormous number of materials for instance, a
    limited number of basic polymers offer users
    countless different technical solutions by their
    innumerable combinations, mixtures, or alloys and
    by the incorporation of several liquid, solid,
    and fibrous additives.

  • The revolution in information technology greatly
    facilitates the rethinking and production of
    objects made from complex materials. Most often,
    the use of advance material involves the complete
    redesign of the object instead of simple
    piecemeal substitution. Programmable
    micro-electronics-based equipment assists the
    processing of materials that often acquire their
    final shape and composition within the object
    itself. The close integration of design and
    production functions within the firm has made it
    economically possible to produce objects that are
    conceived at the same time as their constituent
  • Attempts by firms to achieve greater flexibility
    in product and process design are often
    associated with the preconception of the object
    and modification of the materials used, revealing
    a close correlation between the will to adapt to
    a changing economic environment, the increase in
    technical flexibility of productive capital, the
    introduction of information technologies, and the
    exploitation of a large variety of materials.
  • This correlation shows that advance materials
    technology is intrinsically coherent with the
    "best practice" guidelines of the new
    techno-economic paradigm, and it expresses the
    tendency towards a deep transformation of the
    materials industry, which is increasingly
    becoming a service industry where producers sell
    "solutions" to a client's global problem, a sort
    of "kit" designed to respond to a desired
    "function," rather than a "material" in the
    proper sense.
  • This "functionalization" of the materials market
    is consequently accompanied by a "tertiarization"
    of employment in the materials industry, leading
    to a necessary integration and interfacing of
    know-how and skills, to a new division of labour
    both within and among enterprises, and to the
    emergence of new firms and industries.

  • The multiplicity of variants of the same material
    that producers and users must learn to handle, as
    well as the refinement of production and
    processing methods of materials, require the
    emergence of the multi-material specialist with
    fluency in many skills. For instance, the
    transformation of plastics, which traditionally
    demanded mechanical knowledge alone, now requires
    better knowledge of chemistry for design and
    control of in situ reaction techniques, and of
    electronics and computer sciences for the control
    of automatic equipment.
  • The competitiveness of a firm is thus more
    determined by the efficiency with which it
    utilizes advance materials. The exploitation of
    advance materials technology has become vital for
    industry it has acquired a major economic
    importance as a generic technology, spreading
    into all industrial sectors and affecting the
    production of innumerable products and services.
  • Advance materials have become remarkable vectors
    of innovation, as advances accomplished in a
    particular industry through the use of advance
    material tend to "contaminate" one by one all
    other industrial sectors.

  • The growing variety of materials production
    techniques is associated with an increase in the
    complexity of production processes. In their
    effort to minimize this increasing complexity,
    firms are compelled to integrate production
    stages, i.e. to reduce the number of phases of a
    given process (lower stocks, less maintenance),
    to reduce the number of parts in the final
    product (lower assembly costs), or else the
    production time.
  • The reduction of the number of parts results, in
    turn, in the integration of several simultaneous
    functions in the material the final object is
    formally simpler, but more complex in its design,
    in its functions, and in the services it offers.
    A direct consequence of this tendency is the
    necessary development of efficient
    non-destructive testing methods to replace the
    former testing procedures based on sampling.
  • The best example of integration of different
    functions in the same material is given by
    composite materials. Composites are best defined
    as the voluntary association of non-miscible or
    partly miscible materials having different
    structures, which combine and complement their
    characteristics to form a heterogeneous material
    presenting global properties and performances
    superior to those of the original constituent
    materials and suited to required functions.

  • Composites are generally formed by a matrix in
    which a different material (usually in the form
    of fibres) is embedded to reinforce the
    mechanical properties of the matrix.
  • The most common composite is made of a polymeric
    matrix (epoxy resins, polyesthers, etc.) and of
    glass fibres 95 per cent of the composites used
    in industry are of this type. Other matrix
    materials used for superior technical
    performances (mainly for aeronautic, space, and
    military purposes, although applications in
    professional sports equipment and racing cars are
    increasing) are metals, carbon, or ceramics
    high-performance fibres are usually made of
    carbon, boron, (Kevlar).
  • The role of the fibre is to absorb shocks and to
    give the material its mechanical resistance,
    whereas the matrix serves to distribute the
    mechanical constraints over the whole structure
    and to protect the fibres against environmental
    (mostly chemical) damage.
  • The association fibre/matrix offers innumerable
    combinations of physical and chemical properties
    by modifying either the fibre/matrix constituent
    materials of the composite. By employing
    different weaving and orientation techniques of
    the fibres, it is possible to control the
    microscopic characteristics of the composite and
    to obtain combinations of properties that are
    unconceivable with primitive materials.

  • Nano-technology involves characterizing and
    analyzing materials and structures below 100nm.
  • Nano-technology research and the resulting
    commercialization have a fundamental role to play
    in any nation technological advancement.
    Nano-materials is becoming global, there is a
    world wide expression of nano-materials knowledge
    creation. Nano-materials are evolving into
    nano-fabrication and nano-templates where cost
    will drop and barriers to commercialization will
    fall At this scale, familiar materials begin to
    develop unusual properties because this is where
    the behaviour of matter is determined.
  • Power Generation
  • The UK Governments recent Energy Review,
    declared a long-term sustainable approach to
    supplying the UKs power supply. Looking ahead,
    those formulating our policies should not
    underestimate the ways in which nano-scale
    science is already influencing how we manage
    energy. As we are struggling to meet the rising
    energy demands using traditional methods
    declines, we must consider the important role
    nano-technology can play in the production,
    storage, conservation and delivery of energy.
  • In USA the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
    (PNNL) is already using nanotechnology to develop
    materials that can store solid hydrogen and in
    turn reduce our reliance on carbon-based fuels.

