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Coal

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In 1880s, electricity was generated using coal and steam stationary engines. 090124 ... 5.2.3 Underground mining is hazardous. 060121. Ref. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Coal


1
5.0 Fuels Coal
In memory of the perished miners of Sago and
Melville, West VirginiaJanuary, 2006
Frank R. Leslie, B. S. E. E., M. S. Space
Technology, LS IEEE 1/25/2010, Rev. 2.1.0 fleslie
_at_fit.edu (321) 674-7377 www.fit.edu/fleslie
2
In Other News . . .
  • Tax credit for wind turbines at 1000/kW up to
    4000/kW as part of bailout package
    http//www.kfsm.com/Global/story.asp?S9729594
  • Auto CAFÉ standards Obama directs EPA to assess
    individual states adopting CA standards
  • Clean Coal still funded at a demonstration site
    in IL

100125
3
Overview
  • Romans in England used coal about 100 - 200 A.D.
  • http//www.fe.doe.gov/education/energylessons/coal
    /coal_history.html
  • Previously, only wood and peat were burned
  • Coal is the predominant fuel, but is not
    renewable
  • We are consuming fuel that took millions of years
    to form
  • China loses some 50k to 60k miners a year!
  • Jevons Paradox states that conservation of a
    fuel (say coal) will increase its consumption as
    it becomes cheaper
  • Price will fall, and longer-term demand increases

100124
4
5.0 About This Presentation
  • 5.1 History
  • 5.2 Fuel Sources and Preparation
  • 5.3 Coal Transportation
  • 5.4 Energy Content
  • 5.5 Estimated Reserves
  • 5.6 Coal Usage
  • 5.7 Coal Combustion and Gasification
  • 5 Conclusion

090124
5
5.1 History
  • Romans used coal some 2000 years ago
  • The US Hopi Indians burned coal about 1300 B.C.E.
  • Explorers discovered US coal in 1673
  • The English used coal 1700 as it burned hotter
    and cleaner than charcoal
  • In 1740s, coal mines were started in Virginia
  • In 1785, coal coke replaced charcoal for
    steel-making
  • In 1820, the Baltimore Ohio (BO) Railroad and
    the Chesapeake Ohio (CO) Canal began moving
    coal
  • In 1880s, electricity was generated using coal
    and steam stationary engines at Edisons Pearl
    Street Station in Manhattan
  • (But first hydroelectric plant at Appleton WI
    1882)

Ref. http//www.fe.doe.gov/education/coal_history
.html
Wikipedia.com
100126
6
5.1.1 Energy Consumption Relations
  • Consumption is a indicator of affluence, or
    possibly just cheap available energy
  • If you use as much energy as possible, you will
    achieve a very high annual income! (or could
    that be backwards?! Correlation?)

100124
7
5.2 Sources and Fuel Preparation
  • Coal is obtained by
  • Deep-mining
  • Tunneling to follow a surface seam
  • Boring to penetrate surface burden to reach it
  • Strip-mining
  • Removing the surface burden of soil
  • Excavating the coal
  • Replacing the surface burden to make a lake or
    park

http//www.archcoal.com/environment/reclamation.as
p
070121
8
5.2.1 US Coal Regions
060121
9
5.2.2 Fossil Fuels are Limited
Ref. National Energy Technology Lab. Why
Combustion? CD_ROM
030126
10
5.2.3 Underground mining is hazardous
  • Cave-ins and explosion of methane cause 33 US
    deaths (2007) and many injuries each year
  • Long-wall mining can produce coal quickly and
    inexpensively
  • Pillars left to hold up the roof
  • Is all the cost of mining death, injury, and
    disease in the price of coal?

http//www.msnbc.msn.com/Default.aspx?id3863126p
1017C7C7C7C003
Ref. http//www.fe.doe.gov/education/coal_mining.
html
100125
11
5.2.4 Strip Mining at Consol Coal
060121
12
5.2.5 Mining productivity increased by machines
050118
13
5.3 Coal Transportation
  • Classically, trains move coal from the mine to
    the point of use
  • Now, coal is often burned in mine-head power
    plants and is carried directly there from the
    mine to the boiler pile by conveyor belts
  • Ships also move coal in 50,000 ton amounts
  • Pipelines are used to move an Orimulsion coal
    slurry (mixed with water) to the end, where water
    separation occurs
  • Is the water clean? Where does it go?

