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Title: Transportation%20Energy,%20Part%202


1
19.2 Transportation Energy Part 2a AFV Cars,
Buses and Trucks
Focusing on Renewable Energy Vehicles and
Alternative Fuel Vehicles
Frank R. Leslie, B. S. E. E., M. S. Space
Technology, LS IEEE 4/6/2010, Rev. 2.0.1 fleslie
_at_fit.edu (321) 674-7377 www.fit.edu/fleslie
86/bbl crude oil on 4/2010
2
In Other News . . .
  • Coal mine fatalities in China and West Virginia
    recovery continues
  • EPA sets auto average mileage at 35.5 mpg by 2016
    instead of 35 mpg by 2020. Car costs to go up,
    savings of 3000 in fuel though
  • Car CO2 average emission set at 250 grams per
    mile
  • Science magazine has an article on a new battery
    based upon Bugs Build Batteries By Lauren
    Cahoon ScienceNOW Daily News, 3 April 2009
  • Green technology just went viral. Researchers
    have used viruses to create rechargeable
    batteries similar to those found in hybrid cars
    and laptops. The results could herald a
    low-energy, environmentally friendly alternative.
    Materials chemist Angela Belcher of the
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology in
    Cambridge and her colleagues decided to try
    making a better battery by using biological
    processes. This approach is logical because some
    of the materials in batteries, such as phosphate
    and iron, are present in living systems and can
    be easily manipulated by organisms.

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3
19.2 Florida Tech Baja Car
Soren de Vos, center in black shirt, talks to
judges about his project, the SAE Baja (shown at
right) at the Northrup Grumman Engineering and
Science Student Design Showcase at Florida Tech
on Friday. (Rik Jesse, FLORIDA TODAY)
Ref. Florida Today, April 4, 2009, by Michelle
Spitzer
4
19.2.0 Overview Cars, Trucks, and Buses
  • Gasoline and diesel are conventional fuels
  • Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) use ethanol or
    methanol or use various gases
  • Compressed natural gas (CNG) and propane are
    typical gaseous fuels (hydrogen is a carrier)
  • Electric cars and trucks use recharging
    electricity as their fuel, and other sources
    make that electricity some may be nonpolluting,
    others might not

This steam car was designed by Nicholas Joseph
Cugnot and constructed by M. Brezin in 1769,
shown bumping a wall in Paris Oops!
http//www.ausbcomp.com/bbott/cars/carhist.htm
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5
19.2 Cugnots Car
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas-Joseph_Cugnot
Cugnot's 1771 fardier à vapeur, as preserved at
the Musée des Arts et Métiers, Paris.
6
YouTube in 1769?? Zut Alors!
http//www.youtube.com/watch?v1wMkn3zh9dk
7
19.2.0.1 Perhaps 25 to 60 mpg SUVs?
Theres a physics problem, but going from 14 mpg
to 25 mpg is fantastic!
Reasonable suggestions are often met with extreme
positions, but economics determines the
outcome (38 mpg for Ford Escape!)
ASEA
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8
19.2.1 Electric Vehicles (EVs or BEVs)
  • Fully electric vehicles are normally recharged
    from utility power, although a home power system
    may be used
  • A large battery drives an electric motor to turn
    the wheels motors in the wheel hubs are
    possible, too
  • The pollution occurs at the power plant, where
    extensive emission controls may be in place
  • California previously required that manufacturers
    sell a percent of electric cars each year led to
    many models
  • Recently, hybrid cars are displacing the
    electrics as they have more appeal to the
    public and have greater driving distance between
    charges of gasoline

040405
http//www.cloudelectric.com
9
19.2.1.1 Electric Vehicles (EVs)
  • GM has discontinued its leased electric cars
    (EV1s) since so few were wanted, Californias
    mandatory percentage of zero emission cars were
    revoked in favor of hybrids, and the small
    numbers made the EV1 redundant

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http//www.gmev.com/map/map.htm
10
19.2.1 The Citicar EV
  • In the 1970s, a Sebring, Florida company made
    this squarish electric car for short distance
    travel
  • A security guard at the Patrick AF Base Tech Lab
    routinely drove one from Satellite Beach
  • FSEC has several at their Cocoa field station

