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Fairchild Books


The rich, the famous, movie stars, and athletes are some of the innovators and ... Clooney. The Rich and Famous. 2007 Fairchild Publications, Inc. Chapter 3 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fairchild Books

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Factors Influencing the Movement of Fashion
  • What factors accelerate the adoption of new
  • What factors slow the adoption?
  • Who are the fashion leaders? Followers?
  • How do we balance individuality vs. conformity?

Accelerating Factors
Increased Buying Power
  • Additional discretionary income means more money
    to spend on new fashions
  • As money flows to new fashion, more variety is
    offered to the consumer

Accelerating Factors
Leisure Time
  • Decreases in time spent working
  • Vacations demand leisure clothing
  • Consumers find shopping in stores losing appeal,
    so retailers reacted by offering goods online

Accelerating Factors
  • More college educated consumers leads to
    inquisitiveness, heightened awareness and self
  • Advanced education enables greater earning
    potential to satisfy their heightened awareness

Accelerating Factors
Womens Status
  • Fashions of the 20th century are directly
    influenced by the advancement of womens rights,
    e.g., suffragettes, working outside the home and
    the right to choose social contacts and
  • This, in turn, gave woman money to purchase
    clothing, further fueling the demand for the
    garments they often sewed.

Accelerating Factors
  • As data transmission became instantaneous,
    designs were transmitted around the world at the
    speed of light, shortening the front end of the
    production cycle.
  • Technological advances also created new fibers,
    allowing for greater comfort and wearability.
  • INTERNET This technology instantaneously
    diffuses the fashion of the moment to the mass
    audience. It accelerates the cycle of fashion and
    adds to the demand for new goods.

Accelerating Factors
Sales Promotion
  • Lets consumers know what fashions are available
    to them
  • Speeds up the acceptance stage and/or extends the
    peak stage of a new fashion

Accelerating Factors
Seasonal Change
  • New, fresh goods generate consumer interest, and
    stimulate both change and sales
  • Naturally occurring seasonal changes in the
    weather help this process

Retarding Factors
Habit and Custom
  • People tend to buy garments of a similar
    fabrication, cut, and color year after year with
    little change.
  • Customs still influence fashion, as seen on the
    placement of buttons on mens shirts. Buttons are
    placed on the right because it left the weapon
    arm free while dressing.

Retarding Factors
  • Heavy religious influence always encourages
    stability and champions custom. This societal
    factor greatly influences the fashions, as
    fashions reflect society.
  • While relaxation of women's dress in most
    religious orders has taken place, countertrends
  • Religious fundamentalists in some countries have
    decreed modern fashions lead to temptation and

Retarding Factors
Sumptuary Laws
  • These laws tell the public what they can and
    cannot purchase or wear.
  • For example, up until the 1930s shorts were not
    worn in public in New York City!

Retarding Factors
Nature of Merchandise
  • Some products move faster than others
  • Mens wear typically cycles more slowly than
    women's wear, although recently the advent of
    dress-down Fridays and casual dress in the
    office has accelerated the pace in this cycle for

Retarding Factors
Decreased Buying Power
  • RECESSION If the economy slows, so do the
    purchases of the middle and lower economic
  • Discretionary income shrinks, and fashion falls
    off the list of purchases for the average

Recurring Fashions
  • Styles reoccur, with adaptations that suit the
    times in which they reappear.
  • T-shirts, originally French cotton underwear,
    were adopted by American soldiers during World
    War I.
  • In the 40s they reemerged as tee shirts for
    golfing, and in the 60s they became part of
    womens fashion.
  • Today, T-shirts announce to all what the wearer
    stands for and where he or she has been.
  • Anthropologists concluded that similar
    silhouettes appear in fashion approximately every
    100 years.

Playing the Apparel Fashion Game
  • Many clothing authorities read a clear message
    into the alternate exposure and covering of
    various parts of the bodysex.
  • Womens fashions have tended to concentrate
    mainly on different ways to convey sexual
  • Mens fashions have been designed to emphasize
    such attributes as strength, power, bravery, and
    high social rank.

