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Wake Forest University


Monkeys in the wild typically spend about 70% of their time foraging for food. ... of macaques enjoying a swimming pool. Plastic Sand Box. Livestock Water Tank ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Wake Forest University

Wake Forest University
  • Information Regarding Nonhuman Primate Natural
    History, Behavior, Reproduction, Environmental
    Enrichment, Special Cases

Greetings! This presentation contains custom
animation for instructional purposes. To activate
the text, simply left click on the mouse or use
the Page Down key, located to the left of the 7
on the number pad, to scroll through the
information. After each click of the mouse or use
of the Page Down key, pause to give the animation
a moment to run its course. It is estimated that
this presentation should take 25-30 minutes to
review. A test follows the presentation. If
you experience any difficulties during this
training, please contact the EHS Information
Education Coordinator at 716-6084 for
help. Press the Page Down key or left click on
your mouse to continue.
  • Why is this training important?
  • It serves to increase awareness of monkey
    behaviors, both threatening and non-threatening.
  • It provides non-human primate handlers with a
    detailed look at the Wake Forest University Plan
    for Nonhuman Primate Environmental Enrichment.

Lets begin with some background. . .
Important Note No images contained herein were
taken at Wake Forest University School of
Medicine unless otherwise indicated.
Wake Forest University School of Medicines
conducts research with four Old World species of
The terms Old World and New World refer to
the species place of origin
Old World monkeys are native to Africa and Asia
New World monkeys are native to southern
Mexico, Central America and South America.
(No Transcript)
  • African Green monkeys (Chlorocebus ethiops)
  • Also known as Vervet monkeys

  • Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

  • Cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)
  • Also called crab-eating macaque, long-tailed
    macaque, and Java monkey

  • Bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata)

Common Physical Features
  • Old World monkeys share several common physical

Quadrapedal walk on all fours
Cheek pouches for food storage in the mouth
Opposable thumb enables grasping
Large canine teeth and sharp fingernails
Non-prehensile tail used for balance rather
than grasping objects or substrates
Ischial callosities - hairless, callused areas on
either side of the rump used for sitting (also
called butt pads)
Sexual dimorphism males are bigger in size than
  • Macaques and Vervet monkeys are omnivorousthey
    consume both plant and animal material. In fact,
    Vervet monkeys are the most omnivorous of all
    primate species. Their diet may consist of the
  • grasses
  • fungi
  • fruit
  • berries
  • flowers
  • buds
  • shoots
  • invertebrates
  • birds
  • bird eggs
  • lizards
  • rodents
  • other vertebrate prey
  • leaves
  • acacia tree gum
  • seeds
  • nuts

Mating and Reproduction
Females typically begin cycling around 2.5 yrs
of age, but may begin as early as 1.5 yrs.
Early weaning can result in psychological
problems and inadequate development of social and
maternal skills.
Juveniles become sexually mature at 3 to 4 years
of age.
Females have sex skin genital areas (also
sometimes face and arms) turn red and swollen
around ovulation signals males to their
receptiveness to mating. (Note Vervet and bonnet
monkeys do not have sex skin.)
Gestation lasts between 5 6 months.
Infants are nursed between 10 and 12 months, and
weaning occurs around 12 months old.
Which of the following species ARE NOT housed at
A. African Green monkeysB. ChimpanzeesC. Rhesus
monkeysD. Cynomolgus monkeys
Monkey Behaviors
  • Macaques and vervet monkeys are both arboreal and
  • Macaques and vervet monkeys are social animals
    and live in groups of multiple males and females.

  • Within groups, individuals are ranked according
    to dominance status.
  • Dominance is often determined by the rank of the
    mother, which creates what is called a
    matrilineal dominance hierarchy.

  • Dominant animals benefit from having first access
    to and control over food, higher rates of
    successful breeding, social exchanges such as
    grooming, and control of other desirable
    resources (preferred perches, objects).
  • Young males leave the group and form bachelor
    troops before reaching sexual maturity, while the
    females stay with their family group, often for

Most of their communication is done through
facial signals and vocalizations. There are
several types of facial signals for communication.
Threatening Behaviors
  • Threat displays
  • Open mouth threat mouth opens and forms the
    shape of an O
  • Threat yawn tilting head back while opening
    mouth wide, exposing the teeth

Threatening Behaviors
  • Other Threatening Displays

A direct stareto Old World monkeys, such as
macaques and vervets, direct eye contact is a
sign of aggression
Shaking an object in the environment, such as the
cage door
Charging with the intent to fight
Raising eyebrows quickly and repeatedly
Piloerection hair stands on end
A jerky head-bob
Slapping the ground
Flapping the ears
Friendly/Submissive Behaviors
  • Grooming not only reduces fur parasite load, but
    its also important for forming and maintaining
    social bonds.
  • Studies have shown that a monkeys heart rate is
    significantly lower when being groomed by another
    than when self-grooming or while displaying any
    other behaviors.

