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US History since 1865


Stetson Kennedy, the author of Jim Crow Guide, offered these simple rules that ... Never curse a White person. Never laugh derisively at a White person. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: US History since 1865

US History since 1865
  • Jim Crow, Indians Chinese Americans

Key issues
  • What happened in the South after redemption?
  • How and why was Jim Crow erected in the South?
  • What happened to Native Americans?
  • How did they resist American Western expansion?
  • What was the Chinese Exclusion Act?

Henry Grady (1850-1889) the New South
  • Southerners fought for a wrong cause blacks
    slaves the South slaves to the system slaves
    emancipated, the South should not be shackled
  • nothing to apologize for let Sherman see a new
    city and a new South attempts to diversify the
    economy and the spirit of laissez faire
  • agriculture hampered by sharecropping system

Quotes from Henry Grady (I)
  • The new South is enamored of her new work. Her
    soul is stirred with the breath of a new life.
    The light of a grander day is falling fair on her
    face. She is thrilling, sir, with the
    consciousness of growing power, and prosperity.
    As she stands full-statured and equal among the
    peoples of the earth, breathing the keen air and
    looking out upon an expanding horizon, she
    understands that her emancipation came because in
    the inscrutable wisdom of God her honest purpose
    was crossed and her brave armies were beaten.

Quotes from Henry Grady (II)
  • The old South rested everything on slavery and
    agriculture, unconscious that these could neither
    give nor maintain healthy growth. The new South
    presents a perfect democracy, the oligarchs
    leading into the popular movement--a social
    system compact and closely knitted, less splendid
    on the surface, but stronger at the core--a
    hundred farms for every plantation, fifty homes
    for every palace, and a diversified industry that
    meets the complex needs of this complex age.

Quotes from Henry Grady (III)
  • To liberty and enfranchisement is as far as law
    can carry the negro. The rest must be left to
    conscience and common sense. It should be left to
    those among whom his lot is cast, with whom he is
    indissolubly connected and whose prosperity
    depends upon their possessing his intelligent
    sympathy and confidence. Faith has been kept with
    him in spite of calumnious assertions to the
    contrary, by those who assume to speak for us or
    by frank opponents. Faith will be kept with him
    in the future, if the South holds her reason and

Who what was Jim Crow? (I)
  • The name Jim Crow is often used to describe the
    segregation laws, rules, and customs which arose
    after Reconstruction ended in 1877 and continued
    until the mid-1960s.
  • How did the name become associated with these
    "Black Codes" which took away many of the rights
    which had been granted to Blacks through the
    13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments?

Who what was Jim Crow? (II)
  • "Come listen all you galls and boys, I'm going to
    sing a little song, My name is Jim Crow. Weel
    about and turn about and do jis so, Eb'ry time I
    weel about I jump Jim Crow."
  • These words are from the song, "Jim Crow," as it
    appeared in sheet music written by Thomas
    Dartmouth "Daddy" Rice. Rice, a struggling
    "actor" (he did short solo skits between play
    scenes) at the Park Theater in New York, happened
    upon a Black person singing the above song --
    some accounts say it was an old Black slave who
    walked with difficulty, others say it was a
    ragged Black stable boy. Whether modeled on an
    old man or a young boy we will never know,
    however, it is clear that in 1828 Rice appeared
    on stage as "Jim Crow" -- an exaggerated, highly
    stereotypical Black character.

Who what was Jim Crow? (III)
  • By 1838, the term "Jim Crow" was being used as a
    collective racial epithet for Blacks, not as
    offensive as nigger, but as offensive as coon or
    darkie. Obviously, the popularity of minstrel
    shows aided the spread of Jim Crow as a racial
    slur. This use of the term did not last past a
    half century. By the end of the 19th Century, the
    words Jim Crow were less likely to be used to
    derisively describe Blacks instead, the phrase
    Jim Crow was being used to describe laws and
    customs which oppressed Blacks.
  • The minstrel shows were popular between 1850 and
    1870, but they lost much of their national
    popularity with the coming of motion pictures and
    radios. Unfortunately for Blacks, the minstrel
    shows continued in small towns, and worse,
    caricatured portrayals of Blacks found greater
    expression in motion pictures and radios.

Jim Crow South (I)
Jim Crow South (II)
Jim Crow South (III)
Jim Crow a southern religion
  • Whites were superior to Blacks in all important
    ways, including but not limited to intelligence,
    morality, and civilized behavior
  • sexual relations between Blacks and Whites would
    produce a mongrel race which would destroy
  • treating Blacks as equals would encourage
    interracial sexual unions any activity which
    suggested social equality encouraged interracial
    sexual relations
  • if necessary, violence must be used to keep
    Blacks at the bottom of the racial hierarchy.

Jim Crow etiquette (I)
  • A Black male could not offer his hand (to shake
    hands) with a White male because it implied being
    socially equal. Obviously, a Black male could not
    offer his hand or any other part of his body to a
    White woman, because he risked being accused of
  • Blacks and Whites were not supposed to eat
    together. If they did eat together, Whites were
    to be served first, and some sort of partition
    was to be placed between them.
  • Under no circumstance was a Black male to offer
    to light the cigarette of a White female -- that
    gesture implied intimacy.

