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Introduction to the HOLOCAUST

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Title: Introduction to the HOLOCAUST


1
Introduction to the HOLOCAUST
2
What is the Holocaust?
  • Hitler and the Nazi Party gained power in Germany
    in 1933 and lost power in 1945 -- only 12 years.
  • By the end of the Hitler regime, the world had
    been plunged into a global world war, Europe was
    in shambles and nearly 30 million died.
  • Among the dead were over 6 million Jews -- men,
    women and children --who were systematically and
    efficiently slaughtered for no other reason than
    that they were Jews.
  • Additionally, an estimated 5.5 million non-Jews
    were systematically murdered.

This immense loss of life became know as THE
HOLOCAUST
3
Time Line
1918 - 1933
1938 - 1941
Rise of the Nazis Party following WWI
1941 - 1942
Jews were confined to Ghettos as per Hilters
plan.
1942 - 1944
Concentration camps were the final step in
Hitlers plan.
1944 - 1945
People resisted by any means possible.
Throughout the Holocaust, victims received help
from rescuers.
4
Vocabulary
  • Anti-Semitism Opposition to and discrimination
    against Jews.
  • Treaty of Versailles Germany and the Allies
    signed a peace treaty at the end of World War I.
  • Nuremberg Laws The Nuremberg Laws were announced
    by Hitler at the Nuremberg Party conference,
    defining 'Jew' and systematizing and regulating
    discrimination and persecution.

5
Nazi party holds mass meeting in Buckeberg in
1934. Other Nazi officials walk behind Hitler.
6
Time Line
1918 - 1933
1938 - 1941
Rise of the Nazis Party following WWI
1941 - 1942
Jews were confined to Ghettos as per Hilters
plan.
1942 - 1944
Concentration camps were the final step in
Hitlers plan.
1944 - 1945
People resisted by any means possible.
Throughout the Holocaust, victims received help
from rescuers.
7
Vocabulary
  • Ghettos usually established in the poor
    sections of a city, where most of the Jews from
    the city and surrounding areas were subsequently
    forced to reside. Often surrounded by barbed wire
    or walls.
  • Warsaw ghetto Established in November 1940, it
    was surrounded by wall and contained nearly
    500,000 Jews. About 45,000 Jews died there in
    1941 alone, as a result of overcrowding, hard
    labor, lack of sanitation, insufficient food,
    starvation, and disease.

8
Warsaw ghetto boundary wall on Elektoralna
Street.
9
Time Line
1918 - 1933
1938 - 1941
Rise of the Nazis Party following WWI
1941 - 1942
Jews were confined to Ghettos as per Hilters
plan.
1942 - 1944
Death camps were the final step in Hitlers
plan.
1944 - 1945
People resisted by any means possible.
Throughout the Holocaust, victims received help
from rescuers.
10
Vocabulary
  • Concentration Camp Concentration camps were
    prisons used without regard to accepted norms of
    arrest and detention.
  • Death Camp Nazi extermination centers where Jews
    and other victims were brought to be killed as
    part of Hitler's Final Solution
  • Labor Camp Those who did not go to their
    immediate death, went to "slow death" - the slave
    labor camps. Usually it was a quarry. But
    sometimes it was working for the German war
    effort.
  • Genocide The deliberate and systematic
    destruction of a racial, political, cultural, or
    religious group

11
Vocabulary
  • Gas chamber A sealed room in which numerous
    victims could be killed all at once by inhaling
    poison gas.  Although Auschwitz used Zyklon B
    gas, most camps used carbon monoxide.
  • Crematorium The ovens and furnaces where dead
    bodies of prisoners were consumed.

12
The woman with the infant is joining those being
sent to the gas chamber.

13
Time Line
1918 - 1933
1938 - 1941
Rise of the Nazis Party following WWI
1941 - 1942
Jews were confined to Ghettos as per Hilters
plan.
1942 - 1944
Concentration camps were the final step in
Hitlers plan.
1944 - 1945
People resisted by any means possible.
Throughout the Holocaust, victims received help
from rescuers.
14
Vocabulary
  • Allies During World War II, the group of nations
    including the United States, Britain, the Soviet
    Union, and the Free French, who joined in the war
    against Germany and other Axis countries.
  • Axis Germany, Japan, Italy
  • Gestapo Secret State Police. Prior to the
    outbreak of war, the Gestapo used brutal methods
    to investigate and suppress resistance to Nazi
    rule within Germany.

15
An SS soldier stands among ruins in the Warsaw
ghetto during the suppression of the uprising.
16
Time Line
1918 - 1933
1938 - 1941
Rise of the Nazis Party following WWI
1941 - 1942
Jews were confined to Ghettos as per Hilters
plan.
1942 - 1944
Concentration camps were the final step in
Hitlers plan.
1944 - 1945
People resisted by any means possible.
Throughout the Holocaust, victims received help
from rescuers.
17
Vocabulary
  • Righteous Gentiles Non-Jewish people who, during
    the Holocaust, risked their lives to save Jewish
    people from Nazi persecution
  • Underground Organized group acting in secrecy to
    oppose government, or, during war, to resist
    occupying enemy forces.

18
Inmates waving a home-made American flag greet
U.S. Seventh Army troops upon their arrival at a
concentration camp.
19
Images
  • Many of the images we will be viewing during our
    Holocaust unit may be disturbing or graphic. I
    expect all of you to act with maturity and
    respect the lives lost during the Holocaust.

20
Starving inmate of Camp Gusen, Austria
21
These are slave laborers in the Buchenwald
concentration camp near Jena many had died from
malnutrition when U.S. troops of the 80th
Division entered the camp.
22
A German girl is overcome as she walks past the
exhumed bodies of some of the 800 slave workers
murdered by SS guards near Namering, Germany, and
laid here so that townspeople may view the work
of their Nazi leaders.
23
Crematoria
24
Children at Auschwitz.
25
Entrance to Auschwitz in 1941. The slogan Arbeit
macht frei over the gate translates as "Work
(shall) make (you) free" (or "work liberates").
26
An American GI and a French resistance member
inspect an oven in a crematorium in one of the
first concentration camps liberated in Germany in
December 1944.
27
Kate Bernath Describes psychology of survival in
Auschwitz
28
  • We were, uh, in the midst of all our troubles we
    were trying to cheer each other up. If one was
    feeling very low, we, we tried to tell them, we,
    we dreamed about things what we were going to do
    when we got liberated. We were all...we never
    thought for a minute, I never thought for a
    minute that I'm really going to die. I, it just
    did not sink in. I mean with all these horrors
    around me I, I always thought that we were
    dreaming of, of things--when I get home I'm going
    to do this and I'm going to do that and I just
    want to see this, this war end and just live for
    the day when we see the Germans defeated. And
    that kept us alive. Never to lose hope. If you
    lost hope, that was the end of it. It was so easy
    in Auschwitz. All you had to do is reach out for
    the barbed wires. They were electrified. We would
    not do them the favor. We said if they want to
    kill us, they'll have to kill us.
    We are not going to die.

29
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