Politics in the Gilded Age - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Politics in the Gilded Age PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 565f9-MjA3N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Politics in the Gilded Age

Description:

... that they owned little stock, into Credit Mobilier, ... 'Turn the Rascals out!' Nominated Horace Greeley for President. Editor of the New York Tribune ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:299
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 40
Provided by: lauri53
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Politics in the Gilded Age


1
Politics in the Gilded Age
2
1. Part Four Intro. (pp. 500501)
  • This introduction gives you a preview of the
    authors answers to certain key questions about
    the pallid politics and corruption but at the
    same time massive changes taking place in
    American life in the latter part of the
    nineteenth century.
  • Look at this section and list three major
    questions you think the authors will be
    addressing in the next five chapters.

3
1870 US -3rd largest nation in the World.
1870                                            
                                                  
                                                  
                                    
4
Civic Health of the United States
  • Waste
  • Corruption
  • extravagance
  • Speculation
  • Graft

5
Election of 1868
  • Republicans
  • Ulysses S. Grant
  • Let Us Have Peace
  • Waved the Bloody Shirt
  • Vote as You Shoot
  • Democrats
  • Could only agree that they wanted to get rid of
    military reconstruction
  • Wealthy Eastern Democrats
  • Wanted federal war bonds to b e redeemed in gold
  • Eastern Democrats
  • Ohio Idea- Redemption in Greenbacks
  • Farmers
  • More money in circulation
  • Lower interest rate
  • Nominee Horatio Seymour against the Ohio Idea

6
(No Transcript)
7
(No Transcript)
8
Ulysses S. Grant
  • How important was the black vote in electing
    Grant and how did this political factor affect
    the Reconstruction policy of the Republican
    party?

Let us Have Peace
9
A few skunks can pollute a large area.
10
Era of Good Stealings…..
  • Free wheeling railroad promoters
  • Stock market manipulators
  • Corrupt judges
  • Bribed legislators

An honest politician was one who when
bought, Stayed bought!
11
SCANDALS
  • Black Friday (Fiske and Gould)
  • Credit Mobilier
  • Boss Tweed
  • Whiskey Ring

12
  • Boss _________ in New York City is cited as an
    example of political corruption.

13
  • A combination of the two was the Crédit
    Mobilier scandal. What did the Crédit Mobilier
    scandal involve?
  • Credit Mobilier was a construction company that
    helped build the Union Pacific Railroad.
  • The company was owned by some union Pacific
    stockholders who gave the construction company
    huge contracts.
  • They were funneling money from Union Pacific, a
    company that they owned little stock, into Credit
    Mobilier, where they owned a majority of the
    stock.
  • With Union Pacific receiving government
    subsidies and funds, the investors were stealing
    government money.
  • To avoid a governmental inquiry into the
    transaction, the investors gave Credit Mobilier
    stock to members of Congress.
  • A congressional investigation in 1872 revealed
    many congressmen, high ranking republicans, and
    vice-president Schuyler Colfax took stock in the
    company. The scandal marred Grant's first term.
    Schuyler was replaced for the election in 1872.
    This began the uncovering of several scandals.

14
  • Ulysses S. Grant
  • Waving the bloody shirt
  • Jubilee Jim Fisk
  • Jay Gould
  • Boss Tweed
  • Thomas Nast
  • Crédit Mobilier
  • Whiskey Ring
  • Liberal Republicans.
  • Horace Greeley
  • General Amnesty Act (1872)

PEDITL
15
The Liberal Republican Revolt of 1872
  • People were disgusted
  • Reform minded people banded together
  • Turn the Rascals out!
  • Nominated Horace Greeley for President
  • Editor of the New York Tribune
  • Unsound in his political judgments
  • Democrats nominated him too!

16
Tough Election
  • Mud Slinging
  • Republicans called Greeley
  • Athiest, communist, free lover, vegetarian,
  • Democrats called Grant
  • Ignoramus, drunkard, swindler

17
(No Transcript)
18
The Republican Congress
  • Passed a General Amnesty Act
  • Removed political disabilities from 500 former
    Confederate Leaders
  • Reduced high Civil War Tarrifs
  • Passed some civil service reforms
  • Liberal Republicans had left their mark!

19
PROBLEM IN 1873
  • Depression
  • Caused by Overexpansion
  • 15,000 businesses went bankrupt
  • Black Americans were hard hit
  • Freemans Savings and Trush
  • Made unsecured loans- went under
  • 7 million lost
  • Debtors hard hit
  • Want inflation

20
Money Problems
  • During the Civil War 450 million paper money in
    circulation
  • By 1868- 100 million withdrawn from circulation
  • Hard Money advocates want no soft money in
    circulation
  • Cheap Money supporters- want more greenbacks in
    circulation

21
1873 Depression and Hard Money (pp. 506507)
  • a. The first paragraph of this section summarizes
    nicely the boom and bust cycles that seem to
    afflict American capitalism every generation or
    so. In your own words, what caused the economic
    panic of 1873?