Jim Crow etiquette (II)
  • d. Blacks were not allowed to show public
    affection toward one another in public,
    especially kissing, because it offended Whites.
  • e. Jim Crow etiquette prescribed that Blacks
    were introduced to Whites, never Whites to
    Blacks. For example "Mr. Peters (the White
    person), this is Charlie (the Black person), that
    I spoke to you about."
  • f. Whites did not use courtesy titles of
    respect when referring to Blacks, for example,
    Mr., Mrs., Miss., Sir, or Ma'am. Instead, Blacks
    were called by their first names. Blacks had to
    use courtesy titles when referring to Whites, and
    were not allowed to call them by their first

Jim Crow etiquette (III)
  • If a Black person rode in a car driven by a White
    person, the Black person sat in the back seat, or
    the back of a truck.
  • White motorists had the right-of-way at all

Jim Crow etiquette (IV)
  • Stetson Kennedy, the author of Jim Crow
    Guide, offered these simple rules that Blacks
    were supposed to observe in conversing with
  • Never assert or even intimate that a White person
    is lying.
  • Never impute dishonorable intentions to a White
  • Never suggest that a White person is from an
    inferior class.
  • Never lay claim to, or overly demonstrate,
    superior knowledge or intelligence.
  • Never curse a White person.
  • Never laugh derisively at a White person.
  • Never comment upon the appearance of a White

The role of the court
  • The Supreme Court ruled that the Civil Rights Act
    of 1775 was unconstitutional and was not
    authorized by the 13th or 14th Amendments. It
    left it to states to decide how to interpret
    these Amendments.

1896 Plessy v. Ferguson
  • Homer Plessy was jailed for using the "White"
    car of a railroad. He argued before the Supreme
    Court that this segregation violated the 13th and
    14th Amendments.
  • The Supreme Court ruled that separate facilities
    did not violate these Amendments, and that
    separate was equal.

Other causes of the coming of Jim Crow
  • young blacks retrogressive, behaving like animals
  • fear of miscegenation
  • Populists disillusioned by black votes
  • Northern acquiescence
  • imperialist adventures White Men's burden
  • social Darwinism eugenics
  • economic depression scapegoating

Disenfranchising African-Americans
  • poll tax
  • residency requirement
  • literacy test
  • conviction
  • grandfather clause

Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) and the Atlanta
Compromise (1895)
  • i. political rights and social privileges v.
    economic advances
  • ii. "Cast down the bucket where you are.  "
  • iii. "We have proved our loyalty to you in the
    past, in nursing your children, watching by the
    sick bed of your mothers and fathers, and often
    following them tear-dimmed eyes to their graves,
    so in the future, in our humble way, we shall
    stand by you with a devotion that no foreigners
    can approach, ready to lay down our lives."
  • iv. "I do not believe that the Negro should cease
    voting, for a man cannot learn the exercise of
    self-government by ceasing to vote but I do
    believe that in his voting he should more and
    more be influenced by those of intelligence and
    character who are his next-door neighbor."

W. E. B. Dubois (1868-1964)
  • political power
  • civil rights
  • higher education
  • "It is utterly impossible, under modern
    competitive methods, for workingmen and property
    owners to defend their rights and exist without
    the right of suffrage."
  • "Silent submission to civic inferiority is bound
    to sap the manhood of any race in the long run."

  • The National Association for the Advancement of
    Colored People was formed in 1910 after riots
    against blacks in Springfield, Illionois killed
    eight African Americans.
  • The NAACP was formed to be an organization that
    could come to the aid of African Americans who
    were the victims of violence or discrimination.

Indian Removal
i. The Sand Creek Massacre (1864) J. M.
Chivington 450 killed collected 100 scalps ii.
The Battle of the Little Big Horn (1876) Gen.
Custer and 203 American soldiers killed in the
Dakota mountains iii. The Daws Act (1887)
introducing individual land ownership and
agriculture to native Americans breaking up
tribal land and 160 acres to each family and 80
acres to an adult iv. From Indian Reservation to
Oklahoma (1889-1906) 1893, the largest land
rush, 6 million acres carved up by 100,000
newcomers within hours v. The Battle of the
Wounded Knee (1890) 146 killed and buried in a
mass grave vi. why? Indians barbarous
uncivilized lazy brutal not citizens, not
protected by law a good Indian was a dead Indian
Sand Creek massacre, 1864
  • One infantry battalion...left Fort Lyon
    Colorado on the night of the 28th of November,
    1864 about daybreak on the morning of the 29th
    of November we came in sight of the camp of
    friendly Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians...and
    were ordered by Colonel J.M. Chivington to
    attack the same, which was accordingly
    done....Going over the battle ground the next day
    I did not see a body of man, woman, or child but
    was scalped, and in many instances their bodies
    were mutilated in the most horrible manner--men,
    women, and children's privates cut out etc. I
    heard one man say that he had cut out a woman's
    private parts and had them for exhibition on a
    stick I heard another man say that he had cut
    fingers off an Indian to get the rings on the

Sitting Bull, 1883
  • Whatever you wanted of me I have obeyed. The
    Great Father sent me word that whatever he had
    against me in the past had been forgiven and
    thrown aside, and I have accepted his promises
    and came in. And he told me not to step aside
    from the white man's path, and I am doing my best
    to travel in that path. I sit here and look
    around me now, and I see my people starving. We
    want cattle to butcher. That is the way you live,
    and we want to live the same way.