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11
19.2.1 The EV Pusher
  • I saw this fabulous car at the 2002 SolWest
    Renewable Energy Fair in John Day, Oregon
  • He told me about the license office man looking
    at the trailer, er, engine what category is it?
    Hilarious story details are at http//www.mrsharke
    y.com/pusher6a.htm
  • The back trailer (or is it the engine?) recharges
    the battery in the front electric car and can
    push the car through the trailer hitch! The car
    can run by itself on battery power.
  • The car-trailer thing is the front half of a 1978
    VW Rabbit diesel

http//www.mrsharkey.com/pusher.htm
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12
19.2.1.1 Student Electric Vehicles
http//www.formulasun.org/history/sunrayce_90.html
http//solarcar.northwestern.edu/home.html
  • Solar cells cover the surface of these cars
    sometimes underneath!
  • Florida Tech still has one languishing to make a
    museum piece
  • Self-contained student solar cars are not
    crash-worthy
  • Converted cars have the crash resistance of a
    standard car

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13
19.2.1.1.1 FSEC Race Ends!
  • Student vehicles competed in a race from Texas to
    Cocoa, Florida
  • The finish line was at FSEC

Photos by F. Leslie, 2003
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14
19.2.1.2 Electric Vehicles Race at SolWest 2002,
John Day, Oregon Fairgrounds
http//electrathoncars.tripod.com/whs-electrathon-
racing/index.html
http//www.solwest.org/page1.htm
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15
19.2.2 Hybrid Vehicles
  • The Honda CR-X hybrid uses gasoline and an
    electric motor
  • EIA says Fuel Type Regular 
  • MPG (city) 48 
  • MPG (highway) 47 
  • MPG (combined) 48 
  • Annual Fuel Cost 484
  • A parallel hybrid uses mechanical transmission
    connection of the motor and the engine
  • A series hybrid generates electricity from an
    engine-driven alternator to charge the battery,
    which powers a motor driving the wheels Toyota
    Prius for example

http//www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/byMPG.htm
http//www.cnn.com/2001/NATURE/01/24/hybrid.vehicl
es.enn/index.html
Toyota Prius
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16
19.2.3 Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFV)
  • AFVs are defined by law
  • Biodiesel (soy beans, fryer grease, etc.)
  • Electricity (energy carrier, not a fuel)
  • Ethanol (grain)
  • Hydrogen (energy carrier, not a fuel)
  • Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
  • Methanol (coal or wood)
  • Natural Gas (NG) (Compressed or CNG)

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17
19.2.3 Alternative Fuel Vehicles
  • Categories
  • Dedicated uses one specific fuel type
  • Bi-Fuel can use either of two fuel types
    (gasoline or propane)
  • Dual fuel can use two fuel types simultaneously
    (gasoline with propane)
  • Flex-fuel can use two fuels blended (mixed) in
    the same tank (E85) (add H2 to CNG)
  • Hybrid uses either or both energy sources, but
    electric braking recovery charges battery

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18
19.2.3 FSEC Fuel Comparison
Chemistry Octane Rating Energy, Btu per gallon Liquid or gas
Gasoline C4 to C12 83-98 114,000 Liquid
CNG CH4 120-127 29,000 Pressurized Gas
LNG CH4 120-127 73,500 Liquid
LPG C3H8 89-104 84,000 Liquid
Ethanol (E85) CH3CH2OH 92-111 80,460 Liquid
Methanol M85 CH3OH 91-112 65,350 Liquid
Hydrogen H2 130 51,000/pound61,000/gallon Pressurized Gas
Electric Electron NA 3413 Btu/kWh N/A
FSEC, 2002
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19
19.2.3.1.1 LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)
  • LPG (called propane) vehicles have long been used
    inside buildings as emissions are lower
  • Propane and butane were discovered as
    contaminants in gasoline by Dr. Snelling in 1910
    they could be distilled out of the gasoline for
    cooking fuel
  • A small 5-gallon tank is a convenient size and
    costs about 13 (2003) larger tanks are
    feasible
  • 15 billion gallons of propane are used in the US
    each year
  • In 1994, propane was used as follows
  • 507 million gallons for internal combustion
    engine use
  • 78.8 million gallons for utility/gas industry
    usage
  • 9.0 billion gallons for chemical/industrial usage
  • 5.4 billion gallons for residential/commercial
    usage
  • 1.5 billion gallons for other uses including
    agricultural

