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Dangerous Critters

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... referred to as an 'aggressive' house spider...very fast spider...very poor eyesight ... Hair is longer and courser than deer mouse, grayish brown to grayish black ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dangerous Critters


1
Dangerous Critters?
  • WY MSHA State Grant Program
  • Gillette Campus of Sheridan College
  • Western Wyoming Community College, Green River
    Center

2
Are these critters REALLY dangerous?
3
Dangerous Critters
  • Venomous Spiders
  • Mice Rats
  • Mosquitos

4
(No Transcript)
5
DANGEROUSLY VENOMOUS SPIDERS
6
DANGEROUSLY VENOMOUS SPIDERS
  • Hobo Spider
  • Widow Spider
  • Recluse Spider
  • Yellow Sac Spider

7
Hobo/Brown Recluse Spider distribution
8
Hobo Spider
  • Pacific Northwest is normal range
  • Enter homes July thru October
  • Rarely found high on walls/ceilings
  • Like mosquito bite, but turns into slow healing
    blister-like lesion easily infected
  • Female 8-11 mm, Male 11-16 mm
  • Light to Med brown, 2 dark stripes on thorax,
    light strip on midline of abdomen broken by light
    chevron markings

9
Hobo Spider poisoning
  • Male venom may be more potent than female
  • Subadults venom may be more potent than adults
  • Red area immediately after bite
  • Fades to mosquitoe-like bump
  • Incorrectly referred to as an aggressive house
    spidervery fast spidervery poor eyesight

10
Hobo Spider poisoning
  • Within 24-48 hrs, blisters may occur
  • Next 24 hrs, blisters may rupture, leaving open
    ulceration
  • Next few days a scab forms, giving a bulls-eye
    appearance
  • Scab sloughs, leaving a scar in /- 45 days
  • Some instances, as with fatty tissue areas,
    lesions can become deep and extensive (2-3 yrs to
    heal)

11
Hobo Spider poisoning
  • Other long-term effects
  • Intractable burning pain
  • Damage to blood vessel valves
  • Cyst formation
  • Multiple lesions from gravitational drift
  • 15 of cases severe enough to require
    hospitalization
  • In severe cases, bone marrow failure can develop,
    which causes death

12
Black Widow Spider
  • Throughout US
  • Indoors year round, also outdoors
  • Usually in seldom disturbed locations
  • Web is approximately 12 in diameter
  • Black color with red or orange hourglass marking
    on underside of abdomen (female only)
  • Male 7-10mm, Female 12-13mm

13
Black Widow Spider Bite
  • Two tiny red dots, painful immediately
  • Increased body temperature, sweating, nausea
  • Some victims experience anxiety, profuse
    sweating, hair standing on end, increased blood
    pressure

14
Black Widow Spider Bite
  • No tissue necrosis
  • Potent neurotoxin induces severe muscle cramping
    spasms, beginning in large muscles of legs or
    abdomen
  • Abdomen can exhibit board-like rigidity
  • Severe cases include paralysis, stupor, and
    convulsions, death in small percentage of cases
    (small children, elderly)

15
Brown Recluse Spider(Violin Spider)
  • Midwest and southern US (may be some apparent
    reports in WY)
  • Sticky webs under rocks, etc.
  • Enter homes, cellars, barns
  • Male Female 6-12mm
  • Tan to dark brown
  • Fiddle shape markings on top of thorax

16
Brown Recluse poisoning
  • Bite usually not felt, but produce immediate
    stinging like bee sting
  • Tissue becomes swollen
  • Flu-like symptoms
  • Fever, nausea, chills, aches

17
Brown Recluse poisoning
  • Painful ulceration develops
  • Skin and musscle tissue dies, leaving a deep
    infected wound that enlarges, fails to heal or
    heals slowly (necrosis)

18
Yellow Sac Spider
  • Throughout US
  • Indoors year round, mostly early autumn
  • Build a silken sac in upper corners of ceilings
  • Bite is slight burning sensation
  • Some swelling
  • Male 4-8mm, Female 5-10mm
  • Pale yellow to green in color, legs and abdominal
    midline slightly darker

19
Yellow Sac Spider bite
  • Least known clinically significant spider
  • Capable of causing a painful bite with necrotic
    lesion
  • Not as severe as brown recluse or hobo
  • Bites sometimes cause systemic effects
  • Very prone to bite defensively (more than other
    significantly venomous spiders)