Friendly/Submissive Behaviors
  • Embracing
  • Sitting in close proximity
  • Lip Smacking bringing the lips together
    repeatedly and rapidly without showing the teeth,
    making a slight smacking sound

Friendly/Submissive Behaviors
  • Coo calls can be used as food calls (made upon
    discovery of a low quality food) or used to make
    auditory contact with group members.
  • Food sharing has often been used as an indicator
    of a socially compatible pair of monkeys.

Friendly/Submissive Behaviors
  • Fear grimacing pulling back the lips to reveal
    the teeth while the mouth is closed
  • Resembles a human smile
  • Indicates fear, submission, and no intent to

Auditory Communication
  • Monkeys also rely on vocalizations to communicate
    with other monkeys.
  • Vocalizations can be used to contact members of
    the group, alert others to a predator, beg for
    food, and convey emotions (aggression, fear,
  • Vervet monkeys have evolved specific alarm call
    vocalizations to alert their group to the
    presence of different predators. Examples
  • leopard alarm call
  • snake alarm call
  • eagle alarm call
  • Vervet monkeys recognize the different alarm
    calls and will respond accordingly after hearing
    them. For example, if the snake alarm call is
    given, Vervets have been observed looking down in
    the grass to detect the predator.

  • Please click on the links to listen to samples
    and to view videos
  • Samples of different Rhesus vocalizations
  • http//www.wjh.harvard.edu/7Emnkylab/media/rhesu
  • Samples of different Vervet vocalizations
  • http//www.wjh.harvard.edu/7Emnkylab/media/verve

Which of the following is NOT a threatening
A. StaringB. YawningC. Lip smackingD. Piloerect
Human-Monkey Interactions
Interactions with Laboratory Primates
Laboratory primates are not pets. They are wild
animals and should be respected.
Because eye contact is interpreted by monkeys as
a sign of aggression, avoid staring directly into
a monkeys face.
Respect the physical space of monkeys by not
putting your hands into their caging or standing
too close to their caging.
Like humans, monkeys have comfort zones for
proximity to others.
Unsolicited touching or attempts at petting may
be interpreted as aggression and the monkey may
respond aggressively in return.
Interactions with Laboratory Primates
If a monkey is acting fearfully or aggressively
towards a human by displaying threats,
vocalizations, or making physical contact, the
proper way to respond is to avert your gaze, step
out of reach, and IGNORE the undesirable
If your job requires working closely with a
monkey who is acting aggressively, ask for help
from your supervisor.
It is NEVER acceptable to attempt to punish a
monkeys inappropriate behavior by staring,
returning threats, becoming physical, or using
other measures of punishment such as the squeeze
bar or water hose.
Any overt aggression or punishment will be
subject to disciplinary action.
Interactions with Laboratory Primates
If you ever witness inappropriate treatment of a
monkey or questionable research procedures 1.
Report it to your supervisor immediately. OR 2.
Make an anonymous report to the Animal Care and
Concern Hotline at 716-5899. OR 3. Make an
anonymous report to the Research Concern Hotline
at 716-0338.
The best way to respond to a monkey who is acting
aggressively is to
A. Stare them downB. Yell at them and slap the
cageC. Ignore the behavior and take a
time-outD. Distract them with treats
Environmental Enrichment
Environmental Enrichment
Question What is Environmental Enrichment?
Environmental Enrichment is defined as changes
made to the environment and husbandry practices
that provide the opportunity for choice and the
expression of species-typical behavior.
Question Why is Environmental Enrichment
Congress responded to public concern for animals
used in research by passing the Animal Welfare
Act of 1966 and 1978. When the U.S. Department
of Agriculture (USDA) adopted the act as
regulations in 1991, it required that dealers,
exhibitors, and research facilities must develop,
document, and follow an appropriate plan for
environmental enhancement adequate to promote the
psychological well-being of nonhuman primates.
Assessing Psychological Well-Being
  • To assess psychological well-being, we need to
    address the following criteria
  • The animals ability to cope with day-to-day
    changes in its social and physical environment
  • The animals ability to engage in beneficial
    species-typical activities
  • The absence of maladaptive behaviors that result
    in self-injury or negative consequences
  • The presence of a balanced temperament (balance
    of aggression and passivity) and absence of
    chronic signs of distress (distress
    vocalizations, depressed postures, labored
    breathing, excessive cardiac response, lack of
    appetite, abnormal hormone concentrations)