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http//www.propanegas.com/
20
19.2.3.1.1 LPG Conversions
  • Gasoline vehicles can be converted by removing
    the carburetor that atomizes gasoline and
    enlarging the fuel passage to admit the correct
    amount of propane gas
  • Some versions use a dual-fuel system with a
    driver-changeable valve to select the fuel
  • The pressure filling nozzle (right) looks
    different, but the action is much the same as for
    gasoline filling

http//www.shellgaslpg.com/site/page/24/lang/en
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21
19.2.3.2 Natural Gas (NG)
  • Uncompressed natural gas has limited ability to
    power a car since the size of a low-pressure tank
    would be very large
  • Compression to several thousand pounds per square
    inch puts enough Btus in the vehicle for a
    reasonable range (160 to 200 atm)

Toyota Crown
Honda Civic GX
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http//www.gas.or.jp/ngve/text/ngv.html
22
19.2.3.3 CNG Cars
  • Natural gas from a pipeline gate station can have
    the pressure reduced to charge a pressure vessel
    in the trunk of the car
  • The compressor is powered by pipeline natural gas
    so no external fuel is required
  • Natural gas is relatively clean and emissions are
    limited

Compressed natural gas car at FSEC (Florida Solar
Energy Center, Cocoa, FL)
The 2004 AFV Odyssey was Friday, 4/2 at FSEC in
Cocoa! You should have been there!
060407
http//www.transportation.anl.gov/fuels/ct11-CNG.h
tml
23
19.2.3.4 Ethanol
  • This ethanol car is riding a dynamometer to
    measure its engine performance at highway speeds
  • The Philippines have an ethanol-use law passed
    when leaded gasoline was outlawed (see
    http//www.chanrobles.com/presidentialdecreeno2001
    .htm)

http//www.transportation.anl.gov
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24
19.2.3.4.1 Ethanol Truck
  • This truck was marketed to sugar cane growers
    about 1930
  • Bagasse (cane refuse) is fermented to make ethanol

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25
19.2.3.5 Coal-Derived Fuels
  • Coal, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), oxygen, and
    steam combine to produce a medium-Btu fuel gas
    consisting of hydrogen and carbon monoxide
  • Coal can be heated to 800F without oxygen (Low
    Temp Carbonization) to form oil by the Karrick
    Process
  • After treatment by the Karrick process, a ton of
    coal will yield up to a barrel of oil, 3000 cu.
    ft. of rich fuel gas, and 1500 lb. of solid
    smokeless char (semi-coke). Nelson, 2000

http//www.rexresearch.com/karrick/karric1.htm
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26
19.2.3.5 Coal-Derived Fuels
http//www.lanl.gov/projects/cctc/factsheets/clnen
/cleanedemo.html
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27
19.2.3.6 Methanol
  • Methanol can be made from natural gas or coal
  • Used for car racing for years, since fires could
    be extinguished with water

030516
http//www.methanol.org
28
19.2.3.6.1 Methanol from Landfills
http//www.methanol.org
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29
19.2.3.7 Biodiesel
Photo by F. Leslie
  • Biodiesel cars often have an exhaust that smells
    like French fries, since the starting substance
    was free cooking oil from a restaurant (WVO)
  • The oil is filtered, treated with methanol and
    lye, and separated into the biodiesel and
    residual glycerin

At FSEC, April, 2004
From the Greasy Guerrilla
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http//www.cytoculture.com/Biodiesel20Handbook.ht
m
http//www.grass-car.com/
30
19.2.3.8 Hydrogen
  • Hydrogen-fueled cars have been in use on an
    experimental basis
  • The Honda FCX is being tested in California
  • NASA is the primary hydrogen user
  • 97 of hydrogen is reformed from methane
  • Hydrogen is also produced by coal gasification
  • Electrolysis
  • Biomass conversion
  • Most commercial hydrogen is used to fix nitrogen
    from air to make ammonia, NH3, for farm fertilizer

http//www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/hy
drogen/hydrogen_feature.html
070405
http//www.ecoworld.org/Articles/Images/Hydrogen_c
ars_Station1.jpg
my.voyager.net/lar/ train_freight.html
31
19.2.3.8 Hydrogen Cars
  • Hydrogen is stored at 3600 and 5000 PSI in the
    big tanks, 7000 PSI in the smaller distribution
    tanks www.ecoworld.org
  • They developed a robotic fueling station that
    fills the tank in four minutes
  • BMWs hydrogen tank has 70 layers of fiberglass
    and aluminum
  • The hydrogen is kept at -423 degrees Fahrenheit
    (-253 degrees Celsius)
  • The fuel range is 218 miles (350km)

