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Aggression Replacement Training


Lived in San Diego almost 6 years. Employed by San Diego Center for Children ... The San Diego Center for Children currently provides Aggression Replacement ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Aggression Replacement Training

Aggression Replacement Training
  • A Comprehensive Intervention for Aggressive
  • Lori Barnes, IMFT
  • November 2007

Who am I?
  • Lori Barnes, Marriage Family Therapist
  • Worked with children families for over 3
  • Currently in process of taking boards for
  • In my 2nd career, spent over 15 years in
    promotions and marketing.
  • Provide individual and family therapy in addition
    to ART (group therapy).
  • Native of Illinois.
  • Lived in San Diego almost 6 years.
  • Employed by San Diego Center for Children for 5
  • Currently the Program Manager of Emerald Day

San Diego Center for Children
San Diego Center for ChildrenHistory of ART
  • The San Diego Center for Children currently
    provides Aggression Replacement Training at two
    community based locations and one residential
  • Emerald Day Treatment provides all 3 components
    of ART Skillstreaming called Life Skills,
    Anger Control and Moral Reasoning.
  • Emerald rolled out Life Skills in June 2005,
    Anger Control in September 2005 and Moral
    Reasoning in January 2006.

Workshop Focus
  • Latency aged students, who are they and what are
    their challenges.
  • Motivating and Engaging Students in ART.

Student Profile
The kids we serve
Latency age 6 to Puberty
  • School is the most important event of development
    at this age.
  • Developmental tasks include skill learning,
    self-evaluation, team work and cooperative social
  • Erik Erikson calls this stage Industry vs.
    Inferiority (Competence)
  • Industry Success in learning, creating and
    accomplishing numerous new skills and knowledge.
    Social acceptance.
  • Inferiority This is a very social stage of
    development and if they experience unresolved
    feelings of inadequacy and inferiority among
    peers, students will have serious problems in
    terms of competence and self-esteem.

Challenges / Stressors
  • Parents have inaccurate knowledge and
    expectations about child development.
  • Student knows what to do, but is unable to
  • Learning Disorder
  • Mental Health Disorder
  • Inconsistent use of Prescription Medicine or lack
    of use
  • Low tolerance for frustration, feelings of
  • Insecure attachment with parents / system
    involvement (CPS)
  • Childhood history of abuse
  • High parental conflict, domestic violence
  • Family structure (e.g., single parent with lack
    of support)
  • Social isolation, lack of support
  • Parental psychopathology
  • High general stress level
  • Poor parent-child interaction
  • Parent displays negative attitudes and
    attributions about childs behavior
  • Exposure to racism/discrimination
  • Dangerous/violent neighborhood
  • Exposure to or gang affiliation
  • Homeless

? Co-occurring Stressors High Risk
Co-occurring Stressors High Risk
  • High Risk Examples
  • Low self-esteem / Outcast
  • Poor social skills
  • Behavioral Problems
  • Behind Academically
  • Aggression Problems
  • Depression / Anxiety
  • Suicidal / Homicidal

Behavioral Problems
  • Disruptions / Outbursts
  • Inappropriate Language
  • Violence
  • Spitting
  • Property Destruction / Vandalism
  • Profanity / Name Calling
  • Bullying
  • Defiance / Refuse to Follow Direction
  • Withdraw / Refuse to Participate
  • AWOL

Aggression Problems
  • Assault Other Students
  • Hit/Kick/Punch/Trip/Throw Objects
  • Assault Staff
  • Require Physical Restraint
  • Police Involvement
  • Weapons
  • Property Destruction
  • Self-Harm
  • Home and School Setting

Research Shows That Aggression
  • is a difficult behavior to change
  • is learned by repetition
  • Observation, imitation, direct experience,
  • is learned home / school / media
  • is frequently rewarded and has few
  • is used by those who lack pro-social skills
  • often arises from cognitive misperceptions
  • of anothers intentions.
  • is a behavior given energy and sustenance by
    the emotional arousal of anger these
    cognitions generate.

Anger Replacement Training (Goldstein, Glick,
Gibbs) 1998
Helpful Referrals
  • Therapy Individual, Family Group
  • Psychiatrist
  • Wrap Around
  • Child Protective Services / Voluntary
  • Mentoring
  • After School Programs
  • Support Groups for Adults/Children
  • Parenting Classes
  • IEP / Special Education

How Does ART Fit In?
  • We know that .
  • Research shows that educational settings that
    rely on punishment actually makes the problem
    behavior worse
  • Research shows that educational settings with
    Social Skills Training decreases incidents of
    aggression, vandalism, truancy dropouts
  • Most students do not know what to do besides
    aggressive behavior

B.E.S.T. Practices Building Effective Schools
Together Institute on Violence and Destructive
How Does ART Fit In?
  • According to research from the Institute on
    Violence and Destructive Behavior
  • This is What Works
  • Comprehensive social skills programs (ART)
  • Techniques to improve self-control impulse
    control (ART)
  • Stress management (ART therapy)
  • Problem solving (ART)