Environmental Enrichment Plan
  • The Wake Forest University Plan for Nonhuman
    Primate Environmental Enrichment seeks to
    facilitate psychological well-being by
    implementing five major types of enrichment
  • Structural enrichment
  • Food enrichment
  • Sensory enrichment
  • Object enrichment
  • Social enrichment

Structural Enrichment
  • Housing design should allow the expression of
    species-typical postures and movement.
  • Cage furnishings such as perches, climbing
    structures, shelves, barrels, and tunnels have
    been used to allow monkeys to assume a variety of
    movements and postures, have access to vertical
    space, and to have some form of privacy when
    socially housed.
  • Monkeys prefer to sit and sleep on perches and
    will seek out the highest point in the
    environment when threatened.
  • All cages at WFU are required to be equipped with

Examples follow . . .
Structural Enrichment
Milk crates and surgical tubing serve as swings,
perches, and food puzzles.
Various swings made from fire hose and PVC
tubing the barrel serves as a swing, shelter,
and hiding place.
Structural Enrichment
Wooden cable spools offer shelter, a hiding
place, and area for climbing monkeys also enjoy
gnawing wood.
WFUSM image
Structural Enrichment
  • To reduce and manage social conflict, each cage
    must be equipped so that monkeys can escape the
    aggressive displays of others. In a social
    setting, barrels make very good hiding places.
  • Monkeys who are housed individually in cages
    must also have a way to avoid eye contact with
    other monkeys housed in the same room.

Visual barriers offer individually housed
monkeys the option of privacy. Visual barriers
attach to the front of the cage, where the monkey
can choose to sit behind it.
Food Enrichment
  • Monkeys in the wild typically spend about 70 of
    their time foraging for food.
  • Offering primates the opportunity to engage in
    this behavior is one of the simplest and most
    important tools in ensuring psychological
    well-being and preventing abnormal behaviors.
  • In the research setting, our goal is to increase
    manipulation and exploration, the time required
    to procure food items, and the time required to
    ingest food items.
  • There are many commercial devices designed to
    enable foraging behavior.

Examples follow . . .
Food Enrichment
  • Some examples of foraging devices that can be
    loaded with food

Challenger ball
Kong toy
Primate Choo
PVC food puzzle
Holee Molee ball
Foraging turf board
Food Enrichment
  • In addition to devices, natural food itemscan
    provide the opportunity for foraging.
  • Examples
  • corn on the cob
  • bird seed
  • food and flavored liquids frozen in ice cube
  • pomegranate
  • whole coconut

Food Enrichment
  • Like human primates, monkeys enjoy a wide variety
    of foods and novel treats. There are several
    online nonhuman primate recipe resources, such as
    The Cattarhine Café Cookbook, created by
    Washington National Primate Research Center.

This recipe collection can be found online at
In the wild, monkeys spend a majority of their
time engaged in which behavior
A. ReproductionB. Fighting C. GroomingD. Foragi
ng for food
Sensory Enrichment
  • In some cases, monkeys may participate in daily
    experimental sessions. This may involve
    manipulating joysticks, response levers, or
    making operant responses to obtain food pellets.
    After initial training, it is clear that such
    rewarded responses contribute to psychological
  • Other types of sensory enrichment include
  • Music and television
  • Training through positive reinforcement
  • Novel scents the ARP provides novel scent
    enrichment with liquid potpourri one day each
  • Swimming

Sensory Enrichment
  • Macaques are skillful swimmers. Here are pictures
    of macaques enjoying a swimming pool.

