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Academically Coherent


... cognitive lesson planning/preparation, and knowledge of ... Write down one key idea/quote that resonates most with you on the second blank Tea Party card. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Academically Coherent

Santa Barbara County Education Office
Academically Coherent Reading Programs
February 28, 2007
Small Group Task
What is Academic Coherence?
With those at your table group, discuss and
record indicators of academic coherence within a
district and/or school. Write one idea per
post-it and attach it to the chart paper at your
table. Be prepared to share your responses.
Agreed Assumptions
Agreed Assumptions address issues of belief,
process, structure, and outcomes, all of which
lead to high levels of full implementation, and
in turn to high levels of student achievement.
Agreed Assumptions
  • Teaching and the quality of instruction is the
    highest predictor of student learning.
  • Effective teaching is the result of intensive
    teacher training/professional development,
    cognitive lesson planning/preparation, and
    knowledge of the students being instructed.
  • Effective teaching must take place at every
    school, at every grade level, in every classroom,
    everyday, all year long.
  • The leadership of an educational system has the
    responsibility to create a coherent context for
    effective teaching and learning

Reading First
  • Every Reading First district and site signs
    Assurances indicating their commitment to the
    implementation of the Reading/Language Arts
    program as specified in the grant.
  • Districts hire a reading coaches for each site
    who is highly trained and is given specific
    duties to support reading program implementation.
  • Site principals, coaches, classroom teachers, and
    support staff are expected to be involved in
    on-going professional development.
  • All staff are working to align curriculum,
    instruction, assessment, professional
    development, resources, grade level teams, etc.

Presentation Outcomes
By the end of todays session, participants will
  • Study the key elements to be put in place at the
    district and school site to create a context for
    improving and sustaining student achievement
  • Understand the usefulness of an academic pacing
    calendar and how to create district-wide
    Reading-Language Arts structures for curriculum
    and assessment
  • Identify the importance of selecting and using
    various assessment tools at critical points
    throughout the school year
  • Implement an ongoing data analysis plan as a
    means to improve program implementation and
    address the instructional needs of all students
  • Support grade levels in creating relevant
    short-term action plans which address
    professional development and student achievement
  • Utilize tools and further investigate resources
    to support academic coherence back at the
    district and school site.

Outcomes Evaluation
Presentation Agenda
The questions we will answer during our
activities and discussion
  • What is academic coherence?
  • What are the elements of improving and sustaining
    student achievement?
  • What are the first steps to be taken when
    aligning curriculum and assessment?
  • How is system-wide data analysis established and
  • How might formative assessment data be used in
    actionable ways?
  • What is the level of positive support and needed
    improvements in my district or site?

Preparation Checklist
  • Teachers Edition
  • HMR Grade 3, Theme 3
  • OCR Level 3, Unit 3
  • Program Assessment Materials for Grade Three
  • 2006-2007 District and Site
  • Calendars

Group Agreements
  • Participate fully and honestly
  • Listen to understand
  • Share airtime
  • Limit side conversations
  • Think BIG and Think DUAL!

Partner Discussion
Looking over the Agreed Assumptions, the
Presentation Outcomes and the Presentation
Agenda, what do you especially hope to gain as a
result of your time spent in this training?
Framework Quote
The ultimate goal of language arts programs in
California is to ensure access to high-quality
curriculum and instruction for all students in
order to meet or exceed the states
English-language arts content standards. Californ
ia Reading/Language Arts Framework Chapter 7 ,
p. 225
The Matthew Effect
Children do not catch-up
  • Children who fall behind in first grade reading
    have a one in eight chance of ever catching up to
    grade level.
  • Reading failure has far-reaching consequences.

Connie Juel, 1994
Those who are the best readers in high school,
who read more and enjoy reading, tend to be those
who learned to read well in first grade. -
Biemiller, 1977
Consider This
Student failure is unnecessary. All but 2 to 5
percent of public schools students can learn to
read well.
Consider This
- Foorman, Francis, Shaywitz, et al. 1997
Video Thriving on Excellence
  • 3 districts highlighted as case studies for their
    efforts in reading instruction
  • Districts followed similar paths toward academic
    coherence and student achievement (pre-adopted
    program in CA)
  • These districts are a part of the converging
    evidence on effective system-wide practices
  • Purpose is to identify important elements of
    leadership and implementation

Small Group Discussion
What did you see and hear in the video that
supports what you know about effective
implementation of a coherent reading
program? What is currently in place at your
school site and what is missing or in need of
stronger implementation?
The Chicago Study
  • What was done to bring academic coherence to the
  • How did this affect teachers and students?
  • Why was it so critical?
  • What does it mean for other districts and
  • What type of culture was created?