060407
http//www.cnn.com/2001/TECH/science/03/16/hydroge
n.cars/
32
19.2.3.9 Florida AFV Odyssey Day
  • The Florida Solar Energy Center hosts this event
    by Space Coast Clean Cities Coalition and Traviss
    Technical Center in April each year

Photos by F. Leslie, 2004
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33
How to get to FSEC in Cocoa FL
US1 to Michigan and west to Clearlake Rd. or I-95
to FL 520, east to Clearlake Rd., then north
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34
19.2.4 Fuel Availability
  • Hydrogen is a good example of restricted fuel
    availability
  • Hydrogen does not occur naturally as a true fuel,
    but is an energy carrier as is electricity
  • Making hydrogen consumes energy and produces heat
    and sometimes pollution
  • Fuels must be readily available and easy for the
    average person to obtain and fill their vehicle
  • Both the fuels and the vehicles must be available
    in the same area to be a commercial success

The Hindenburgs outside skin lacquer paint was
ignited by a spark to the ground Note the
hydrogen released to burn high in the air
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35
19.2.5 Pollution Issues
  • Electric vehicles must get the electricity for
    recharging the battery from an energy source
    will it be a fossil fuel plant or wind turbines
    or solar or nuclear?
  • Depends on where you live
  • When the electricity comes from a coal-fired
    plant, is the stack pollution more or less than
    the sum of the exhaust pipes avoided?
  • AFVs that are nonelectric have different
    pollution issues since they may produce local
    pollution and also cause refinery or fuel
    preparation pollution

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36
19.2.6 Fuel Distribution
  • Distribution to the final user requires an outlet
    as customer-friendly as the neighborhood gas
    station
  • Compressed gas stations have unusual filling
    procedures and a somewhat-threatening high
    pressure system
  • The vehicle connection must be secured before
    filling, while a gasoline nozzle is simply
    loosely stuck in the fill pipe hole
  • Full-service filling may be needed for
    high-pressure gases for several years to avoid
    consumer problems, like driving away while still
    connected
  • Liquid hydrogen (LH2) tanks must be vented like
    the Shuttle tank to keep it from bursting
  • Filling a car tank with LH2 offers interesting
    challenges

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37
19.2.7 Fuel Cells
  • Fuel cells are touted as the key to future
    transportation
  • There are several kinds
  • Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)
  • Alkaline metal hydride
  • Phosphoric Acid
  • Operation at 150F to 200F
  • Molten carbonate
  • Kept at about 1200F for efficiency
  • 60 efficient 80 with cogeneration
  • Can run on gasoline reformed external to the cell
  • Direct methanol
  • No external reformer required

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38
19.2.7.1 Fuel Cells
  • This engine fits under the floorboards of the car

http//www.ballard.com/images/hydro_chart.jpg
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39
19.2.7.2 Fuel Cell Types
  • These five cell versions are under evaluation

030427
http//www.fuel-cell.de/bilder/bild4_b-e.gif
40
19.2.7.3 Electrolyzer Concept
  • The PEM reaction is reversible

030409
http//www.pege.org/greenwinds/pics/electrolyzer3.
jpg
41
19.2.8 Issues and Trends
  • Cars that look somewhat like todays versions
    will meet widespread acceptance, as will those
    that fill the tank the same way
  • While some will buy a radically different car,
    most prefer a familiar looking vehicle
  • Some conventional SUVs are actually being
    advertised as larger and wider than last years
    model Excess is good (and handy for Road Rage
    intimidation)!
  • That means more weight to haul around, higher
    horsepower, and lower fuel mileage
  • Some new SUVs use hybrid technology to decrease
    fuel consumption, while others increase
    acceleration

