Implement

Loading...

PPT – Implement PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 69be7f-MzY0M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Implement

Description:

Implement Food Safety Procedures SITXFSA001A DHS V2.2 2011 * – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:1
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 70
Provided by: mbd64
Learn more at: http://barry-bwb2.tripod.com

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Implement


1
Implement Food Safety Procedures SITXFSA001A
2
Revision from Lesson 7
  • Any questions?
  • Who is the only staff member allowed to complete
    an
  • internal audit?
  • How long must you keep any food safety
  • documentation for and what is the exception?
  • Name 10 different examples of records.

3
Lesson 8 Outline
  • Handouts Labelling and the Australian 12 main
    areas.

  • Slides
  • - Storage and display of foods
  • Single use items
  • Doggy bags
  • - Packaging and labelling.

4
4 Main Storage Areas in a Food Business
  • Refrigerators (0?C to 5?C by law, 1?C to 4?C
    safer)
  • (4?C to 10?C for most fruit and
    vegetables)
  • 2. Freezer (-15?C to -24?C depending on food
    type)
  • 3. Dry Stores (10?C to 21?C by law, 10?C to 17?C
    safer)
  • 4. Chemical room / area (same as Dry Stores)

5
Storage Conditions
  • Refrigerators / Cool storage/rooms
  • It is essential to cool foods quickly.
  • Split large volumes of hot food into shallow
    containers with larger surface areas or divide
    into parts to cool faster.
  • Use a blast chiller. If not, stand over ice
    bath.
  • Hasten cooling by regularly stirring.
  • Cover, date and label all foods for storage.
  • Leftovers should be used as soon as possible.
  • Rotate stock (FIFO).
  • Store cooked foods above uncooked foods.
  • Separate foods into groups.
  • Do not over stock.
  • Keep clean and sanitised.
  • Check operating temperatures at least twice a day
    by law.

6
Some Storage Conditions Facts
  • Note
  • try not to keep vegetables in plastic bags -
    many stay
  • fresher for longer in paper bags. If in plastic
    bags, make sure
  • they are perforated so that the air can
    circulate.
  • many vegetables are sensitive to a chemical
    called ethylene,
  • which is emitted by some fruits and vegetables.
  • Apples, bananas, pears, peaches, plums, melons,
    mushrooms,
  • and tomatoes emit ethylene.
  • Aubergines, leafy greens, beans, carrots,
    cucumbers, peas,
  • peppers and potatoes absorb ethylene.
  • Ethylene can help in the ripening process, but it
    can also lead to
  • lettuce turning brown, carrots going limp and
    tomatoes losing
  • their flavour.
  • Keep the two types away from each other while
    storing.

7
Some Storage Conditions Facts continued
  • Note
  • Do not store potatoes and onions together as
    they each give off
  • gases that can cause decay in the other. To keep
    potatoes from
  • sprouting, add a few apples to the potatoes.
  • Never store apples and carrots together. Apart
    from the ethylene
  • emitted by the apples, they can also give carrots
    a bitter taste.
  • Ginger keeps very well in the freezer. Grate and
    replace.
  • To keep cheese fresh and free from mould, dampen
    a piece of
  • kitchen towel with vinegar and keep it in the
    colder part of your
  • refrigerator.
  • When a game bird is hung, the enzymes in the
    flesh undergo a
  • chemical reaction, which tenderizes the meat. The
    longer it is
  • hung, the richer and more gamey the flavour. Most
    game birds are
  • hung for up to 10 days.

8
Storage Conditions
  • Freezers
  • Follow the previous guidelines for refrigeration.
  • Foods must be securely wrapped to prevent freezer
    burn.
  • Never freeze hot foods.
  • Never re-freeze previously frozen and thawed
    foods.
  • Never overload the freezer.
  • Never store foods for excessive lengths of time.
  • Never freeze foods which have begun to spoil
  • be especially careful if you are using the
    sous vide process.