Individual Task
Chicago Study
Read pp. 9-11 to highlight the common problems
with program improvement efforts. Write down one
key idea/quote that resonates most with you on
the first blank Tea Party card. Then, read pp.
13-17 to highlight the purpose and process of
creating academic program coherence within a
school system. Write down one key idea/quote
that resonates most with you on the second blank
Tea Party card.
Try to move around the room to get to as many
people as possible. Meet and share with people
who are not sitting in your table group.
Whole Group Task
Walk around the room with your Academic
Coherence Tea Party Cards to
  • Meet Greet
  • Read Listen
  • Thank Move

Small Group Discussion
Chicago Study
After having read these portions of the article,
discuss the overlying implications for your
Fidelity of Implementation
Actual quote from a first grade teacher You
know we just adopted (Houghton Mifflin) this
year. We had several days of great training. I
really like the language component of the program
and use it pretty faithfully, but I really like
the reading program I used last year, so I am
still using that for reading. We are supposed to
spend two and a half hours on language arts, but
I dont really have time so we usually spend an
hour and a half.
Small Group Task
Locate Marks Story in your handouts. Taking
turns around the group, read the letter from one
teacher to a district administrator regarding her
most vulnerable student and what their
educational system was providing to him.
Together, discuss the implications of this letter.
6 Key Elements to Improve Student Achievement
  • Coordinated Program
  • Assessment System
  • Teacher Collaboration
  • Professional Development
  • Site Leadership
  • District Support and Leadership

Small Group Task
6 Key Elements CRITERIA
Divide the 6 elements among the members of your
table group. Each person will read the
implementation criteria for that element, then
develop 3 Sentence Summary of that element to
share with the group.
Reading Dimensions
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Phonics
  • Fluency
  • Vocabulary
  • Comprehension

Stages of Reading Development
  • Stage 0 - Prereading
  • Stage 1 - Initial Reading or Decoding
  • Stage 2 - Confirmation, Fluency, Ungluing
    from Print
  • Stage 3 - Reading for Learning the New
  • Stage 4 - Multiple Viewpoints
  • Stage 5 - Construction and Reconstruction

Chall, 1983, 1996
Distinctive Educational Practices
- Chall, 2000
Direct Instruction
  • A pattern of teaching that consists of the
    teachers explaining a new concept or skill to a
    large group of students, having them test their
    understanding by practicing under teacher
    direction (that is, controlled practice), and
    encouraging them to continue to practice under
    teacher guidance (guided practice).
  • Joyce, Bruce, Weil (2000)
  • Models of Teaching

Direct Instruction
  • It explicitly assists the learner through a
    specific design that focuses on getting initial
    learning into short term memory
  • Explicit instruction must be followed by active
    and distributed practice of the new learning so
    that there is transfer of the new learning into
    the long term memory
  • The learner must then connect the learning in
    greater and greater chunks until the neural path
    is enriched with many connections and patterns

Consider This
  • A major goal of direct instruction is the
    maximization of student learning time
  • Joyce, Bruce, Weil (2000)
  • Models of Teaching
  • Academic Learning Time academically oriented
    learning environment in which students are
    actively engaged (on task) during instruction and
    are experiencing a high rate of success (80 or

Minimum Daily Time Requirements for
Reading-Language Arts Instruction
  • Kindergarten 60 minutes (1 hour)
  • Grades 1-3 150 minutes (2.5 hours)
  • Grades 4-6 120 minutes (2 hours)

Note These times have been established and are
documented in the California State
Reading-Language Arts Framework as minimum, daily
amounts for a student who is functioning at
benchmark/grade level
Small Group Task
Locate the Suggested Component Pacing Documents
for Grades K-6 of HMR/OCR. Look over each
resource document for grades K, 1, 2, 3, and 4-6
for the suggested time it should take to teach
each component and section of the program during
a given week.
Academic Pacing Calendar
The purpose of a pacing schedule is to ensure
that teachers in all classrooms, grade levels,
and schools know when and in what sequence, each
lesson is taught. This ensures that all students
receive instruction in the same content areas.
Academic Pacing Calendar
If the pace of the instruction is slowed, then
students receive fewer opportunities to practice
and master a given standard. Less content
translates to less frequent exposure which is
related to depressed achievement.
Individual Task
Read the document in your packet titled, Pacing
Schedule Defined. Read the rationale and other
key points related to the use of a pacing
schedule, including the questions and bullets.
Identify which ideas you would want the teachers
at your site to consider in order to support the
academic coherence at your site
Research Says
  • Research indicates that, although some children
    will learn to read in spite of incidental
    teaching, others never learn unless they are
    taught in an organized, systematic, efficient way
    by a knowledgeable teacher using a well-designed
    instructional approach.
  • L. Moats (1999)Teaching Reading is Rocket Science

High-Risk Students
  • And, while many students from high-risk
    environments come to school less prepared for
    literacy than their more advantaged peers, their
    risk of reading difficulties could still be
    prevented and ameliorated by literacy instruction
    that includes a range of research-based
    components and practices. But, as the statistics
    testify, this type of instruction clearly has not
    made its way into every classroom.
  • L. Moats (1999)Teaching Reading is Rocket

