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Occupational Skin Disorders

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Outline Controlling Airborne Hazards. Function and Anatomy of the Skin ... Tars, arsenic compounds, plant sensitizers (poison oak and ivy) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Occupational Skin Disorders


1
Occupational Skin Disorders
  • Industrial Hygiene
  • IENG 341
  • Carter J. Kerk
  • Industrial Engineering Program
  • SD Tech
  • Spring 2005

2
Reading Assignment
  • Nims, Chapter 8

3
Outline Controlling Airborne Hazards
  • Function and Anatomy of the Skin
  • Causes of Occupational Skin Injuries
  • Preventing Occupational Skin Damage

4
Introduction
  • Skin disorders rank among the top occupational
    injuries reported each year
  • 60,000 cases in US in 1993 (BLS)
  • Probably an underestimate

5
Function and Anatomy of the Skin
  • Skin is a first line of defense for the body
    against attack
  • Heat, cold, wetness, dryness, corrosives,
    chemicals, abrasives, sharps, insect bites,
    bacteria, sunlight
  • You probably have scars from past attacks

6
Skin is an Organ
  • Average surface area 21 ft2
  • Physical barrier, moisture barrier, organ of
    sensory perception
  • 70 feet of sensory nerves per in2
  • Heat, cold, pain , pressure
  • Helps regulate thermal system
  • Sweating
  • Contains blood vessels, hairs, sweat glands, oil
    glands
  • Thickness varies from 0.5 to 4 mm, depending on
    location

7
Three Skin Layers
  • Epidermis (Outer Layer)
  • Dermis (Middle Layer)
  • Subcutaneous (Deep Layer)

8
Epidermis (Outer Layer)
  • Basal layer
  • Keratin layer (horny layer or stratum corneum)
  • Dead, keratin-filled cells
  • Excellent barrier, except against alkaline
    materials and fat-soluble materials (organic
    solvents)
  • Langerhans cells (immune system)
  • Sites for haptens leading to allergic response
  • Melanocytes pigment producing cells
  • Pigment melanin determines hair and skin
    color
  • Exposure to UV wavelengths stimulates melanin
    production freckles, suntan, skin thickening
  • Low melanin production - albinism

9
Exposure to Chemicals
  • Some chemicals may cause loss of pigment from
    exposed skin
  • Phenolic compounds, germicidal cleaners,
    metalworking fluids, paints, plastic resins
  • Interferes with melanin production destruction
    of melanin-containing cells

10
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11
Dermis (Middle Layer)
  • Also called corium
  • Contains connective tissue that supports skin,
    gives structure
  • Leather goods from animal hides
  • Contains blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles,
    some muscle, oil and sweat glands
  • Oil produces provides some water repellence,
    maintains moisture, gives skin flexibility
  • Folliculitis inflammation or irritation of hair
    follicles

12
Subcutaneous (Deep Layer)
  • Contains fatty and connective tissue
  • Provides cushion
  • Provides insulation
  • Binds the skin to underlying tissues

13
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14
Causes of Occupational Skin Injuries
  • Mechanical
  • Chemical
  • Ultraviolet radiation
  • biological

15
Response to Hazardous Materials
  • Depends on
  • Physical condition of skin
  • Environmental conditions (heat/humidity)
  • Perspiration layer, pore size
  • Amount of moisture in skin
  • Amount of pigmentation
  • Body location
  • Age and gender
  • Pre-existing damage or allergies
  • Personal hygiene habits

16
Mechanical Damage
  • Friction resulting in blisters
  • Abrasion from rough surfaces
  • Physical damage from sharps
  • Irritation from small glass fibers
  • Burns (mild to severe to fatal)
  • Frostbite

17
Chemical Damage
  • The most common cause of skin damage and disease
  • Irritants or sensitizers
  • Allergic Contact Dermatitis
  • Sensitizing agents producing a response after a
    single or multiple exposure and only in some
    individuals
  • Redness, swelling, cracking, immune system
    effects
  • Systemic responses (difficulty breathing,
    inflammation of airways, pulmonary edema
  • Common chemicals phenol, epoxy, rubber,
    acrylics, nickel, plant resins