9
Frozen foods storage life
10
Storage Conditions
  • Food products are stored according to their
    nature
  • (cooked, raw, ready-to-eat).
  • To maximise shelf life, store foods correctly.
  • Clean and sanitise storage areas regularly.
  • Freezing and chilling does not kill bacteria.
  • The bacteria go to sleep and remain dormant
    until the
  • temperature goes back into the danger zone,
    when they
  • wake up and start growing again.
  • Defrosting frozen food plan ahead and leave
    time to
  • defrost foods in the fridge. Cold running
    water, under 20C,
  • can be used in an emergency.

11
Storage Conditions
  • 3. Dry Stores
  • Low humidity.
  • Preferably no natural lighting no windows.
  • Rotate stock (FIFO).
  • Check packaging and bulging, dented and/or rusty
    cans.
  • Shelf life of cans should be no longer than 1
    year.
  • Check use-by and best before dates.
  • Do not overstock.

12
Ideal Storage Temperatures
  • Meat 2 - 4C
  • Fish 0 - 2C
  • Dairy 3 - 4C
  • Fruit 6 - 8C
  • Eggs 3 - 5C
  • Vegetables 6 - 8C
  • Cooked foods 2 - 4C

13
Storage Conditions
  • A food business must, when storing food,
  • store the food in such a way that
  • (a) it is protected from the likelihood of
    contamination and
  • (b) the environmental conditions under which it
    is stored will not adversely affect the safety
    and suitability of the food.
  • store potentially hazardous food under
    temperature control and if it is food that is
    intended to be stored frozen, ensure the food
    remains frozen during storage.

An important rule If in doubt, throw it out.
14
Storage Conditions
  • Food display
  • - Protect food from any contamination
  • by wrapping or covering.
  • - Provide temperature control for high-risk
    foods.
  • - Supervise the service of the food on display
  • to prevent contamination.
  • - Serve food with service utensils and ensure
    there
  • are plenty, to stop cross-contamination.
  • - Wear disposable or food handlers gloves.
  • - Wash hands regularly during service.
  • - Prevent customers from handling unwrapped food.

15
Self Service
  • Food may be prepared, served and sold to
    customers and their particular food safety
    hazards including
  • Self service
  • - buffets
  • - salad bars
  • - condiments
  • - tea and coffee
  • Providing drink dispensing equipment
  • Pre-packaging food items
  • Displaying and selling pre-packaged food.

16
Safe Food Service
  • Workplace / organisation policies and procedures
    to ensuring the safety of food served and sold to
    customers under a range of conditions including
  • Supervising the display of food to prevent
    contamination by customers
  • Removing contaminated food immediately
  • Providing separate serving utensils for each dish
  • Providing protective barriers
  • Displaying food under temperature control
  • Packaging
  • - suitable for use on the particular foodstuff
  • - ensuring it is not damaged during packaging or
    display process
  • - ensuring that damaged packaging does not allow
    contamination.

17
Storage Conditions
  • Transporting food
  • - Insulated or refrigerated containers should be
    used.
  • - The journey planned to be as short as
    possible.
  • - All foods must be covered.
  • Function catering
  • - When catering for large numbers,
  • sufficient staff and equipment should be used
  • to ensure rapid service of foods.
  • Outside catering
  • - This type of food service should only be
  • attempted if sufficient mobile, powered
    heating
  • and refrigeration units are available to keep
  • high-risk foods out of the temperature danger
    zone.

18
Storage Conditions - Transport
  • A food vehicle is required to be
  • - built to the same standard as a permanent food
    premises
  • sufficient in water supplies and waste disposal
  • clean and sanitised
  • equipped with equipment that meets legal
    obligations.
  • If solely for transporting food, the vehicle
    must be
  • designed to protect the food being transported
  • equipped with parts that facilitate easy
    cleaning
  • equipped with surfaces (that come in contact
    with food)
  • that are able to be sanitised
  • designed and constructed to protect food from
    air borne
  • contaminants, such as dust, insects and fumes
  • food compartment separate from the driver and/or
    passenger
  • areas, to prevent contamination by
    micro-organisms or foreign objects.