B.E.S.T. Practices Building Effective Schools
Together Institute on Violence and Destructive
How Does ART Fit In?
  • ART provides Productive Intervention Strategies
  • ART teaches alternative pro-social skills
  • ART fosters a positive milieu
  • ART teaches by modeling
  • ART allows students to experience handling
    situations differently
  • ART praises and reward desired behaviors and
  • ART provides a platform to expose thinking errors
    remediate moral development delay
  • ART is practiced at home and at school
  • ART provides students feedback on the spot

Alternatives to Aggression
Anger Replacement Training (Goldstein, Glick,
Gibbs) 1998
ART Opportunity
  • Adopt the ART Culture
  • Focuses on the Positive
  • Can permeate the milieu
  • Framework for Norms Consistency
  • Training All Staff
  • Re-Framing our Language
  • Want vs. Dont Want
  • Catch a Student doing Well
  • Peer to Peer Recognition

ART Works
  • Three Components
  • Skillstreaming / Life Skills
  • Behavioral Component
  • Teaches new, pro-social, alternative positive
  • Anger Control
  • Affective / Emotion Component
  • Coping With Expressing Feelings
  • Moral Reasoning
  • Cognitive Component
  • Addresses Thinking Errors

Motivating and Engaging
What Works
  • Keeping Students Engaged
  • Established rules
  • Positive reinforcement
  • Rewards and Token economies
  • Consistent limit setting (Consequences)
  • Consistent response from staff
  • Positive feedback
  • Jobs
  • Art

Keeping Students Engaged
  • Be Genuine / Real / Fun
  • Use Props
  • Keep it moving and busy
  • Prompt breaks when needed
  • Give positive feedback frequently
  • Recognize each individual students strengths
  • Praise loudly and re-direct softly
  • Make it fun by incorporating student interests

Established Rules
  • Posted
  • Clearly Defined
  • Communicated to all students
  • Identified by Students
  • Positively Reinforced
  • Consistently Reinforced
  • Reviewed Frequently
  • Create Norms
  • Have Fun!
  • A RULE!

My Group Rules Expectations
  • Raise your hand wait to be called on.
  • Ask permission to get out of your seat.
  • No violence or profanity in role play.
  • Ask to take space when upset or hyper.
  • No food or drink in group.
  • Space/break should take less than 5 min.
  • Walk around group circle, not through it.
  • You may sit quietly out of group if you dont
    want to participate.

My Group Rules Expectations
  • If you do not participate, no privileges.
  • Positive Feedback Only!
  • Whats said in group, stays in group.
  • Show respect to all peers and staff.
  • Students sitting quietly with hand raised will be
    called on first to participate or give positive
  • Use positive language at all times.
  • Have fun!

Positive Reinforcement
  • Catch students displaying pro-social skills and
    praise them.
  • Praise board.
  • Positive feedback in daily groups.
  • Give out tokens or points.
  • Intermittent reinforcement works best.
  • Dont take away what they earn.
  • Lots of attention to positive behaviors.
  • Identify students doing well when another is
  • All staff trained in positive reinforcement.
  • Use re-dos regularly and then praise.
  • Be sincere when giving praise.
  • Use positive viewpoint when praising, Good job
    staying safe and using positive coping skills
    when you were upset!

Positive Reinforcement
  • Give 4 positives for each negative
  • Make positive feedback a norm for all group
    activities (staff peer) make it a Group Rule
  • Ask students to role model rules and positive
    behaviors at start of group (what does it look
  • Ask students to identify rules followed after
  • Intermittent rewards are invaluable
  • Surprise treat
  • Surprise break with staff
  • Surprise group reward
  • Norm perfect student pose
  • They all know what it looks like

  • Positive Reinforcement Motivates!
  • Kids Crave Attention
  • Kids Like Positive Feedback
  • Positive Feedback More Behavior

Rewards / Positive Reinforcement
  • Treasure Chest
  • Token Economy
  • Outings
  • Gift Cards
  • Time with Adults
  • Choice of Movie
  • Computer or Game Time
  • Pizza Party
  • Enter in Drawing
  • What they like
  • Consistent
  • Frequent
  • Intermittent

Rewards / Positive Reinforcement
  • Sit in special seat
  • First in Line
  • Leave class early
  • Free time
  • Lead a lesson
  • Snacks / Treats
  • Staff helper
  • Watch video
  • Choose background music

Consequences / Limit Setting
  • Consequences are relevant to behavior
  • Re-do (when possible)
  • Time Out
  • Gentle verbal correction
  • Complete self-report behavior form
  • Parent contact
  • Extra work
  • Isolation from peer group
  • Clean Up Mess / Fix broken item
  • Loss of Privilege
  • Loss of Item
  • Write letter of apology
  • Fine for Property Damage
  • Police Involvement for Breaking Law