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42
19.2.8 Aptera Motors Concept Car
http//apteramotors.com/
43
19.2 Conclusion Transportation 2
  • Introduction of alternate fuel vehicles will
    require a long period of adjustment by the public
  • At one time, full service gas stations seemed
    necessary, but most people now found they could
    pump their own gas in order to pay a lower price!
  • Perhaps CNG stations will need full-service at
    first
  • Current hybrid vehicles are user-friendly, thus
    will be rapidly accepted by the market if price
    falls
  • In transition over 20 years, they may be the
    common vehicle before some other type dominates
    the market
  • Vehicle changes are driven by cost above all
    else if costs increase due to government
    pollution or carbon taxes, an economic shift will
    begin to occur

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44
Olin Engineering Complex 4.7 kW Solar PV Roof
Array
080116
45
References Books
  • Boyle, Godfrey. Renewable Energy, Second Edition.
    Oxford Oxford University Press, 2004, ISBN
    0-19-26178-4. (my preferred text)
  • Brower, Michael. Cool Energy. Cambridge MA The
    MIT Press, 1992. 0-262-02349-0, TJ807.9.U6B76,
    333.7940973.
  • Duffie, John and William A. Beckman. Solar
    Engineering of Thermal Processes. NY John Wiley
    Sons, Inc., 920 pp., 1991
  • Gipe, Paul. Wind Energy for Home Business.
    White River Junction, VT Chelsea Green Pub. Co.,
    1993. 0-930031-64-4, TJ820.G57, 621.45
  • Patel, Mukund R. Wind and Solar Power Systems.
    Boca Raton CRC Press, 1999, 351 pp. ISBN
    0-8493-1605-7, TK1541.P38 1999, 621.312136
  • Sørensen, Bent. Renewable Energy, Second Edition.
    San Diego Academic Press, 2000, 911 pp. ISBN
    0-12-656152-4.
  • Tester, Jefferson W. , Elisabeth M. Drake,
    Michael J. Driscoll, Michael W. Golay and William
    A. Peters. Sustainable Energy Choosing Among
    Options. Boston MIT Press, 870 pp. July 2005
    ISBN-100-262-20153-4

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19.G Glossary
  • AFV Alternative Fuel Vehicle
  • CCC Clean Cities Coalition group advocating
    alternative fuel vehicles and partially sponsored
    by DoE
  • EIA Energy Information Agency
  • EV Electric Vehicle
  • FCV Fuel Cell Vehicle
  • FFV Flexible Fuel Vehicle
  • NG Natural Gas

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47
References Reports
  • ___, A Guide to Alternative Fuel Transportation
    in Florida. Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa
    FL, 2002. FSEC-CR-1341-02.
  • Nelson, Robert A. Oil from Coal --- Free! The
    Karrick LTC Process. 1984/2000

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References Websites, etc.
  • http//mmf.ruc.dk/energy/Amsterdam2002.PDF
    Sorensens paper on hydrogen
  • http//www.ballard.com/pdfs/transportation/XCS-HY-
    75-FINAL-APR5_4.1.2.1.PDF
  • http//www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/byMPG.htm for car
    comparisons
  • http//www.ott.doe.gov/pdfs/provisns.pdf
  • http//www.bjharding.com/citicar/moreev.htm
    Citicar details
  • http//www.fsec.ucf.edu/env/fsccities/afvtech.htm
  • http//www.eere.energy.gov/aro/hydrogen.html
    Hydrogen
  • http//www.cloudelectric.com/generic.html?pid54
    Electric car conversions
  • http//www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/hy
    drogen/in_use.html
  • http//www.phy.duke.edu/hartley/rightwatch/hydrog
    en.html Hydrogen source questions worth reading
  • http//www.fuel-cell.de More on fuel cells
  • http//www.gmev.com/map/map.htm The discontinued
    EV electric vehicle
  • http//www.transportation.anl.gov Ethanol
    vehicles
  • http//www.mrsharkey.com/pusher.htm The EV Pusher
    Car
  • http//www.rexresearch.com/karrick/karric1.htm
    Oil from Coal
  • http//www.ballard.com/images/hydro_chart.jpg
  • __________________________________________________
    ____________________________________________

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MIT Vehicle Assessment
  • Vehicle costs and energy use are found in several
    areas from creation to disposal

http//web.mit.edu/energylab/www/pubs/el00-003.pdf
030505
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