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Title: Mountain Aquifer: Cradle to Grave Analysis

Mountain Aquifer Cradle to Grave Analysis
  • Glenna Anton
  • URBS/Geog 515 Race, Poverty the Environment
  • Professor Raquel Pinderhughes, Urban Studies
    Environmental Studies Programs, San Francisco
    State University
  • Spring 2004
  • Public has permission to use the material herein,
    but only if author, course, university, and
    professor are credited.

This presentation focuses on water of the
mountain aquifer in the West Bank.
The Mountain Aquifer
Source The United Nations University, 2004
  • This presentation is designed to follow the
    various stages that mountain aquifer water in the
    West Bank goes through, from its point of
    extraction to its disposal. It takes you through
    the cradle to grave lifecycle of mountain aquifer
    water, paying particular attention to the social,
    environmental and public health impacts of the
    processes associated with mountain aquifer water.

Wadi Qelt and Ein Sultan, source The Great
Mirror, 2004
  • We start by looking at how water is extracted
    from the mountain aquifer. We then look at how it
    is distributed to areas for domestic,
    agricultural and industrial use. This is followed
    by an examination of the agricultural and
    industrial processes in which the water is used.
    Finally, we look at the distribution of mountain
    aquifer water after it has been used, to waste
    sites and waste processes it undergoes.

Geography - land
  • Geographic Palestine (Israel-Palestine), is
    bordered by Lebanon in the North, Syria and
    Jordan in the East, Egypt in the South and the
    Mediterranean Sea in the West. Its full area
    amounts to a mere 27,024 (10,434 sq mi) square
    kilometers (Elmusa 1997 17).

Source Frontline, 2003.
  • In 1948 when control over geographic Palestine
    was transferred from Britain to the State of
    Israel, it was divided into Israel proper, the
    West Bank (5,545 sq km/ 2,141 sq mi) (Elmusa

Source Applied Research Institute Jerusalem
(ARIJ), 2004
and the Gaza Strip (365 sq km/ 141 sq mi).
Source University of Texas Library Map
Collection, 2004
  • Together, the West Bank and Gaza Strip constitute
    approximately 22 of geographic Palestine (Elmusa

Source Gush Shalom, 2004
Geography - Water
  • Israel-Palestine is classified as subropical
    scrubland, semidesert, and desert (CSWSME 1999).
    Water scarcity is a severe problem in this hot,
    dry region.
  • Northwestern Israel has a cooler and wetter
    Mediterranean climate and the south is a dry
    desert. Water scarcity is a severe problem in
    this hot, dry region.

Source The Great Mirror, West Bank Southern
Countryside, 2004.
  • Although the river basin itself is one
    hydrological unit, the area it encompasses,
    Israel, the Occupied Territories and Jordan is,
    economically, culturally and politically
    fragmented in many different ways.

Source United Nations Environment Programme, 2004
  • Since 1948, the water of the Jordan basin, has
    been a source of ongoing conflict between Israel
    and the Arab riparians. However, scarcity alone
    is not the cause of conflict over water.
  • As you will see, the structure of control over
    the water supply - in this case the mountain
    aquifer - plays a crucial role in the conflict
    over water resources.

Mountain Aquifer
  • The mountain aquifer is a renewable aquifer that
    is recharged by rainfall in the Mountains of the
    West Bank (BTselem 1998).
  • It is one of the two main water sources in
    Israel-Palestine. The other main source is the
    Jordan River.

  • The reason for the significance of the mountain
    aquifer is that it is the largest and highest
    quality source of water for both Israelis and
  • It supplies Israelis with one-third of their
    water and almost all of water used by
    Palestinians in the West Bank comes from this
    aquifer (Btselem 1998).

  • The mountain aquifer system is made up of three
    different aquifers
  • 1. The western
  • 2. The northeastern
  • 3. The eastern (Elmusa 1997)

Source Palestininan Water Authority, 2004
  • Underneath the ground, the water of the mountain
    aquifer flows east and west into reservoirs. From
    these reservoirs, the water is extracted from
    wells (Btselem 1998).