19
Bain maries and other holding equipment
  • Check whether the bain marie is electrical or
    water-filled
  • before adding water!
  • Should not be used for heating foods. The
    food will heat
  • slowly and remain in the Temperature Danger
    Zone.
  • Pre-heat food to at least 75C internal
    temperature before
  • placing into bain marie.
  • Bain maries need to operate at least 85C to
    hot hold food
  • effectively.
  • Do not keep food in a bain marie for more
    than 1 hour.
  • Remove, clean and sanitise trays with each
    new batch of food.
  • Do not top-up trays mixing old food with new
    food,
  • throw away leftovers.
  • Keep lids on trays.

20
Storage
  • Kitchen supplies should be moved as quickly as
  • possible to their correct storage areas.
  • Hazardous chemicals must be stored in a
    separate,
  • secure storage area.

They must always be clearly marked and be in
easily identifiable containers.
Note never put a cleaning chemical in a food
container of any sort.
21
Correct Storage of Supplies!
22
A well-planned store should be
  • Well ventilated and free of dampness.
  • Free of cracks on the walls, floors and ceiling
  • and easy to clean and sanitise.
  • A location near to the receiving area
  • and have easy access to kitchens.

23
A well planned store should also have
  • Shelves easy to remove and clean.
  • Good lighting natural and/or artificial.
  • Ample storage space for a variety
  • of different sized objects.
  • Several scales, easy to use and clean.

24
When using containers in your store you must
consider
  • Food-grade plastic or
  • stainless steel.
  • Check packaged foods
  • for signs of damage,
  • chewing and/or puncture.
  • Check cans and tins for
  • dents, splits, bulging
  • and best before dates.
  • Size.
  • Durability.
  • Secureness.
  • Ease of cleaning.
  • Stacking ability.
  • Mobility - wheels.

25
Single use items
  • Examples are?
  • Items that should be used only once, such as
  • Disposable plastic or wooden cutlery, e.g.
    spoons and stirrers.
  • Disposable napkins, serviettes and face wipes.
  • Disposable cups, mugs, plates or bowls.
  • Disposable straws.
  • Plastic takeaway containers.
  • Plastic bags.
  • Disposable gloves.
  • Alcohol swabs.
  • Individually packaged salt, pepper, sugar,
    whitener, coffee, tea,
  • condiments, sauces, jams, spreads, etc.
  • Note You must ensure they are protected from
    damage and
  • contamination when stored, displayed and
    provided
  • to a consumer.

26
Single use items
  • The Food Standard 3.2.2. requires that a
    business makes sure
  • that single use items do not contaminate
    food do not pass on
  • any illness and are not reused.
  • The main ways to make sure that food is kept
    safe using
  • single use items includes

- protecting the single use item with packaging
or a container
- using dispensers that will allow only the
customer who will use the single use item to
touch it
- storing the single use item away from
chemicals, in food storage areas
- throw away the single use item if it has been
used, damaged, touched or in any way
contaminated.
27
Single use items
  • The revolution in plastics technology over the
    past 40 years
  • has resulted in a wide variety of healthcare
    items produced
  • as pre-sterilised "single use only" disposables.
  • Many food businesses are reprocessing single use
    items
  • because staff feel this will result in
    substantial monetary savings.
  • This may also include life expectancy, potential
    physical
  • or infection hazards after repeated use, or even
    a lack of
  • confidence in the capability of food businesses
    to reprocess
  • the item satisfactorily.
  • Australia constitutes less than 1 of the world
    market
  • for single use products.

28
Doggy Bags
  • Doggy bags differ from normal take-away food.
    They are the
  • food left uneaten at a restaurant and then
    taken home for the
  • family pet. However a lot of customers will end
    up consuming
  • the food themselves and suffer from food
    poisoning!
  • Doggy bags are not illegal at present.
  • However it will soon be law (as in New Zealand)
  • that a food business that provides doggy bags
    must provide
  • the consumer with written instructions on how
    to store
  • and reheat the food. Otherwise they may be
    prosecuted
  • and fined by their local council and/or the
    consumer who fell
  • ill with food poisoning.
  • The best, safest business practice is not to
    provide doggy bags!