Small Group Task
Using your Teachers Edition (T.E.), Theme/Unit
3, Grade/Level 3 work with your table to answer
the questions on the Scavenger Hunt page.
Focus your attention on the level of effort
needed to teach the program with fidelity and
coherence. Hint Divide the questions among the
table group.
Good teaching is the single most powerful tool in
the prevention of reading difficulties.
Consider This
- Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young
Content and Rationale of the Skills Assessments
Skills Assessments are designed to help
grade-level teams and classroom teachers
determine how effective their delivery of
instruction is in meeting expected student
learning goals.
Skills Assessments
  • They provide teachers with data related to the
    academic progress of the class.
  • This information is then used to guide and plan
    instruction for the next theme.
  • Subtests are based upon the content addressed in
    each theme/unit and Californias English-Language
    Arts Content Standards.
  • Skills Assessments are not to be used as an
    indicator of individual achievement.
  • They are tools to help educators focus on the
    percentage of students meeting criteria for each

Small Group Task
Study the sample assessments you brought with you
today. How do they compare to the SCOE
assessments? How might you use these assessments
in your district/site?
Successful Diagnostic TeachingTo plan
appropriate prevention/intervention strategies
for helping students who are experiencing
learning difficulties, teachers should consider
the degree of severity according to these major
  • Advanced
  • Benchmark
  • Strategic
  • Intensive

Kameenui/Simmons, 1998
  • Not at risk academically
  • Measures indicate high proficiencies
  • Performance seems to be above the grade level
  • Need more enrichment/ challenging activities

  • Performance seems to be on target
  • Not at risk of reading delay
  • Based on current performance
  • Working at grade level targets

  • Need systematic and strategic intervention and
  • Increased risk factors and low performance
  • Not as low as those in intensive group
  • Below grade level targets

  • Seriously at risk
  • Extremely low performance on multiple measures
  • Greater the number of low measures, the greater
    the risk
  • Far below grade level targets

An Expected Distribution
Small Group Discussion
Think about each grade level or even grade
span(s). What assessments or other measures are
you currently using or could you use to help
determine when a student falls into a specific
instructional group? How is instruction
differentiated for students who are in each of
these groups? What is done differently?
Data Analysis Overview
All coherent academic programs include a sound
assessment system however an assessment system
is only as strong as the collaborative analysis
given to the data. The data analysis is only as
significant as the scrutiny taken to
strategically set goals for student progress.
The grade level and classroom student goals are
only as effective as the consistent actions taken
to reach those outcomes.
Small Group Discussion
Think about every teacher at every grade level at
your school site. Of all of the information and
resources we have studied this morning, which do
your teachers need to know, understand, and apply
to their daily classroom practice so that ALL
students are given quality access to mastering
grade level content?
Find Someone Who...
Consider This
Our goals can only be reached through a vehicle
of a plan, in which we must fervently believe,
and upon which we must vigorously act. There is
no other route to success. - Stephen A. Brennan
Fluency Data Sample
  • RF Third Grade Data on Grade level Fluency
    passage (other subtests included)
  • 116 students in 6 Classrooms
  • Given after teaching of Unit/Theme 1
  • Information on English Learners, including CELDT
  • Benchmark score is 79 wcpm
  • One classroom set of data
  • 2 passages included per student

Small Group Task Look over pages of the
assessment packet together. Spend about five
minutes getting familiar with the grade level
data and trends. Discuss at your table the ways
you might use these data at your site.
What we give attention to, gets done!
Average Fluency Grade Level Trajectory
  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Ambitious
  • Realistic
  • Time specific

Small Group Task
Stand up around your table with those from your
group. Take turns going around the table
expressing your understanding of what Academic
Coherence IS and IS NOT. Listen to each other as
you share around! Go back and forthAcademic
Coherence isAcademic Coherence is notAcademic
Coherence isAcademic Coherence is notuntil you
get around the table at least twice.
Grade Level Collaboration
Some of the most important forms of professional
learning and problem solving occur in group
settings within schools and school districts.
Organized groups provide the social interaction
that often deepens learning and the interpersonal
support and synergy necessary for creatively
solving the complex problems of teaching and
learning. - From Standards
for Staff Development, 2001
Small Group Discussion
Why is knowing the T.E. and the parts of the
adopted program so important for anyone in a site
leadership position? How will you use this
information from the scavenger hunt to do your
work back at the school site?
Consistency in Program Implementation
This qualitative data from a site or grade level
can be used to determine next steps in PD!
What to look for
  • Based on common findings
  • Areas of Strength/Asset
  • Areas of Concern/Need
  • Proposed Next Steps

Individual Task
6 Key Elements Rubric
Complete the rubric with specific implementation
criteria for these key elements. Read the
criteria carefully and be honest in your
Individual Task
Using the rubric that you just filled out,
provided for each of the key elements, identify
the Positive Evidence of your program
implementation at this time and also identify the
Needed Support. Be prepared to share your
findings with your table group.
Small Group Discussion
Take turns sharing and comparing the places of
Positive Support and the places of Needed
Improvement at your site. Begin to identify
which demand immediate attention and which will
be addressed over time. What can be done back at
the school site to initiate important change?
  • You cannot lead or teach what you do not know
  • You will not lead or teach what you do not
  • You cannot inspire that in which you do not

The Culture Pyramid
- D. DeMille, 2004