Source United Nations Environment Programme, 2004
Distribution Control of Water
  • As a result of the 1967 war between Israel and
    its Arab neighbors, Israel seized control of the
    West Bank and Gaza Strip, which had previously
    been under Jordanian and Egyptian authority

  • The seizure of the West Bank gave Israel control
    over bulk of the water in the mountain aquifer.
    Through a series of abandoned property laws,
    implemented by numerous military orders, Israel
    seized control of an unknown number of
    Palestinian wells that had been used for
    irrigation (BTselem, 1998).
  • Abandoned property, you must understand, could
    be land belonging to displaced refugees, fallow
    land, Palestinian communal or religious land, or
    even the land of people who have gone on vacation
    (Hassoun 1998).

Impact of This History on Distribution Today
  • Today, Israel uses one-third of the water from
    the mountain aquifer, while the Palestinians rely
    almost entirely on the mountain aquifer for their
  • This amounts to Israel using 80 to 200282 of
    mountain aquifer water, while Palestinians use 18
    to 20 (Shiva 2002).
  • The effect is that Palestinians have been forced
    to survive on the same amount of water since
    1967, regardless of population growth (Shiva
  • To provide context, the average Israeli uses four
    times as much water as the average Palestinian,
    and the average Israeli settler eight times as
    much (Seitz 2003).

  • Israeli settlements in the West Bank have
    community swimming pools, flower gardens and
    broad expanses of green lawn. About 140
    Palestinian communities meanwhile, have no
    running water at all (Trounsan 1999).

Source The Great Mirror, West Bank Israeli
Settlement Photo 19, 2004
Uneven Distribution
  • West Bank Palestinians are using less than the
    natural water recharge on their land. Therefore,
    it will probably shock you to find out how dire
    the situation is in terms of Palestinians access
    to water.
  • the average Palestinian per capita water use
    for domestic purposes reaches 30 m3/yearcompared
    to 100 m3/year in Israel. Meanwhile, total per
    capita water use is estimated at 140 m3/year in
    Palestine compared to 580 m3/year in Israel
  • --Palestinian Hydrology Group, 2004

Public Water Tap, Jenin Source Palestinian
Hydrology Group
(No Transcript)
  • Palestinians today face innumerable barriers and
    restrictions in gaining access to water.
  • 1. High price of up-to-date technical equipment
    to dig and pump wells.
  • 2. Dependence on Israeli middle-men, who attach
    extra taxes and fees on technical equipment.
  • 3. Palestinians must obtain permits from the
    Israeli government to drill wells.

Restrictions on Drilling Wells
  • Imagine the frustration of having to pass
    eighteen stages of approval in various
    departments of the Civil Administration, Mekorot
    Israels national water corporation, the Water
    Planning Authority, and the Ministry of
    Agriculture (Btselem 1998), just to obtain a
    permit that is most often denied.

  • Of the 350 Palestinian wells in operation in the
    West Bank only twenty-three of them (6.5), have
    been drilled since 1967. However, many wells no
    longer function because of problems accessing
    up-to-date drilling pumping equipment and
    because Jewish settlements use of water from
    Israeli wells has caused Palestinian wells
    located near settlements to dry up.
  • (Btselem 1998)

Source John Reese, Palestinian Well, 2003
Drilling Restrictions
  • When Palestinians are able to obtain permits, the
    specified depth is often too shallow to produce
    significant amounts of water.
  • In fact, the more plentiful lower Cenomanian
    layer which also contains fresher water is most
    often exploited for the benefit of Israeli
    settlers (Elmusa 1997 90).
  • Overtime, overpumping of the lower layers of the
    aquifer have led to increased salinity in many
    Palestinian wells (Elmusa 199790).