  • Works well with defiant, hyper withdrawn
    students to engage
  • Director use clap board
  • Points Keeper for Feedback
  • Wall of Praise student identifies on board
    positive feedback for peers
  • Feedback Assignment Use tent cards to assign
  • Treasure Chest Gives rewards to peers
  • Set up Visual Aides
  • Hand out Tokens
  • Track responses in Moral Reasoning
  • Photographer
  • Interior Designer sets up room
  • Artist Makes posters / visual aides
  • Sports Assistant Gets puts away equipment

  • Can be used in any group activity
  • Form of Expression when Words are Difficult
  • Engage the Passive, Withdrawn or Defiant Student
  • Spice up your Group
  • For a Change
  • For a Skill
  • For Presentation in Group Circle

Ingredients for Successful Groups
  • Enthusiasm
  • Props
  • Visual Aids
  • 6-8 group size
  • Participants functioning at similar levels
  • Organization
  • Rewards and Incentives
  • Recognition of skills outside of group
  • All staff participates
  • Empowerment
  • Frequent review of Rules
  • Minimize Transition Time

Disruptive Students Usually Want
  • Something Tangible
  • Adult Attention
  • Peer Attention
  • Task Avoidance
  • When students act out, almost immediately the
    adult or peers focus on them they get what they
    want and the acting out is reinforced.

Practitioners - We Can Make A Difference
  • Respond differently than what they have
    experienced in the past
  • Encourage
  • Believe
  • Dont Give Up On Them
  • Help Them Help Themselves
  • Provide a Turning Point
  • ART is a platform allowing us to provide a
    positive experience with adults and peers and
    learn new positive skills to cope with life

Practitioners - We Can Make A Difference
  • Teach Role Model Pro-Social Behavior
  • Reinforce Positive Behavior
  • Create a Culture of Positive Thinking
  • Avoid Power Struggles
  • Offer Options
  • Reward Immediately
  • Use Visuals
  • Be Real / Genuine
  • Re-direct Softly Praise Loudly
  • Be the adult who responds Differently

Do Not
  • Shame
  • Humiliate
  • Use Sarcasm
  • Threaten
  • Argue
  • Power Struggle
  • Get in students face
  • Grab or touch escalated student unless
  • Nag, preach, shout or raise voice
  • Hold a grudge
  • Focus on acting out student with no positive
  • Use Beta commands (wordy, vague, convey feelings
    of frustration, many sets of directions)

  • Stay Calm
  • Prompt
  • Notify of consequence
  • Offer positive options (space / coping skill)
  • Ask for a re-do
  • Focus on learned positive skills
  • Switch out with staff if you are angry
  • Meet the child where the child is
  • Ask to speak with child away from group
  • Remove audience when necessary
  • Use humor when applicable
  • Create a list of options in advance
  • Student creates with you
  • Share with all staff
  • Praise student for turning around behavior
  • Share positives with parents
  • Send home note or phone call
  • Wall of Praise students write
  • Use Alpha Commands (minimal words, clear,

Skillstreaming Life Skills
  • Therapist keeps it moving and busy
  • Therapist prompts breaks when needed
  • Therapist gives positive feedback frequently
  • Therapist recognizes each students strengths
  • Praise loudly and redirect softly
  • Use Student Jobs in Every Group Make it a Norm

Anger Replacement Training (Goldstein, Glick,
Gibbs) 1998
Anger Control Affective / Emotional Component
  • Making Anger Control Work
  • Art use drawing, crafts and other creative
    modes in conjunction with the weekly curriculum
    to engage and interest, and to decrease anxiety.
  • Use supplemental activities provided in the
    PREPARE curriculum (available for purchase) in
    between curriculum weeks.
  • Offer weekly drawings for participants.
  • Reward throughout group for appropriate behavior
    and participation. For example play money to buy
    prizes from store.
  • Offer group rewards for completing activities
    such as trip to 7-11 for Slurpees, Treasure Hunt
    or watching a movie.
  • Conduct group discussions in a circle.
  • Remind of the need for each student if negative
    attitudes arise. Most kids want to better

Misc. Stuff
  • Anger Management Jeopardy
  • Skillstreaming Word Search
  • Guess that Skill
  • Positive Self-Statement Role Play
  • What skill did he just use?
  • What other skills were used in this role play?
  • The Prepare Curriculum Supplementary Exercises
  • Go to Kid
  • Pull names out of hat / ping pong balls to choose
    order for role play
  • Adults can role play too!
  • Practice Sheets / Homework in Group
  • Budget in Advance

Homework / Practice Sheet
  • My Life Skill Experience
  • Name ________________________________ Date
  • LIFE SKILL Listening
  • STEPS 1. Look at the person who is talking
  • 2. Think about what is being said
  • 3. Wait your turn to talk
  • 4. Say what you want to say
  • Where will you try the skill?
  • With whom will you try the skill?
  • When will you try the skill?

Pet Therapy
  • Therapy Dogs International
  • http//
  • Delta Society
  • http//
  • Humane Society
  • Contact your local agency

Aggression Replacement Training
  • A Comprehensive Intervention for Aggressive
  • Lori Barnes, IMFT
  • November 2007