29
(No Transcript)
30
Why Label Food?
  • Protect public health and safety, e.g. allergen
    labelling.
  • Provide adequate information for an informed
    choice,
  • e.g. country of origin.
  • Prevent misleading or deceptive conduct,
  • e.g. description of the product.
  • Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.

Note refer to class handout Food Labelling
Guide (ACCC)
31
Acids, Antioxidants, Mineral Salts (296 385)
Miscellaneous (900 1520) Research Class Activity
  • In groups, you have 20 minutes to research the
    following additive numbers for main points /
    information in the LRC (library).
  • For example find out if your specific additives
  • cause any allergic reactions
  • have any fatal ingredients
  • are banned in Australia and / or other countries
  • have products associated with them
  • have any side affects.
  • and any other relevant or interesting facts
    related to them.
  • 1. 310 (E310) 319 (E319) 2. 320
    (E320) 321 (E321)
  • 3. 322 (E322) 326 (E326) 4. 330
    (E330) 338 (E338)
  • 5. 363 (E363) 370 (E370) 385 (E385)
    6. E902 903 (E903) 904 (E904) E907
  • 7. E910 E912 E914 E920 8. E924
    925 (E925) E927(a) 928 (E928)
  • 9. 950 (E950) 951 (E95) E952 954 (E954) 10.
    955 965 (E965) 1202 (E1202)
  • You will then present your findings to the rest
    of the class for discussion and feedback.

32
Who makes the rules?
  • FSANZ develops and reviews food standards
  • for Australia and New Zealand.
  • Food Regulation Ministerial Council
  • provides broad policy on food issues and
  • reviews food standards approved by FSANZ.
  • A variety of other state and commonwealth
    agencies
  • are involved in policy and regulation.

Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
33
Who enforces the rules?
  • NOT FSANZ!
  • Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service
  • monitor and enforce imported foods.
  • Authorities in Australian States and Territories
  • enforce the Code.
  • New Zealand Food Safety Authority enforces
  • the Code in NZ.

Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
34
Development of standardsIntroduction of
mandatory nutrition labelling
  • Before 2002, the Nutrition Information Panel
    (NIP) was
  • only required on food making a nutrition claim.
  • Now mandatory on most packaged foods.
  • Must show energy protein, fat, saturated fat,
    carbohydrate,
  • sugars and sodium.
  • Quantity per serving column for information on
    the nutrient
  • content of the portion, per 100 g to compare
    products.

Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
35
Foods that do NOT require a nutrition
information panel
  • very small packages which are about the size of
    a matchbox or larger chewing-gum packet (smaller
    than 100sq cm).
  • foods with no significant nutritional value
  • (such as a single herb or spice), tea and coffee.
  • foods sold unpackaged (unless a nutrition claim
    is made).
  • foods made and packaged at the point of sale,
  • e.g. bread made in a local bakery.

Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
36
Unlabelled foods
  • Not all foods have to be labelled. The
    exceptions are
  • Unpackaged foods such as fresh meat, fruit,
    vegetables and nuts or
  • food sold in a restaurant.
  • Food made or packaged on the premises from where
    it is sold
  • (e.g. at a bakers).
  • Food packaged in the presence of the customer
  • (e.g. at a delicatessen or a take-away food
    shop).
  • Packaged whole or cut fresh fruit and vegetables
    (but not bean sprouts)
  • where you can see the fruit or vegetables through
    the package.
  • Food delivered packaged at the customers
    request
  • (e.g. home-delivered pizza).
  • Food sold at a fundraising event for charitable
    purposes such as a school fete.
  • Individual serve packages that are sold in a
    large package,
  • such as a 12-pack of corn chips, although the
    information has to be included
  • on the larger outer package.

Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
37
Temporary Premises - labelling is different
  • Food sold at fundraising events do not need
    labelling
  • unless a customer requests information about
    the food.
  • The label can be handwritten and should include
  • a description of the food
  • list of ingredients
  • best before or use by dates
  • identification of the presence of allergens
  • storage conditions, i.e. keep refrigerated
  • the name of the person who made the food or an
    identification of who made the food, i.e. the
    stall name or number, so that
  • it can be traced of there is a problem.

Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
38
Country of Origin Labels in Australia -
previously
  • Always had to be stated on packaged food, but
    sometimes
  • this was only listed in the address of the
    manufacturer!
  • Alternatively, the label could state that the
    product was
  • packaged in a particular country from local and
  • imported products.
  • Some unpackaged food had to be labelled as
    Imported
  • but there was no requirement to state the
    actual country
  • or to label unpackaged local food as Australian!

Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
39
Country of Origin Labelling - now
  • Note this Standard applies only in Australia.
  • Fresh or processed fruit, vegetable, nuts and
    seafood that are unpackaged will have to state
    the country of origin of the food, whether it is
    from Australia or another country.
  • Unpackaged fresh pork and unpackaged preserved
    pork products, such as ham and bacon, also have
    to have
  • country of origin labelling.
  • Almost all packaged foods must make a clear
    country of origin statement, the address is no
    longer good enough
  • (from December 2007).

40
Country of Origin Labelling - now
  • Note In New Zealand, country of origin
    requirements apply
  • only to wines.
  • Made in Australia means
  • It is made in Australia with significant imported
    ingredients.
  • Product of Australia means
  • it must be made in Australia from Australian
    ingredients.
  • Grown In Australia label joins the existing
    country of origin
  • Made in and Product of and will provide
    consumers with
  • clearer advice about the source of many food
    products
  • (from January 2011).
  • Reference FSANZ

41
Questions asked when reviewing Labelling
  • Is there a substantial health/safety issue, who
    is at risk?
  • What are the dietary intakes of nutrient or food
    chemical of interest, what would happen if the
    intakes changed, what food categories are
    important?
  • Are consumers interested, do they understand the
    information, will they change their behaviour,
    are there differences between sub-groups, will it
    affect consumer confidence?
  • What is the situation in the marketplace, what
    products are effected, sales figures, trends,
    developments, practical restraints, are there
    non-regulatory measures in place?

Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
42
More Questions
  • What are the benefits, what are the costs, is
    there evidence of market failure, does it effect
    competitiveness?
  • Is there existing national and international
    regulation, is existing regulation adequate,
    promoting consistency, are there legal
    restraints, what is best practice?
  • Is it enforceable, who enforces, how do we know
    it is working?
  • Are there potential barriers to trade?
  • Is there any policy guidance?
  • What do stakeholders think? What do YOU think?

Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
43
Labelling - who is affected?
Consumers different groups may be affected
differently, choices, costs, consumer interests,
autonomy, confidence, behaviour. Industry costs
and benefits, marketing, re-labelling,
reformulation, innovation, trade, training,
monitoring. Jurisdictions enforcing the Code,
training, application, costs and Resources. Regula
tors education, review, monitoring, consumer
confidence, flow-on effects. Health
Professionals education, recommendations,
practicalities. Non-government organisations
costs, practicalities, education. Government
organisations policy, education, review,
regulatory impact, consumer and industry
interests.
Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
44
Labelling - the test used
There is a clear direct or indirect benefit
Consumers are not mislead, instead they are
supplied enough information to make an
informed choice Labelling is an effective tool
to address the issue There are no other
measures that already address the issue
Benefits outweigh the costs There is evidence
to support the requirements The measure
matches the risk The measure is practical and
enforceable Consistent with FSANZ objectives
Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
45
Labelling Standards
1.2.1 - Application of labelling (currently
under review) 1.2.2 - Food identification 1.2.3
- Mandatory warning and advisory statements 1.2.4
- Labelling of ingredients 1.2.5 - Date
marking 1.2.6 - Directions for use and
storage 1.2.7 - Health, nutrition and related
claims (current proposal) 1.2.8 - Nutrition
information 1.2.9 - Legibility requirements
(review planned) 1.2.10 - Characterising
ingredients 1.2.11 - Country of origin
Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
46
FSANZs Responsibilities
  • FSANZ is required to set food standards for New
  • Zealand and Australia that
  • - protect the public health and safety of food
    consumers
  • - ensure consumers are informed about the food
    they
  • buy and
  • prevent deceptive and misleading conduct.
  • Our food measures should also
  • - support an innovative food industry and
  • - ensure consistency with international
    obligations.

Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
47
Food Labels - what do they mean?
  • Consumers have information on food labels divided
    into 12
  • different sections - can you think of all 12?
  1. Nutrition information panel.
  2. Percentage labelling.
  3. Name or description of the food.
  4. Food recall information.
  5. Information for allergy sufferers.
  6. Date marking.
  7. Ingredient list.
  8. Labels must tell the truth.
  9. Food additives.
  10. Legibility requirements.
  11. Directions for use and storage.
  12. Country of origin.

48
Food Labels Handout
49
2. Percentage Labelling
  • The label must show the key or characterising
    ingredient.
  • Some products like white bread or cheese have no
    characterising ingredient.
  • Sometimes it is a component of the food,
  • e.g. cocoa in chocolate.
  • For this yoghurt it is the fruit which must be
    listed separately (because of the pictures of
    fruit)
  • banana (8), strawberry(8), grape (4), peach
  • (2) and pineapple (2).

Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
50
6. Date Marking
  • Only required if shelf life less than 2 years.
  • Best before date still safe to eat after this
    date but may
  • have lost quality and some nutrition.
  • Use-by cannot be legally sold nor should be
    consumed
  • after this date.
  • Bread can have a baked on or baked for date.

Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
51
7. Ingredient List
  • Listed in descending order (by ingoing weight),
    so the
  • greatest amount is first.
  • Look to see if fat, sugar or salt (sodium) are
    near the
  • beginning of this list.
  • Water is also listed but allowance is made for
    processing,
  • e.g. evaporation or if lower than 5.
  • Compound ingredients do not need to be listed
    separately
  • if less than 5, e.g. tomato sauce on a frozen
    pizza.

Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
52
Labels must tell the truth
  • Fair trading and food laws require labels
  • to be truthful labels must not misinform
    through false, misleading or deceptive
    representations.
  • For example, jam with a picture of strawberries
  • on the label must contain strawberries.
  • Suppliers must label food products with accurate
    weights and measures information.

Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
53
Legibility Requirements
  • Labelling requirements in the Food Standards
    Code include that it must be legible, prominent,
    distinct from the background and in English.
  • Warning statements must be at least 3mm high
  • (except on very small packages).

Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
54
Directions for Cooking and Storage
  • Specific storage conditions must be on the label
  • so the product will keep until its best before or
    use-by date, e.g. keep refrigerated at or below
    4?C.
  • Also follow any cooking instruction the
    manufacturer has put on the label.

Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
55
Food Additives
  • Play an important role, e.g. preservatives,
    sweeteners. Used to
  • Improve the taste or appearance of processed
    food, e.g. beeswax glazing agent (901) is used
    to coat apples to improve their appearance.
  • Improve the keeping quality or stability of a
    food, e.g. sorbitol humectant (420) may be added
    to mixed dried fruit to maintain the moisture
    level and softness of the fruit.
  • Preserve food when this is the most practical
    way of extending its storage life, e.g. sulphur
    dioxide preservative (220) is added to some
    meat products such as sausage meat to prevent
    microbial growth.
  • Can only be used if approved by FSANZ.
  • Must be listed in ingredients list by name or
    number (unless in a composite food that is less
    than 5), based on International system.
  • Full list is on FSANZ website.
  • http//www.foodstandards.gov.au/foodmatters/foodad
    ditives.cfm