A Case in Point
  • The limits on Palestinian drilling have led to
    cases, such as the one in the Toubas area in
    which, according to the head of the Palestinian
    Water Authority, Fadl Qawash, there is only one
    well for 50,000 people, which produces not more
    than five litres per capita daily (Qawash
    2003, quoted in Setiz 2003 23).

  • Thus, it is only through artificially repressing
    Palestinian water consumption, by prohibiting
    Palestinians to drill wells on their soil, or
    limiting Palestinian wells to 140 meters in
    depth, while permitting Israelis to drill wells
    as deep as 800 meters (Shiva 2002) , that Israel
    can continue to live at its current standards,
    especially in the settlements, as I will
    demonstrate later.

  • Let me reiterate
  • many Israeli settlements have community
    swimming pools, flower gardens and broad expanses
    of green lawn while about 140 Palestinian
    communitieshave no running water at all .
    During droughts it is not uncommon for Israel to
    cut water supply to the West Bank in order to
    meet its own needs.

Source above - Great Mirror, Israeli Settlement
Photo 10 right - Tanks? No. Tanks!, Nablus, 2004
Zionism Agriculture
  • The State of Israel was established by early
    Zionists whose core belief was that Jews had a
    right to reclaim the land of Israel.
  • Early Zionists brought with them a European view
    of progress that viewed the region as desolate
    and in need of development.
  • Thus, they promoted self-sufficiency and a
    romantic view of agriculture as representing the
    soul of Israel (Berck Lipow 1994).

Greening the Desert
  • Requires heavy use of pesticides and fertilizers
  • Requires transporting water from outside of the
    Jordan River Valley to drier areas in the south
  • This has had dire consequences for the ecology of
    the region and for the Palestinians access to
    their fair share of the water

Source kibbutz Ortal, 2004
Cotton Farming in Israel
  • Cultivation of water greedy cotton crops in an
    arid environment is not very sensible. Although
    Israel uses treated wastewater for growing
    cotton, that water could be conserved and used
    for other purposes.

Source Beit Hashita Kibbutz, 2004
Judaizing the Land
  • Zionist ideology (the Jewish right to the land of
    Israel) also involves establishing farmland in
    areas that are primarily Arab. The point is to
    undermine regional solidarity, thereby
    maintaining control over the water and land of
    these areas (Yiftachel1998). This, in addition to
    greening the desert, is why Israel continues to
    use the bulk of its water resources for
    agriculture even though it only makes up a small
    percentage of the GDP (Elmusa 1997).

Institutionalized Zionism
  • Today Israels water policies are guided by
    deeply entrenched Zionism in its
    institutionalized political framework.
  • The supreme authority for the formulation and
    implementation of water policy in Israelis the
    Minister of Agriculture, who is responsible for
    setting norms and standards relating to water
    quotas, quality, price, supply and use .
    (Menahem, 1998)

Uses of Water
  • Agriculture
  • Although Israel is 92 urbanized, it uses 57 of
    its water for agriculture (CWSME, 1999)
  • Israels subsidization of water for its
    agricultural sector makes little sense when we
    realize that agriculture accounts for lt4 of the
    workforce and 3 of the GDP. (CWSME, 1999)

Palestinian Agriculture
  • Unlike Israels agricultural sector, Palestinian
    agriculture plays a larger role in economic life,
    justifying a larger allocation of water to
  • Agriculture constitutes approximately 33 of the
    GDP and a similar percentage of the workforce.
    Approximately 64 of water used by Palestinians
    in the West Bank is for agriculture (Elmusa 1997).

Farmland - Jericho Valley
  • Source Palestinian Hydrology Group, 2004

Source Palestinian Hydrology Group
  • Before the Second Intifadha Palestinians
    benefited from Israels subsidization of
    agriculture. The reason is because the two
    economies are co-dependent. Thus, Palestinian
    farmers could sell their products at the same
    high prices as Israeli farmers to Israeli markets
    (Berck and Lipow, 1994).