100125
14
5.3.1 Coal Transportation Prices
  • Cl

030129
15
5.4 Energy Content and Selection
  • Peat, dried 8 430 Btu/lb
  • Lignite 12 070 Btu/lb
  • Bituminous Coal 14 480 Btu/lb
  • Coal, General 15 000 Btu/lb
  • Anthracite Coal 15 550 Btu/lb

Whats wanted is heat, so the Btu/ is more useful
Ref. Zerban and Nye, 1952
100125
16
5.4 Energy Price per Million Btus
  • Coal is cheapest, then natural gas, and fuel oil
    is highest

100124
17
5.5 Estimated Reserves and How They are Estimated
  • In 1955, reserves of coal and lignite were
    estimated at 3000 billion tons
  • US coal consumption was then 500 million tons per
    year
  • It would then last 3000 billion/500 million
    6,000 years
  • So whats the problem?
  • In 2004, US recoverable reserves were estimated
    at 267,312 million short tons
  • In 2004, US consumption was 1112 million short
    tons, or 240 years remaining!
  • The cost increases as coal becomes more difficult
    to mine, so consumption may decrease, extending
    the time remaining
  • Economic recovery of coal limits the possible
    amount that can be mined (if more energy is
    required to mine the coal than can be gotten from
    that coal, its not worth it! EROEI energy
    return on energy investment)

090124
18
5.6 Coal provided 54 of US electricity in 2002
050118
19
5.6.1 Coal Predominates in Electricity Generation
060115
20
5.6.2 Coal Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Coal is cheap and is estimated to last another
    100 - 400 years (depending upon who estimates)
  • Reserves/consumption years to go
  • Rising price in between will decrease consumption
  • Remaining coal will last longer
  • Coal firing has produced excessive pollution in
    the past but is now cleaner
  • Clean Coal technologies clean the coal to
    remove sulfur, remove stack fly ash, and process
    the fumes to remove 95 of NOx and 80 of
    mercury
  • Coal requires processing to wash some sulfur out
    before burning it Where do we put the wash
    water?

100124
21
5.6.3 Coal Pollution is Decreasing
http//www.netl.doe.gov/publications/proceedings/0
2/CBUniversity/bonk-ctuaw91202.pdf
060115
22
5.6.4 Gasification Combined Cycle
http//www.netl.doe.gov/publications/proceedings/0
2/CBUniversity/bonk-ctuaw91202.pdf
050118
23
5.7.1 Oxygen fires the boiler without N2 present
http//www.netl.doe.gov/publications/proceedings/0
2/CBUniversity/bonk-ctuaw91202.pdf
040120
24
5.7.2 Coal Gasification
  • If oxygen is separated out of the air, it can be
    used to partially combust the coal to produce a
    burnable gas
  • When oxygen is used instead of air (contains
    nitrogen), NO2 cannot be formed
  • Outputs are high pressure steam and syngas
  • There is some residual slag that can be buried or
    used in roadbed construction

D\TOPICAL\topical21.pdf
http//www.netl.doe.gov/publications/proceedings/0
2/CBUniversity/bonk-ctuaw91202.pdf
100124
25
5 Conclusion
  • Coal will last a hundred years longer than oil
    or NG or nuclear (uranium ore is depletable too)
  • Coal will continue to be a primary fuel close to
    coal mines
  • Coal is most suited to fixed energy plants while
    mobile use requires oil, gasoline, or natural gas
  • Coal is relatively cheap, so we use a lot of it
  • Combustion requires antipollution processing, and
    sequestration is being developed to capture CO2
  • Coal may be the replacement for oil, since synoil
    can be made
  • Some people dont want cleaner coal energy since
    more coal would be mined

100125
26
References Books
  • Zerban, Alexander H. and Edwin P. Nye. Power
    Plants. Scranton International Textbook Co.,
    1952.
  • Brower, Michael. Cool Energy. Cambridge MA The
    MIT Press, 1992. 0-262-02349-0, TJ807.9.U6B76,
    333.7940973.
  • Duffie, John and William A. Beckman. Solar
    Engineering of Thermal Processes. NY John Wiley
    Sons, Inc., 920 pp., 1991
  • Sørensen, Bent. Renewable Energy, Second Edition.
    San Diego Academic Press, 2000, 911 pp. ISBN
    0-12-656152-4.

030126
27
References Websites, etc.
15-CT-005-29 Why Combustion? http//www.netl.doe.
gov/coalpower/combustion http//www.google.com/sea
rch?qcoalhistoryhlenlrieUTF-8oeUTF-8
search Ref. National Energy Technology Lab. Why
Combustion? CD_ROM http//www.cmhrc.pwp.blueyonde
r.co.uk/ Coal history site http//www.fe.doe.gov/e
ducation/coal_history.html DOE D\TOPICAL\topical2
1.pdf http//www.tva.com/ _______________________
__________________________________________________
_______ www.dieoff.org. Site devoted to the
decline of energy and effects upon
population www.ferc.gov/ Federal Energy
Regulatory Commission www.google.com/search?q22r
enewableenergycourse22 solstice.crest.org/ data
web.usbr.gov/html/powerplant_selection.html
050118
28
Olin Engineering Complex 4.7 kW Solar PV Roof
Array
080116
29
Slide stockpile follows! Older slides follow this
one. Look at these if you have interest or time.
Its difficult to decide what to leave out of the
lecture to save time!
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