56
Examples of Food Additives Most Common
Functions (for your reference)
  • Acids / Acidity regulators / Alkalis help to
    maintain a constant acid level in food. Important
    for taste, as well as influencing function of
    other substances in the food, e.g. an acidified
    food can retard the growth of micro-organisms.
  • Anti-caking agents reduce tendency of
    individual food particles to adhere and improve
    flow characteristics, e.g. seasoning which has an
    added anti-caking agent flows freely and does not
    clump together.
  • Antioxidants retard or prevent oxidative
    deterioration of food, e.g. in fats or oils,
    rancid flavours can develop when they are exposed
    to oxygen. Antioxidants prevent this from
    happening.
  • Bulking agents contribute to volume of the
    food, without contributing significantly to its
    available energy, e.g. sugar often contributes to
    volume of lollies, while some low-kilojoule foods
    need bulking agents added to them to replace the
    bulk normally provided by sugar.

57
Examples of Food Additives Most Common
Functions continued
  • Colourings add or restore colour to foods, e.g.
    cherries turn a dull brown when cooked and are
    coloured to make them more attractive.
  • Emulsifiers facilitate or maintain oil and
    water emulsions from separating into layers, e.g.
    emulsifiers may be used in margarine to prevent
    oil forming a layer on top of the margarine.
  • Firming agents / Stabilisers maintain the
    uniform dispersion of substances in solid and
    semi-solid foods.
  • Flavour enhancers enhance the existing taste
    and / or odour of a food.
  • Foaming agents maintain the uniform dispersion
    of gases in aerated foods.
  • Gelling agents modify the texture of the food
    through gel formation.
  • Glazing agents impart a coating to the external
    surface of the food, e.g. a wax coating on fruit
    to improve its appearance.

58
Examples of Food Additives Most Common
Functions continued
  • Humectants reduce moisture loss in foods, e.g.
    glycerine may be added to icing to prevent it
    from drying out.
  • Preservatives retard or prevent the
    deterioration of food by micro-organisms -
    preventing spoilage of foods.
  • Raising agents liberate gases, thereby
    increasing the volume of a food often used in
    baked goods.
  • Sweeteners replace the sweetness of normal
    sugar but have fewer kilojoules than sugar as
    less is used.
  • Thickeners increase the viscosity of a food,
    e.g. a sauce might contain a thickener to give it
    the desired consistency.

Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
59
Food Allergens
  • Major allergens that can cause severe
    anaphylactic shock
  • must be listed however small the amount.
  • These are peanuts, tree nuts (e.g. almonds,
    cashews,
  • walnuts), shellfish, finned fish, milk, eggs,
    sesame and soybeans.
  • See Anaphylaxis Australia website
  • www.allergyfacts.org.au or Allergy New Zealand
  • www.allergy.org.nz
  • Also listed are gluten for celiac disease and
    sulphites
  • (if more than 10mg per kg) as sulphites can
    trigger asthma
  • attacks in some asthmatics.

Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
60
Food Allergen information (for your reference)
  • Fish and shellfish
  • major groups which can trigger allergic reactions
    are
  • Cephalods (e.g. calamari, cuttlefish, octopus,
    squid)
  • Crustaceans
  • (e.g. crab, crayfish, lobster, marron, prawns /
    shrimps, yabbies)
  • Gastropods (e.g. sea slugs, snails)
  • Molluscs (e.g. abalone, clams, mussels, oysters,
    snails)
  • Scaly or finned fish (e.g. anchovies, cod,
    haddock, herring, John Dory, mackerel, salmon,
    sardines, trout, tuna).

61
Food Allergen information
  • Fish and shellfish
  • Note people allergic to one type of finned fish
    are often allergic to other types as well.
    Similarly, an allergy to one type of crustacean
    usually means that all crustaceans and their
    products are best avoided.
  • On the other hand, people who are allergic to
    seafood from one group of seafood (e.g. finned
    fish) can usually tolerate those from another
    group (e.g. shellfish.
  • Occasionally, intense cooking will partially or
    completely destroy the triggering allergen. This
    may explain why some people who are allergic to
    fresh fish are able to tolerate tinned salmon and
    tuna. Reference Food Standards Australia New
    Zealand.