Playing the Apparel Fashion Game
Pieces of the Game
  • Historically, as attention to a part of the
    anatomy reaches a saturation point, the fashion
    spotlight shifts to some other point such as

Playing the Apparel Fashion Game
Rules of the Game
  • Fashion emphasis does not flit from one area of
    the body to another. A particular area is
    emphasized until every bit of excitement has been
    exhausted. At this point, fashion turns to
    another area.
  • Only certain parts of the body can be exposed at
    any given time. Sleeveless turtlenecks are an
    example of this.
  • A fashion can never retreat gradually and in
    good order. Like a dictator it must always expand
    its aggression or collapse. Old fashions never
    fade away they die suddenly and arbitrarily.

Predicting the Movement of Fashion
  • Producing and selling fashion merchandise to
    consumers at a profit is what fashion
    merchandising is all about.
  • Fashion Forecasters must
  • Distinguish current trends
  • Estimate how widespread they are
  • Determine when these fashions will appeal to the
    firms target market

Predicting the Movement of Fashion
Identifying Trends
  • Determining if the trend is moving towards or
    away from maximum fashion acceptance has a
    profound effect on the number of units produced
    and stocked by manufacturers and retailers

Predicting the Movement of Fashion
Sources of Data
  • Modern fashion forecasters depend on vast amounts
    of quantifiable information.
  • Merchants get instant sales feedback and use
    every available source for information that will
    help ensure success.

Predicting the Movement of Fashion
Interpreting Influential Factors
  • Forecasters collect data and identify certain
    patterns. They also consider factors that
    accelerate or retard a fashion cycle. Among these
  • CURRENT EVENTS News of what is going on in the
    country affects fashion response. When women were
    seeking management positions in the 80s, fashion
    responded by creating business suits for women,
    and in the 2000s they created a softer, less
    mannish look.

Predicting the Movement of Fashion
Interpreting Influential Factors
  • PROPHETIC STYLES Taken up by the socially
    prominent or flamboyant young, they rapidly
    gather momentum or falter. The degree of
    acceptance gives a sense of fashion direction to
  • SALES PROMOTION EVENTS Forecasters must
    determine how much promotional effort stimulates
    interest in prophetic styles.

Predicting the Movement of Fashion
Interpreting Influential Factors
Forecasters must also anticipate how much
promotional they can look forward to in the
Predicting the Movement of Fashion
Importance of Timing
  • Successful merchants must know what their target
    market is wearing now and in the very near future.

This allows them to match stock based on where
in the fashion cycle the style is and when the
optimum point is reached for introduction to
their target consumer.
Theories of Fashion
  • Downward-Flow Theory

Theories of Fashion
  • Downward-Flow Theory
  • Upper class sends fashion down to the lower
  • Fashions appear among the socially prominent.

Eager manufacturers quickly mass-produce
lower-priced copies that many consumers can
afford, and wealthier consumers seek newer styles.
Theories of Fashion Adoption
  • Horizontal-Flow Theory
  • Fashion moves between groups in the same social
  • Retailers watch their own customers instead of
    being guided by what exclusive stores sell.
  • Fashion innovators, who are quick to try new
    fashions, and fashion influentials, who are
    sought out for advice, are barometers.
  • They play critical roles depending on the area
    the retailer is located in.

Theories of Fashion Adoption
  • Upward-Flow Theory
  • From the poor and young come the fashions of the
    times, i.e., rich and young who adopt a poor
  • Implications for the traditional methods of
    charting and forecasting are radical.
  • The young are a large, independent group who
    exert considerable influence on fashion styling.
  • As a result, retailers and manufacturers attend
    less European couture shows, and more prêt a
    porter shows, searching for fashions relevant to
    American youth.

Fashion Leaders
Innovators and Influentials
The rich, the famous, movie stars, and athletes
are some of the innovators and influential
fashion leaders.
The Rich and Famous
Sean John
Mary Kate Ashley Olsen
George Clooney
Fashion Followers
Reasons why people follow rather than lead in
fashion include
  • Insecurity about leading the way in fashion
  • Admiration of the leaders

Fashion Followers
  • Lack of interest in the world of trends
  • Ambivalence or fear towards changing trends
  • Varying rates of response when confronted with
    new designs

Fashion is Self Expression
Individuality vs. Conformity
  • How to balance individual style with that of
    ones peer group?

Consumers want to be part of a group and
conform (hence the label phenomenon), but want to
have their own stamp of individuality.
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