20
Yellow Sac Spider bite
  • Some bites in unusual areas (autos, swimming
    pools)
  • Likely that many US cases of necrotic arachnidism
    ascribed to brown recluse are actually yellow sac
    spider bites

21
HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME (HPS)
22
HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME - SOME HISTORY
  • First noted during an outbreak in the Four
    Corners area in May 1993 with several young
    apparently otherwise healthy young people dying
  • Researchers discovered a previously unknown type
    of hantavirus, carried primarily by the deer
    mouse
  • Virus called Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and the
    disease it caused was named Hantavirus Pulmonary
    Syndrome (HPS)
  • Further medical research revealed that HPS was
    not new and located the first case (through
    records and tissue analysis) in Utah in 1959

23
RODENTS KNOWN TO CARRY HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY
SYNDROME
  • Deer Mouse
  • White-footed Mouse
  • Rice Rat
  • Cotton Rat

24
Deer Mouse
  • Head body about 2-3 inches long-tail adds
    another 2-3 inches
  • Gray to reddish brown
  • Underbelly always white
  • Tail has sharply defined white sides
  • Found almost everywhere in North America
  • Prefers woodlands, but found in desert areas also

25
White-Footed Mouse
  • Hard to distinguish from Deer Mouse
  • Head body about 4 inches-tail adds 2-4 inches
  • Pale brown to reddish brown
  • Underside and feet are white
  • Found southern New England, Mid-Atlantic,
    southern, midwestern, western states Mexico
  • Prefers wooded brushy areas

26
Rice Rat
  • Head body 5-6 inches-plus a 5-7 inch tail
  • Short, soft, grayish brown fur on top, gray or
    tawny underneath
  • Feet are whitish
  • Likes marshy areas and is semiaquatic
  • Found in the southeastern US Central America

27
Cotton Rat
  • Head body 5-7 inches w/ tail 3-4 inches more
  • Hair is longer and courser than deer mouse,
    grayish brown to grayish black
  • Prefers overgrown areas w/ shrubs tall grass
  • Found in southeastern US, Central South America

28
SYMPTOMS OF HPS
  • Early symptoms include
  • Fatigue, fever, muscle aches (especially large
    muscle groups thighs, hips, back, shoulders)
    universal symptoms
  • May also have headaches, dizziness, chills,
    abdominal problems (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea,
    pain) experienced by /- ½ of victims
  • Incubation time is unclear at this time
  • Limited info indicates 1 to 5 weeks

29
SYMPTOMS OF HPS
  • Late symptoms include
  • Coughing, shortness of breath universal
    symptoms
  • Very uncommon symptoms
  • Earache, sore throat, and rash

30
HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME
  • Person to person contamination of HPS is unlikely
  • Deer mice (cotton rice rats-SE US, white-footed
    mice-most of US) are the most common carrier of
    HPS
  • Rodents shed the virus in their urine,
    droppings, and saliva
  • Mainly transmitted to humans when we breathe air
    contaminated with the virus

31
HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME
  • Contamination happens when fresh rodent urine,
    droppings or nesting material is stirred up into
    the air we breathe this process is called
    aerosolization
  • Rodent bites are very rare mode of infection
  • May be able to contract virus if you touch
    contaminated object, then touch your nose or
    mouth
  • Suspected that you can be infected by eating food
    contaminated with rodent urine, droppings, or
    saliva

32
HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME
  • Disease transmission can happen any place rodents
    have infested such as homes, barns, sheds,
    outbuildings, warehouses, summer homes, etc.
  • Preventing rodents from infesting areas where you
    live and work is extremely important
  • Disinfecting rodent-infested areas is very
    important to preventing the disease

33
HOW TO PREVENT HPS
  • Avoid contact with rodent infested areas
  • Closed up rooms, cabins, warehouses
  • Housecleaning activities in rodent infested areas
  • Really stirring up the dust
  • Large populations of rodents

34
HOW TO PREVENT HPS
  • Make your home, workplace, summer home or
    campsite unattractive to rodents
  • If you dont provide rodents with food and
    nesting material
  • You are much less likely to come into contact
    with them!