Military Economic Reasons for Preeminent Role
of Agriculture in Palestinian Society
  • 1) Fear that Israelis will starve Palestinians
    into submission.
  • 2) Agriculture is one of the sectors in which
    Palestinians can exercise economic control and
    act as entrepreneurs. Industrial development has
    been hampered by political uncertainty and by
    policies pursued by Israeli administrators.
  • 3) ... few Palestinians hold a formal title to
    the land or water they useland that is not
    actively tilled and water that is not consumed
    can be subject to expropriation. (Berck Lipow

Contaminated Wells
  • Since the late 1970s, Palestinian farmers have
    increasingly adopted modern technological farming
    methods (Elmusa 1995).
  • Today pesticides make up almost 40 of the budget
    of local farmers. These pesticides invariably
    accumulate in aquifers. Once this happens, it is
    very difficult to reverse.
  • They usually purchase these pesticides,
    fertilizers and other agricultural inputs from
    Israeli suppliers who attach extra taxes and fees
    (Bizreit University).

Pesticide Use in Jericho
Source Applied Research Institute Jerusalem
Suppliers Are Guilty of Neglect!
  • The irresponsibility of the pesticide suppliers
    is evidenced by the lack of instruction they
    offer to farmers who, according to Sansur,
    "really have no knowledge of what they are
    dealing with." This, coupled with the fact that
    labeling is often in Hebrew, has led many into a
    mentality that, "if one drop per litre of water
    is good, ten drops is better (Bizreit University)
  • Many of these pesticides have been banned in
    industrialized nations, including Israel.

Health Impacts from Water Contamination
  • Maan Development Centre found that a large
    percentage of the most dangerous pesticides in
    the West Bank and Gaza caused cancer (blood
    cancer, lungs cancer, lymphatic, brain cancer,
    bone cancer) in addition to neurotic diseases and
    other mal-figurations and miscarriages
  • http//

  • What is clear is that the disproportional amount
    of water allocated to agriculture in the region
    makes little economic or geographic sense.

Palestinian Industry
Source Palestinian Hydrology Group
  • The Palestinian economy is de-industrialized.
  • Israels control over borders and roads as well
    as the numerous checkpoints and Israeli
    settlements that dot the West Bank create a
    non-contiguous Palestinian territory. Not only
    does Israels policy steadily diminish land that
    belongs to, but it also prevents smooth
    circulation of commodities, access to markets and
    it cuts Palestinians off from developing economic
    relationships with any other state besides Israel
    (Hanieh 2002).

Palestinian Bantustans in the West Bank
  • These brown areas
  • are the only areas
  • under full Palestinian
  • control
  • X Areas of confrontation between Israeli forces
  • and Palestinian demonstrators
  • . Areas where the Palestinian Authority is only
  • for social and civil services
  • Israeli settlements
  • Nature reserves

Source Palestine Monitor
Economic Dependency
  • The purpose of this policy is to make the
    Palestinian economy completely integrated into
    and dependent on the Israeli economy through
    expropriating land in the West Bank and forcing
    Palestinians intocantons (Hanieh 2002 39).

Low-wage Workers
  • This process is compounded by Israels recent
    move toward importing foreign, low-wage workers
    from places such as Thailand and the Philippines
    in place of hiring Palestinians workers.
  • This has meant that the Palestinian
    working-class, which was created through the
    forced dispossession from farmland in 1948, has
    become a tap that can be turned on and off
    depending on the economic and political
    situation (Hanieh 2002 35). De-development is
    thus has undermined development of an industrial
    sector in the West Bank.

How does water figure into de-development?Not
ice the 1400 gap in water used in industry
There is simply not enough water available to
have a viable industrial sector. Annual Water
Consumption per Person in Cubic Meters, Israelis
and West Bank Palestinians, 1996
Source BTselem 1998
Technological Dependency
  • De-development also affects the agricultural
  • The super-green revolution which involves the
    use of drip irrigation and other water efficient
    forms of irrigation have transformed the Jordan
    Valley, in the West Bank (Elmusa 1995).

