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Background on Darfur


Sudan's ruling party is the National Islamic Front, an Islamist dictatorship led ... Sudan Liberation Army/Movement (SLA/M) and the Justice and Equality Movement ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Background on Darfur

Background on Darfur
(No Transcript)
Climate Problem
  • The drought in the Darfur area continues to
    worsen, along with the effects of
  • As a result, nomadic Arab tribes and African
    farming communities constantly fight with each
    other for fertile land.

Government - Omar al-Bashir
  • Sudans ruling party is the National Islamic
    Front, an Islamist dictatorship led by General
    Omar Al-Bashir.

Government - Omar al-Bashir
  • The policies of the regime against native African
    villagers have had racial and ethnic overtones
    and involved struggles over resources, especially
    land (control of oil).
  • Omar al-Bashir wants to spread Sharia (Islamic
    law) across Sudan.
  • He wants to ethnically cleanse the country by
    eliminating groups of people from different
    religious and cultural backgrounds such as the
    Fur, Masalit, and Zaghawa (African Muslim groups
    of people).

Start of the Political Problem
  • Sudan Liberation Army/Movement (SLA/M) and the
    Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) were
    comprised of African Muslim people.
  • These parties wanted an end to economic
    marginalization and sought to share power within
    Arab-ruled Sudan.
  • The government has responded to this armed and
    political threat by targeting the civilian

  • During the reign of Bashir, people of Darfur have
    been refused representation and deprived of
    essential resources for survival (land, food…),

Due to abuse from the government, people in
Darfur rebelled by attacking government
installations. President Al-Bashir fought again
st these rebels by giving government support and
money to Islamic militias known as the
Janjaweed. The Janjaweed are an alternate arm
y for the president.
  • People who escape the destruction of villages by
    the government go to refugee camps located in
    Darfur and Chad (neighboring country)
  • The refugee camps do not have adequate food,
    shelter, sanitation, and health services. As a
    result, many people are at risk of starvation and

  • Civilians are suffering because the government
    restricts international humanitarian access.
  • Men and women are constantly at risk of rape and
    murder when they set out to look for food or
    water. The chances for survival become even
    slimmer than before.

Involvement of the UN
  • July 30, 2004 The UN Security Council formed
    Resolution 1556 demanding that the Sudanese
    Government disarm the Janjaweed.
  • August 31, 2006 The UN Security Council formed
    Resolution 1706 which authorized a peacekeeping
    force of 17,300 to enter Darfur.
  • Sudanese president Al-Bashir claims that the UN
    peacekeeping forces are part of a plan to spread
    colonialism. He stated that he did not …want
    Sudan to turn into another Iraq."

African Union
  • In response to violence against civilians in
    Darfur, the African Union sent out 7,000
    peacekeepers from Rwanda.
  • The AU lacks adequate numbers of personnel and
    has limited logistical capabilities.
  • The AU mission of maintaining peace on land
    expired on December 31, 2006 but after working
    together with the UN, both groups agreed on
    extending their stay in Darfur.

Current Situation
  • UN and AU forces have collaborated to fight
    against the Janjaweed and government sponsored
  • The group is known as UNAMID.
  • UNAMID currently does not have enough troops and
    supplies to effectively protect Sudanese

Current Situation
  • As of now, there are approx. 9000 soldiers in
    Darfur. UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon says
    the full deployment of 26,000 is required for
    effective peacekeeping.
  • UNAMID also needs 24 helicopters (of those, 6
    attack helicopters) for security and transport.
    Efforts to fight against government sponsored
    soldiers are weakening.

  • Sudanese government is selling its oil to
    countries around the world for money. This money
    is used to fund the ongoing genocide.
  • One of the countries that purchases a lot of oil
    from Sudan is China…

  • As Chinas economy continues to grow, so do its
    demands for natural energy resources.
  • China gets oil and supplies tanks, fighter
    planes, bombers, helicopters, machine guns and
    rocket-propelled grenades to Sudan.

Pipelines and Oil Fields
  • In the United Nations Security Council, China is
    Sudans strongest ally.
  • The UN council tried passing resolutions to
    pressure the Arab dominated government to protect
    African tribes and sanction oil sales.
  • China vetoed these resolutions and opposed all
    threats of oil sanctions

2008 Beijing Olympics
  • Beijing is a key city that invested in oil
    infrastructure. They are partially funding the
    internal war in Darfur.
  • As a result, human rights activists are upset
    that the Olympics are being held in Beijing.
  • The activists have called on countries to boycott
    the Olympics.

Hollywood Help
  • Mia Farrow and Steven Spielberg have worked
    together to try to convince Chinese officials
    that the Darfur crisis needs to be resolved.
  • Mia Farrow labeled the 2008 Beijing Olympics as
    the Genocide Olympics and has highly publicized
    her dissent through the media.

Hollywood Help
  • Steven Spielberg sent a letter to China President
    Hu Jintao condemning the genocide.
  • Soon after, China dispatched Foreign Minister
    Zhai Jun to witness firsthand the deplorable
    condition Darfur was in.
  • What years of diplomacy tried to achieve, the
    will of ordinary people made a difference

Zhai Jun
  • Zhai Jun soon encouraged the Sudanese Government
    to accept UN Peacekeeping Forces.
  • Mr. Jun also toured a few refugee camps to get an
    idea of what impoverished life was like.

  • Human Rights Watch
  • Washington Post
  • New York Times
  • BBC News
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Peoples
    Republic of China