Plastic Sand Box
Livestock Water Tank
Object Enrichment
  • Object enrichment includes durable, manipulable
    objects such as mirrors, plastic balls,
    cone-shaped rubber toys, and gnawing sticks that
    are safe to be used by monkeys.
  • Objects should be rotated at least every two
    weeks to maintain novelty and should be
    replaced when worn or damaged.

Social Enrichment
Monkeys are social animals. As such, living
with an animate, responsive mate is the best form
of environmental enrichment.
Group and pair housing reduces boredom and
anxiety and facilitates expression of a wider
range of species-typical behaviors.
Individually housed monkeys should be provided
increased environmental enrichment, and visual,
auditory, and olfactory contact with other
monkeys via close caging, a mesh cage divider, or
grooming panel.
Monkeys who are socially housed develop better
coping skills and are less likely to display
abnormal and self-injurious behaviors.
Special Cases
While monkeys generally adapt well to living in
captivity, some monkeys develop abnormal and
sometimes self-injurious behaviors.
  • Behaviors that may be considered abnormal are
  • repetitive locomotion
  • withdrawn or depressed behavior
  • self-directed biting or physical aggression
  • hair pulling or excessive grooming of self or
  • coprophagy excessive ingestion of feces
  • excessive aggression

Documenting Abnormal Behavior
Step 2 The veterinarian will conduct a
physical exam and if there are no biological
bases for the behavior of concern, the EEC will
conduct an initial assessment in concert with the
enrichment contact person designated in the
Nonhuman Primate Environmental SOP protocol.
Step 1 Any abnormal or detrimental behaviors
exhibited by a monkey should be recorded on a
daily log sheet and reported first to a
veterinary staff member and then to the
Environmental Enrichment Coordinator (EEC) within
the ARP.
Step 4 As determined by the EEC, the contact
person, and/or the consulted parties, an
enrichment regimen may be individually prescribed
and carried out by the investigators lab. The
EEC and contact person will monitor the success
or failure of the enrichment strategy and take
part in any necessary adjustments to that
Step 3 After the assessment, the EEC will
determine whether the behaviors of concern
require an additional evaluation by a veterinary
staff member or by a behavioral primatologist and
will coordinate those evaluations.
Which of the following behaviors is considered
A. Depressed behaviorB. Self-directed aggression
C. Hair pulling or overgroomingD. All of the
Monkeys are social animals. The best form of
environmental enrichment is
A. Food enrichmentB. Structural enrichment
C. Object enrichmentD. Social enrichment
Any observations of abnormal behaviors should be
reported to
A. Your supervisorB. A veterinary staff member
C. The Environmental Enrichment Coordinator
(EEC)D. All of the above
Contact Information
Important Contact Information Environmental
Enrichment Coordinator (EEC) 716-1506 ARP-Bowman
Gray Campus 713-7394 ARP-Friedberg
Campus 716-1620 ARP-Downtown
Campus 713-1171
Test code to follow . . .
  • Bayne, K. 2005. Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates
    Macaques, NIH Pub No. 05-5744. Department of
    Health and Human Services.
  • Boccia ML, Reite M, Laudenslager ML 1989. On the
    physiology of grooming in a pigtail macaque.
    Physiology and Behavior 45, 667-670.
  • National Research Council. 1998. The
    Psychological Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates.
    Washington, DC National Academy Press.
  • National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the
    Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington,
    DC National Academy Press.

Test code to follow . . .
  • http//pin.primate.wisc.edu/ (Primate Info Net
    Website for information and publications
    regarding primates and enrichment)
  • http//www.snprc.org/macaque/faq/macaquefaq.html
    (Website for information on macaques)
  • http//www.wjh.harvard.edu/7Emnkylab/media/rhesus
    calls.html (Website for samples of different
    rhesus vocalizations)
  • http//www.wjh.harvard.edu/7Emnkylab/media/vervet
    calls.html (Website for samples of different
    Vervet vocalizations)
  • http//www.wanprc.org/wanprc/cookbook-forExternal.
    pdf (The Catarrhine Cafe Cookbook)

Test code to follow . . .
To receive credit
  • To receive credit for this course, you must pass
    the online test. You will need to retain the
    following number in order to access the test
  • The test can be accessed by closing this
    PowerPoint presentation and clicking on Take
    Course Test within the HR SelfService menu,
    Environmental Health Safety Courses and Tests.

Thank you for your time!
Passing grade 80
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