RIVER - RESERVOIR, Source Jordan Valley Website
Super-green Revolution
  • The technologies, while water efficient, pose
    problems for West Bank farmers by increasing
    their dependence on western technologies.
  • They have had a limited impact because of their
    high capital costs and the unpredictability of
    export markets.
  • Most importantly, the new technology is suited
    not to the capabilities of small farmers or to
    their need to cultivate staple crops. Thus, they
    do not benefit the bulk of the farmers in the
    region (Elmusa 1995).

  • The important point you must understand is that
    for the Palestinians agriculture is their most
    viable economic base
  • But for the Israelis, the water is not an
    economic necessity. Most of the water from the
    mountain aquifer goes to the settlements.

  • Settlements are a big source of conflict and are
    illegal under international law, which prohibits
    an citizens of an occupying country from living
    in the occupied area.

Water From Wells to Destination
  • There are several ways that water gets from wells
    to homes and agricultural land.
  • 1) Through a piping network
  • 2) From water tanks
  • 3) From cisterns and pools

How the Piping Network Works
  • Water comes from wells and that are pumped into a
    piping network. There are valves at every
    junction of the network that open and close. When
    people turn on and off the faucet they are
    actually manually opening the valve that lets the
    water come out.

Source The Scientific Visualization Group
  • One half of the piping network is controlled by
    Israel the other half is controlled by the
    Palestinian Authority.
  • Palestinians who get their water from the Israeli
    network suffer from intermittent service because
    Israelis turn their water off during droughts and
    political turmoil.

Source Palestinian Hydrology Group
Case in Point
  • In 1984 the village of al-Rujayb reportedly
    paid JD1,000 (or about 3,000) and the
    subscribers JD35 each in order to get hooked up
    with Mekorots (Israeli National Water Carrier)
    mainline. In May 1989, however, water ceased to
    reach the houses built on higher elevations then
    the cutoff expanded to other areas until by
    December the entire village was without piped
    water (Elmusa 1997 115).

Piping Network Statistics
  • The piping network supplies 60 of Palestinian
    household with water.
  • 36 have adequate piping networks.
  • 42 must contend with leaky pipes.
  • 22 have bad networks
  • -- Palestinian Hydrology Group

  • Even though Israel supplies half of Palestinian
    households that are connected to the network with
    water, since 1993, Israel ...has spent less on
    services in the West Bank and Gaza than it has
    taken from them in tax. (Wilkinson, 2002)
  • A large part of the problem is that, to update
    infrastructure, Palestinian municipalities have
    to deal with arbitrary and bureaucratic obstacles
    enforced by the Israeli government.

Water Tankers
Water tanker, Jenin -- November 2002 Source
Palestinian Hydrology Group
  • Many communities rely on water tankers, because
    of Israels restrictions on development of new
    sources and disproportionate use of wells.
  • Most of the water tankers get their water from
    Israels National Water Carrier (Mekorot).

Problems for Water Tankers
  • High price of water - as of September 2002, 75
    of the Palestinian population lives under poverty
    line (2/day) (Palestinian Hydrology Group)
  • Harassment at the Mekorot connection
  • Tanker drivers must risk their lives to go out of
    their area to get water. The biggest problem for
    them is attacks by Israeli settlers.--
    Palestinian Hydrology Group

Water tanker at checkpoint Source John Reese
A Case in Point
  • Tanker carrying water for Beit Furik Beit Dajan
    villages in the West Bank
  • the tanker convoy had been fired on by settlers
    when one of the tankers broke down near the
    settlement entrance. While the drivers took cover
    at the DCO, about 400 meters away, settlers
    managed to unbolt and remove the water pump from
    the broken-down tanker. The soldiers at the DCO
    were quite sympathetic, the driver said, but they
    had not got the pump back (Wilkinson 2002)

  • When drivers finally manage to fill the tankers,
    they must contend with an overwhelming number of
    checkpoints and road blockages.
  • Tankers themselves are not always sterile,
    because of lack of water for cleaning.
  • To make matters worse, it is not uncommon for
    unsterilized tankers to be kept waiting for hours
    in the sun. (Wilkinson)
  • Waits at any of dozens of fixed and mobile
    Israeli military checkpoints can last for hours,
    often delay the arrival of much-needed water
    tankers, and artificially raise the price of
    those tankers water.