President Chester Arthur defending the Dawes
Plan, 1881
  • It was natural, at a time when the national
    territory seemed almost illimitable and contained
    many millions of acres far outside the bounds of
    civilized settlements, that a policy should have
    been initiated which more than aught else has
    been the fruitful source of our Indian
    complications. I refer, of course, to the policy
    of dealing with the various Indian tribes as
    separate nationalities, of relegating them by
    treaty stipulations to the occupancy of immense
    reservations in the West, and of encouraging them
    to live a savage life, undisturbed by any earnest
    and well directed efforts to bring them under the
    influences of civilization.
  • The unsatisfactory results which have sprung from
    this policy are becoming apparent to all. As the
    white settlements have crowded the borders of the
    reservations, the Indians, sometimes contentedly
    and sometimes against their will, have been
    transferred to other hunting grounds, from which
    they have again been dislodged whenever their
    new-found homes have been desired by the
    adventurous settlers. These removals and the
    frontier collisions by which they have often been
    preceded have led to frequent and disastrous
    conflicts between the races....
  • The government has of late been cautiously but
    steadily feeling its way to the adoption of a introduce among the Indians the
    customs and pursuits of civilized life and
    gradually to absorb them into the mass of our
    citizens, sharing their rights and holden to
    their responsibilities....

Dawes Severalty Act of l887
  • The President of the United States allot the lands in said
    reservation in severalty to any Indian located
    thereon in quantities as follows To each head
    of a family, one-quarter of a section To each
    single person over eighteen years of age,
    one-eighth of a section To each orphan child
    under eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a
    section.... Sec. 6. That upon the completion of
    said allotments and the patenting of the lands to
    said allottees, each and every member of the
    respective band or tribes of
    subject to the laws, both civil and criminal, of
    the State or Territory in which they may reside.

The Exclusion of Chinese Act (1882)
i. when did the Chinese come? ii. Central
Pacific, Sierra Nevada (1865) 11,000 Chinese
coolies iii. They did not drink, strike or take
a bath everyday iv. 1,200 died v. 1867, 3,000
struck 8-hour day and equal pay 2 to 35 a
month vi. 9/1868, broke through SN vii. 1871,
300,000 Chinese 1877, depression labor unrest
(transparency) viii. 1882, Exclusion Act Passed
viv. 1881, 40,000 entered 1883, 23 allowed to
Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882
  • Forty-Seventh Congress. Session I. 1882
  • Chapter 126.-An act to execute certain treaty
    stipulations relating to Chinese. Preamble.
    Whereas, in the opinion of the Government of the
    United States the coming of Chinese laborers to
    this country endangers the good order of certain
    localities within the territory thereof.
    Therefore, Be it enacted by the Senate and House
    of Representatives of the United States of
    America in Congress assembled, That from and
    after the expiration of ninety days next after
    the passage of this act, and until the expiration
    of ten years next after the passage of this act,
    the coming of Chinese laborers to the United
    States be, and the same is hereby, suspended and
    during such suspension it shall not be lawful for
    any Chinese laborer to come, or, having so come
    after the expiration of said ninety days, to
    remain within the United States.

Chinese exclusion act (I)
Retouching was a photographic technique used at
the time to enhance racial difference. At times
Arnold Genthe drew, etched, or applied dye onto a
negative in order to change how the image would
print. In "Pigtail Parade," published in Old
Chinatown (1908), Genthe drew directly on the
negative to enhance certain details of the
Chinese exclusion act (II)
Chinese exclusion act (The Chinese Many Handed
But Soulless, The Wasp, 1885)
Chinese exclusion act (Labor leaders response)
  • Denis Kearney, Californias Workingmens Party
  • Chinese laborers are cheap working slaves who
    lower white workers standard of living and
    should be banished from the U.S.
  • Joseph McDonnell, an Irish-born socialist
  • Intolerance against the Chinese repeats earlier
    intolerant, silly and shameful cry against the
    Irish. Workers should learn from this history and
  • B.E.G. Jewett, a socialist
  • Corporate employers--oppressors,
    money-mongers--are to blame and must go

Chinese exclusion act (Cartoon on the Chinese
Exclusion Act of 1882)
  • Only Chinese non-laborers and those who were
    born in the U.S. can enter
  • Those who resided in the U.S. prior to 1880 can
    remain if they dont leave the country
  • If they leave they can come back if they have at
    least one thousand dollars worth of property or
    debts owned to them
  • The status of wife and child followed that of a
  • No Chinese could be naturalized as U.S. citizen