35
HOW TO PREVENT HPS
  • Recent research indicates that
  • Many people who became ill with HPS got the
    disease after frequent contact with rodents
    and/or their droppings around home or work
  • Thereforeit makes sense to try to keep your
    home, vacation place, workplace, or campsite clean

36
HOW TO PREVENT HPS
  • Indoor Prevention Strategies
  • Keep your space clean
  • Keep tight lid on garbage
  • Set keep spring loaded traps
  • Set EPA approved rodent bait
  • Use flea killer if bubonic plague is an area
    concern
  • Seal all entry holes ¼ inch and larger

37
HOW TO PREVENT HPS
  • Outdoor Prevention Strategies
  • Clear brush, grass, junk from around buildings
  • Use metal flashing around base of wooden,
    earthen, adobe (to 12 above ground, 6 into
    ground)
  • Elevate hay woodpiles
  • Trap rodents outside
  • Encourage presence of natural preditors (snakes,
    owls, hawks, etc.)

38
HOW TO PREVENT HPS
  • Remembergetting rid of all rodents isnt
    feasiblebut with ongoing effort, you can keep
    populations very low

39
COMMON SIGNS OF RODENT INFESTATION
  • You see rodent droppings
  • You see signs of rodent nesting
  • You find food containers that appear to be
    nibbled
  • You find signs of feeding stations
  • You find evidence of gnawing
  • You notice an odd, stale smell
  • You see a mouse in your area

40
How to clean up infested areas
  • Open buildings or closed areas and air them out
    before cleaning
  • Wear personal protective equipment
  • Latex or nitrile gloves and P100 respirator
  • Dont stir up dust by sweeping or vacuuming
  • Thoroughly wet contaminated areaslet stand 5
    minutes
  • Most general purpose disinfectants, household
    detergents are effective
  • Hypochlorate solution (mix 1 ½ cups bleach in 1
    gallon of water) may be used in place of
    commercial disinfectant

41
How to clean up infested areas
  • Once contaminated area is wet, take up
    contaminated materials with damp towel, then mop
    or sponge area with disinfectant
  • Spray dead rodents with disinfectantdouble bag
    with all cleaning materials and bury or burn
  • Disinfect gloves before taking them off
  • After taking off the gloves, thoroughly wash
    hands with soap and warm water

42
WEST NILE VIRUS
43
WEST NILE VIRUS
  • No documented cases in Western Hemisphere until
    1999
  • In 1999 2000 WNV encephalitis reported in New
    York City Metro area, New Jersey, and Connecticut
    83 cases, 9 deaths
  • In 2001 WNV occurred in 10 states w/ 66 cases, 9
    deaths
  • In 2002 WNV spread to 44 states w/4,156 cases,
    284 deaths

44
Overview of West Nile Virus (WNV)
  • WNV is a mosquito-borne disease that can cause
    encephalitis or meningitis
  • Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain
    tissue
  • Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes
    that envelop the brain or spinal cord

45
WEST NILE VIRUS
  • Transmitted to humans via mosquito bites
  • Mosquitoes are infected by feeding on infected
    birds that have high level of WNV in their blood
  • WNV is NOT transmitted from person to person
  • No evidence that people get WNV from handling
    live or dead infected birds (use barriers as a
    precaution anyway)

46
WEST NILE VIRUS
  • Most WNV infected humans have no symptoms
  • Small proportion develop mild symptoms including
    fever, headache, body aches, skin rash, swollen
    lymph glands West Nile fever
  • More serious infections include high fever,
    headache, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation,
    coma, tremors, convulsions, paralysis West Nile
    encephalitis

47
WEST NILE VIRUS
  • Less than 1 develop more severe symptoms
    including meningitis or encephalitis
  • Estimated 1 in 1000 (0.1) developing
    encephalitis die
  • No specific treatment or vaccination

48
WEST NILE VIRUS
  • Prevention is your best course of action!
  • Avoid mosquito bites-use DEET
  • Clean out mosquitoes where you work and play

49
WEST NILE VIRUS US Distribution (from USGS)
  • West Nile was first isolated in 1937known to
    cause infection and fever in humans in Africa,
    West Asia, and Middle East

50
WEST NILE VIRUS US Distribution (From CDC)
51
WEST NILE VIRUS WY Distribution
  • Avian (Bird) cases by county

52
WEST NILE VIRUS WY Distribution
  • Animal cases by county

53
WEST NILE VIRUS WY Distribution
  • Human Cases By County

54
WEST NILE VIRUS Prevention
  • When outdoors, wear clothing that covers the skin
  • Apply effective insect repellent to clothing
    exposed skin (DEET, etc.)
  • Curb activity during dawn dusk
  • Apply screens to doors windows regularly
    maintain them
  • Reduce the amount of standing water around home
    or work

55
PLEASE REMEMBER!
  • Safety and Health IS NOT just a 9 to 5 job!
    You should be safe AT HOME as well as AT WORK!
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