Cisterns and Pools
Source John Reese Photographs, Cistern, 2003
  • Cisterns are water storage reservoirs that people
    dig either into rock or into soft earth. Cisterns
    store water from springs, water tankers, rooftops
    and other sources (Elmusa 1997).
  • Cistern coverage, 615 of 708 West Bank
  • 20 (122 communities) lt 5
  • 32 (193 communities) between 5 and 50
  • 37 (223 communities) have between 50 and 95
  • 11 (68 communities have 95-- Palestinian Hyd.

  • Palestinians
  • filling a cisterm
  • with water from
  • a tanker.
  • ---Photo
  • B'Tselem, 1998

Impacts of Disparities
  • Livelihood
  • Palestinians are unable to irrigate their farms,
    yet agriculture is their key economic base.
    There has been no industrial development in the
    West Bank for many reasons, including lack of

Source John Reese Photos, Palestinian farmland
Impacts of Disparities
  • Health
  • Over-extraction has caused salinity in many wells
  • Inadequate sewage systems has led to
    contamination of wells.
  • In some places people have resorted to using
    dirty water .
  • Dirty water storage container--Rantis Village,
    West Bank
  • Photo Palestinian Hydrology Group

Case in Point
  • Btselem
  • Such extreme water shortages have created a
    colossal public health disaster throughout the
    West Bank. There are sharp increases in
    dehydration, digestive diseases, amoebic
    infections and diarrhea. Children are
    particularly vulnerable. One hospital in Hebron,
    for example, reported a case in which a breast
    feeding mother brought in her baby who was
    suffering from dehydration. The mother had not
    been drinking enough water. Without adequate
    amounts of water people cannot clean utensils,
    bottles, cisterns and tanks properly (BTselem

Case in Point
  • In some places people have resorted to pumping
    water from dirty wells. In others they use
    stagnant water to wash with. In one village
    Beit Dajan - for example, Reporter Talal Jabari ,
    observed some residentshave started putting
    ladders into their cisterns to draw what little
    stagnant water remains(Jabari 2002). Stagnant
    water is an ideal habitat for bugs and snails
    that spread disease .

Case in Point
  • Hospitals are unable to deal with the increase in
    water-related diseases. Even before the Intifidha
    hospitals could not access adequate amounts of
    water. In September 1998, for example, the
    largest hospital in Hebron was reduced to digging
    a cistern to store water that it purchased from
    water tankers. On a few occasions the previous
    summer it had no water at all. This, explained
    the director, prohibited the hospital from
    operating the dialysis machines. More than ten
    patients were in dialysis at the time (bTselem

Testimony of Mahmud Bashir Rahed Dawik, a
physician at al-Ahli Hospital in Hebron
  • In the winter, when there is no water problem,
    we customarily change the sheets every eight
    hours. Now we do it only every twelve hours,
    except, of course, where there are blood stains
    or where the patient really dirtied the sheet.
    The hospital does not have enough water for
    laundering, and we often have to wait to do the
    laundry until the water tankers arrive. The
    bathrooms do not have any running water at all.
    The hospital does not have enough water to wash
    the patients.(BTselm 1998)

Impacts of Current Political Turmoil
  • Intifadha
  • The Second Intifadha began in 2000. Ultimately,
    it is the Palestinian uprising against ongoing
    Israeli domination and control.
  • Israels response to the Intifadha has had dire
    consequences for Palestinian access to water

Destruction of Pipes
  • Water pipe destroyed by Israeli tank
  • --Source Palestinian Hydrology Group
  • Destroyed water pipe
  • Source John Reese

The Separation Wall
  • A separation wall is currently being built along
    the eastern border of the West Bank. Israel calls
    it a security fence, but many believe that it
    is actually an attempt to create a new eastern
  • --It cuts juts far into the West Bank.
    Significantly diminishing Palestinian land.