18
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19
Irritant Contact Dermatitis
  • Difficult to distinguish from allergic contact
    dermatitis
  • Caused by exposure to chemicals
  • Solvents, acids, bases
  • Degreasing solvents dissolve and remove oily
    protection of the skin
  • Long-term exposure causes permanent damage
  • Chlorinated solvents cause chloracne

20
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21
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22
Chemical Damage Cont.
  • Occupational Acne
  • Oily/greasy compounds may cause acne-like
    eruptions (Water soluble cutting oils, creosote,
    tar)
  • Hyperpigmentation
  • Darkening of the skin from chronic physical
    irritation (e.g., itching)
  • Some chemicals may stimulate the production of
    melanin (thus darkening)
  • Tars, arsenic compounds, plant sensitizers
    (poison oak and ivy)
  • Corrosive materials (acids and bases)
  • Localized damage ranging from erythema (reddening
    of the skin) to open sores and ulcers (e.g.,
    chrome holes)

23
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24
Damage from Ultraviolet Radiation
  • Sunburn
  • Skin cancer incidence has been increasing
  • Each year in the US, about 1,000,000 learn they
    have skin cancer
  • Some are occupationally-related
  • Especially among outdoor workers
  • Construction workers, road builders, roofers,
    landscapers, foresters
  • Two other reactions phototoxic, photoallergic
  • Involve a chemical along with the presence of UV
    radiation

25
Phototoxic Reactions
  • Involves a chemical along with UV radiation
  • Localized areas of tenderness at exposed location
  • Example roofer is more easily sunburned on skin
    that has been exposed to hot roofing tar or tar
    fumes

26
Photoallergic Reaction
  • Involves a chemical along with UV radiation
  • Involves the immune system
  • Only affects some individuals
  • Example bartender who squeezed limes while
    working in the sun

27
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28
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29
Biological Agents
  • Can affect the skin, producing a systemic effect
    if untreated
  • Bacteria, fungi, insects, parasites, poisonous
    plants, snakes, jellyfish
  • Urticaria produced by plants and animals,
    causing reddening, swelling, small fluid
    eruptions
  • Example natural latex rubber

30
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31
Biological Agents, Cont.
  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever
  • Tick borne illness
  • Fever, aches, rash on hands/feet, organ failure,
    death
  • Lyme disease
  • Tick borne bacteria
  • Leaves a small red circle that grows into a
    bulls eye
  • Fever, aches, nausea, vomiting, heart effects,
    rarely to death

32
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33
Anthrax
  • A bacteria that lives in the hair of sheep and
    other animals and can live in soil for many years
  • Cutaneous anthrax
  • Enters the body through a cut in skin
  • Pulmonary anthrax
  • Inhalation entry, easily misdiagnosed
  • Can be treated with antibiotics

34
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35
Tetanus (Lockjaw)
  • A bacteria found in soil, dust, manure
  • Enters skin through cuts, scratches, puncture
    wounds and attacks nervous system
  • Causes severe muscle spasms that may lead to
    death by suffocation
  • Get a tetanus shot every 5-10 years

36
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37
Prevention of Occupational Skin Damage
  • Engineering Controls
  • Substitution, process re-design to eliminate or
    reduce contact, automation, closed systems
  • Dont forget about maintenance and service
    workers
  • Make plans for spills and leaks
  • Administrative Controls
  • Training, personal hygiene (remember lead and
    ingestion), barrier creams, rotation
  • 29 CFR 1910.141, Sanitation
  • Requires all workplaces contain a basin for
    washing, hot and cold running water, soap, clean
    towels or hot air dryers
  • PPE gloves, aprons, boots, full body suits,
    face shields, goggles
  • Provide a barrier meet specifications for
    degradation and permeation

38
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39
HW8
  • Critical Thinking Questions
  • P. 202
  • 1, 2, 4
  • Due Wednesday, April 13
  • No class on April 13th, so slide this assignment
    under my door
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