  • Hydrogen is abundant in our atmosphere and has
    more energy per unit of mass than any known
    substance. Nano-tubes as a storage medium was
    discovered in 1991 which is at least 50,000 times
    thinner than a human hair and as much as 100
    times stronger than steel. No other known
    material has a higher strength-to-weight ratio.
  • The challenge for storage is to maximize the
    energy available while ensuring it can be easily
    processed to generate power. Atom by atom
    manipulation means solid hydrogen can be stored
    in nano-scale pores. At this scale, the hydrogen
    retains its solid state and can easily be
  • Nano-technology is also helping wind power take
    off. There are 1,672 operational wind turbines
    in the UK, delivering 1,833 mega watts (MW) of
    power each year. That number must rise to 40,000
    MW before 2010 to meet targets set by the EU
    directive on renewable energy. Wind turbines are
    huge, rotating objects operating in wet
  • They accumulate rain and sea water which freezes
    into ice, increasing the weight, drag, and force
    required to move the fiber glass blades. Turbine
    efficiency can drop by as much as 10 under these
  • New coatings, at the atomic level, can help
    blades repel water. A thin film covered with
    nano-scale wax crystals, which causes water to
    quickly bead. This can be applied to turbines
    blades to make water run off before it can

  • Nano-materials is becoming global, there is a
    world wide expression of nano-materials knowledge
    creation. Nano-materials are evolving to
    nano-fabrication and nano-templates where cost
    will drop and barriers to commercialization will
    fall. The Healthcare sector will benefit most
    from the wealth of knowledge that is now growing
    in the following ways
  • 1. With the advent of nano-materials, it is
    possible to create new diagnostics and care
    device that move the point-of-care away from
    large institutions towards individual or local
    healthcare provision.
  • 2. Delivery of drug directly to the desired
    sites in the body. Nanoparticle drug delivery
    which, through attachment to protein allows for
    higher degrees of medicinal impact eg. The
    development of functionalized six-nanometerwide
    branched particles, known as dendriners, which
    can carry various molecules on their branches,
    allows them to latch onto specific cells.
  • 3. Nano-materials can be used to create
    light-weight, electrically powered mobility
    devices and new absorbent material for the
    healthcare market.

  • This will be important in perverting or
    ensuring the early detention of disease (through
    fusion of several complementary techniques
    developed from nano-material)
  • 4. In the next 10 years, the development of
    biosensors and, importantly, nano-technology,
    will allow the design and fabrication of
    miniaturized clinical laboratory analyzers to a
    degree where it is possible to examine several
    laboratory measurement at the bedside with as
    little as 1micro-litre of whole blood.
  • 5. Nano-enabled high through put analysis will
    also reduce the time it takes to bring new drug
    delivery plat forms to the market. In the areas
    of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering,
    nano-scaffolds will allow for high quality tissue
    repair. This will be performed by controlling
    tissue growth on a 50nm scale.
  • There is a clear need to develop and educate
    a spectrum of engineers and scientists associated
    with the healthcare sector to ensure that our
    society is prepared for this nano-materials

  • For developing countries such as Nigeria, which
    are traditional suppliers of raw materials, the
    trends described above have both direct and
    indirect consequences. The direct impact is the
    decreasing amount of raw materials needed to
    manufacture a unit of industrial production.
  • The indirect impact, which in the medium term
    might turn out to be by far the most significant,
    is the decrease in the technological innovation
    content of manufactured goods produced by the
    developing countries which is a negative trend,
    i.e. the competitiveness of their industry.
  • The declining trend in the per unit consumption
    of raw materials in the industrialized countries
    is accelerating, through both substitution of
    synthetic for raw materials and development of
    materials-saving processing methods.
  • Substitution still has a relatively minor impact,
    but it will become important in the long term
    because of the growing demand for enhanced
    performances in electronics, communications,
    information and data processing, transportation,
    energy, manufacturing, and chemical products. The
    largest changes are expected to occur in the
    replacement of metals by ceramics, polymers, and
    composites. The recent evolution of prices has
    already been extremely favourable to polymers in
    comparison with metals between 1960 and 1987,
    the average price per unit volume of the main
    metals has more than tripled, whereas on average
    the main commodity polymers less than doubled in
    price in the same period.

  • Although some low-cost producers may be able to
    increase their shares in the slowly growing world
    market for traditional materials, developing
    countries will generally continue to face
    declining real prices.
  • Some Latin American and Asian developing
    countries have been carrying out research in the
    area of low-cost construction and building
    materials, as well as in alloys, polymers, and
    composites. Rare and rare-earth metals are and
    will remain essential for many scientific and
    technological developments, e.g. in
    superconductors world markets for these
    materials are projected to rise many times in the
    coming year.
  • The development of ceramics is advantageous to
    Latin American and Asian countries' thanks to the
    availability of certain mineral resources like
    copper, iron, carbon, and aluminium. Developing
    countries in Asia and Latin America that have
    recently succeeded in micro-electronic components
    should enter into production of silicon and other
    semiconductor materials.
  • African countries may develop materials for
    roads and for low- and middle income housing in
    rural and urban areas.

  • In short, the potential for developing countries
    to produce materials of higher purity necessary
    for high technology industries exists and should
    be exploited.
  • Producers of primary materials should therefore
    reconsider their policies concerning materials
    technology development with the objective of
    shifting the production of traditional raw
    materials to more knowledge-intensive or advance
    materials. Some are already doing so.
  • The main impact of the present trends in new
    materials is most likely to be felt by developing
    countries in the medium term, through the loss of
    competitive power of many of their manufactured
    products, which will increasingly have to compete
    with innovative products presenting higher
    functional integration or offering novel
    functions and 'services," manufactured by advance
    material" firms in the industrialized countries.
  • Thank you.
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