Source John Reese Photos
  • So far, at least 32 Palestinian wells, numerous
    olive groves and agricultural land has been
    confiscated in the process of building the
    security fence and this is only the beginning
    stages of construction --Palestinian Hydrology
  • The fence separates many Palestinian villages (on
    the eastern side of the fence) from their wells
    and farmland (on the western side).
  • Confiscation of wells

Source Gush Shalom
The Wall
Structural Terror The construction continues -
Qalandya Source Middle East Report
  • Palestinian Hydrology Group reports that wells on
    the opposite side of the fence are located in
    the Western Groundwater Basin and were drilled
    prior to 1967. As a result, Palestinians will
    loose nearly 18 of their share of the Western
    Groundwater Basin (Palestinian Hyd. Group). For
    many villages, that is their only water sources.

  • This cradle to grave analysis of water from the
    mountain aquifer calls into to question the
    existing racial, and class inequalities in
    Israel-Palestine in light of the values of
    equality, rationality and sustainability.

  • Only by recognizing that current structure of
    control over water from the mountain aquifer, can
    we recognize that adoption of more
    water-efficient technologies by Palestinians and
    more equitiable distribution of water resources
    cannot occur without simultaneous political and
    economic restructuring in the region. Most
    importantly, of course, this restructuring would
    involve a complete end to the Israeli occupation
    of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.

  • Amery, Hussein A. and Aaron T. Wolf. 2000. Water
    in the Middle East A Geography of Peace.
    Austin The University of Texas Press.
  • Berck, Peter and Jonathon Lipow. 1994. Real and
    Ideal Water Rights The Prospect for Reform in
    Israel, Gaza and the West Bank. Resource and
    Energy Economics. 16 287-301.
  • BTselem (The Israeli Information Center for
    Human Rights in the Occupied Territories). 1998.
    Disputed Waters Israels responsibility for the
    water shortage in the Occupied Territories
    on-line. http//
    d_Waters_Eng.doc. (last accessed April 25, 2004)
  • Committee on Sustainable Water Supplies for the
    Middle East. 1999. Water for the Future The West
    Bank and Gaza Strip, Israel, and Jordan.
    Washington D.C. National Academy Press
  • Elmusa, Sharif S. 1994. A Harvest of Technology
    The Super-Green Revolution in the Jordan Valley.
    Washington D.C. Center for Contemporary Arab
    Studies Georgetown University.
  • Elmusa, Sharif S. 1997. Water Conflict
    Economics, Politics, Law and the
    Palestinian-Israeli Water Resources. Washington
    D.C. Institute for Palestine Studies.
  • Hassoun, Rosina. 1998. Water Between Arabs and
    Israelis Researching Twice-Promised Resources.
    In J. Donahue and B.R. Johnston, Eds. Water,
    Culture, and Power Local Struggles in a Global
    Context. Washington, DC Island Press.
  • Hanieh, Adam. 2002. Class, Economy, and the
    Second Intifada. Monthly Review. 54(5) 29-41.

  • Jabari, Talal. 2002. Waterless World. Palestine
    Monitor on-line. http//
    /factsheet/waterless_world.htm. (last accessed
    May 10, 2004).
  • Menahem, Gila. 1998. Policy Paradigms, Policy
    Networks and Water Policy in Israel. Journal of
    Public Policy. 18 283-310.
  • Palestinian Hydrology Group (PHG). 2004.
    Background. on-line. http//
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