62
Food Allergen information
  • Milk products
  • people allergic to milk products should avoid
    butter buttermilk casein caseinate cheese
    cream crème fraiche cows or goats milk ghee
    milk powder whey and any margarine which
    contains milk products.
  • Note be aware of foods such as bakery items that
    have a shine to them egg and milk can be used
    to give glazed appearance.
  • Casein, a milk product, may be used as a binder
    in meat products and reconstructed salmon or
    imitation seafood.

Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
63
Food Allergen information
  • Eggs
  • Most people allergic to hen eggs are also
    allergic to similar proteins in other bird eggs
    such as duck or quail, so these are best avoided
    as well. Cooked egg is sometimes better tolerated
    than raw egg, so some children with a mild egg
    allergy seem to be able to tolerate small amounts
    in cakes or slices.
  • Common foods containing egg include cakes
    custards dessert mixes such as waffles pavlova
    mix confectionary glazed rolls or pastries
    malted drinks meringues mousse rissoles or
    meat loaf (where eggs may be used as a binding
    agent) slices and macaroons, some soups and
    sauces (e.g. hollandaise) souffles.
  • Use of terms such as egg yolk and egg white,
    albumen, egg powder or solids on the label
    indicate the presence of egg in a food.

Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
64
Food Allergen information
  • Soy
  • finds its way into many processed foods,
    including baked goods such as batters, breads,
    cereals, sausages as a binder in small goods
    and in salads and canned beans.
  • Other names for soy include bean curd,
    hydrolysed vegetable protein, lecithin, soya bean
    paste (miso, tempe), soy flour, soya protein,
    textured vegetable protein (TVP), tofu, vegetable
    gum.
  • Soy lecithin is an emulsifier (additive number
    322) found in many foods such as chocolate,
    margarine and carob. Most commercial lecithin is
    obtained from soybeans. Other sources of lecithin
    are egg yolks and leguminous seeds, including
    peanuts and maize.

Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
65
GM Food and Irradiated Foods
  • GM food and irradiated food and food ingredients
    must go
  • through a safety assessment by FSANZ before being
    sold.
  • Over 30 GM foods have been approved for sale so
    far. They are ingredients derived from approved
    GM commodity crops of canola, corn, cotton,
    potato, soybean and sugar beet.
  • GM food must be labelled if there is altered DNA
    or protein
  • in the final product (or if it has altered
    characteristics).
  • Irradiated food and food ingredients must also
    be labelled.
  • Note food irradiation can only be used if there
    is
  • no other safe method available.

Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
66
Food Recall Information
  • Labels must show
  • the name and business address in Australia or
    New Zealand of the manufacturer or importer
  • as well as
  • the lot identification of the food (or date
    coding).
  • This assists in the rare occasion when there is
    a food recall.

Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
67
Other Information on Labelling
  • Much of the information on food labels is not
    regulated in the Food Standards Code,
  • e.g. organic, kosher, halal, vegetarian labelling
    of foods.
  • For full explanations of symbols commonly used
    on food labels (e.g. glycemic index) see
    Nutrition Australias website
  • www.nutritionaustralia.org under food facts.
  • Also for information on the food industrys
    percentage daily intake labelling scheme see
    http//www.afgc.org.au/index.cfm?id436

Reference Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
68
Questions
  • Any questions or clarification?
  • Why is it worth labelling food?
  • What are 6 of the 12 areas
  • covered by Australian labelling?
  • What are 3 examples of
  • ingredients that are printed
  • in bold?

69
Next week in Lesson 9
  • Handouts Food Recall Protocol.
  • Slides - Overview of
  • Cleaning
  • Food Recall
  • Pest Control
  • Maintenance
  • Disposal (recycling)


- Which records do you complete for each?
  • Class Activity - Cleaning Schedule Revision