22
  • b. We are used to inflation today (i.e., prices
    being higher this year than last). But in the
    late 1800s, the government actually contracted
    the money supply per capita, causing deflation
    (i.e., a loaf of bread would cost less this year
    than last). Why would debtors in the countryside
    who owed people money want more silver to be
    coined and more dollars to be printed? Why would
    eastern financial interests who lent money
    (creditors) oppose these inflationary actions?
  • (1) Debtors for inflation
  • (2) Creditors against inflation

23
Hard Money Advocates Won!
  • 1874- persuaded Grant to veto a bill to print
    more paper money.
  • Passed the Resumption Act of 1875
  • Take more paper money out of circulation
  • Redeem paper currency in gold at face value
    starting in 1879.

24
Debtors looked to SILVER!
  • Early 1870s Treasury said that 1oz of silver
    1/16 oz of Gold
  • Silver mines stopped selling to federal mints
  • 1873- stopped coinage of SILVER
  • Then- more Silver was discovered
  • Price of silver went down
  • Westerners from Silver mining states called it
    the Crime of 73

25
Hard Money Republicans SAY NO!
  • Treasury began to accumulate gold stocks
  • Reduced greenbacks
  • This is called CONTRACTION
  • Had a noticable deflationary effect
  • The amount of money per capita in circulation
    decreased between 1870 and 1881 from, 19.43-
    19.37
  • Probably worsened the effects of the DEPRESSION
  • Did restore the governments credit rating
  • Brought the Greenbacks up to their full face
    value.
  • Political Backlash
  • Helped elect a Democratic House of
    Representatives in 1874
  • Spawned the Greenback Labor Party in 1878

26
Politics was delicate balance during this time
period
  • Every election was a squeaker
  • Majority party in the House of Reps switched six
    times in 11 sessions between 1869-1891
  • Few significant issues separated the parties
  • Still ferocious competition

27
Political Parties…
  • Were tightly organized
  • Fiercely loyal
  • Voter Turnout was High 80

28
.
  • Politics in the Gilded Age was passionate if
    not particularly inspiring. Party distinctions
    had many similarities to the present day. List a
    few words to describe the Republican and
    Democratic parties of the period.
  • (1) Republican
  • (2) Democratic

29
PATRONAGE
  • Lifeblood of both parties
  • Republicans- Infighting
  • Stalwart Factions
  • Roscoe Conkling (US Senator from NY
  • Half Breeds
  • James Blaine of Maine

30
  • In 1876, the two major candidates running for
    President were Rutherford B. Hayes, a Republican,
    and Samuel J. Tilden, a Democrat.

31
Hayes Tilden Standoff
32
  • The first returns indicated a victory for Tilden,
    who had won the popular vote with 4,284,020 votes
    to Hayes' 4,036,572.
  • But Tilden's 184 electoral votes -- the votes
    that would decide the Presidency -- were still
    one short of a majority, while Hayes' 165
    electoral votes left him 20 ballots away.
  • The votes of three Southern states and one
    western state still had not been counted.

33
  • The 20 electoral votes remaining in dispute were
    one from Oregon and 19 from the three Southern
    states that still retained Republican-controlled
    electoral boards -- Florida (4), Louisiana (8),
    and South Carolina (7). What complicated the
    matter was that Democrats in these states had won
    the state elections, mostly by violence and
    fraud.

34
  • Both parties claimed victory.
  • The Republicans, who still held a majority on the
    electoral boards that would certify the election
    results, claimed that Hayes was elected because
    the Democrats' used fraud, violence, and
    intimidation in the Southern states. They "threw
    out" enough Democratic votes for Hayes to win in
    all three states.
  • The Democrats submitted their own list for
    Tilden. In Oregon, Hayes had clearly won but the
    Democratic governor had managed to confuse things
    by sending one elector in Tilden's favor.

35
  • The Electoral College controversy would drag on
    for months, not reaching resolution until almost
    the eve of the scheduled inauguration on March 5,
    1877.

36
  • To break the deadlock, Congress appointed an
    Electoral Commission, made up of five Senators,
    five members of the House of Representatives, and
    five Supreme Court justices.
  • Congress originally hoped to have seven
    Republican members of the Commission, seven
    Democrats, and one independent.
  • As it turned out, however, the actual membership
    turned out to consist of eight Republicans and
    seven Democrats.

37
  • The Commission voted along straight party lines 8
    to 7 to accept all of Hayes' electoral votes and
    reject the Democrat's claims. The night before
    President Grant's term expired, the Senate
    announced Hayes had been elected President.

38
  • The deadlock was broken behind closed doors when
    Southern Democrats agreed to support Hayes' claim
    for the Presidency if he would support increased
    funding for Southern internal improvements and
    agree to end Reconstruction, thus guaranteeing
    home rule -- meaning white control -- in the
    South.
  • Hayes became President and the Southern Democrats
    could reverse with impunity the gains that blacks
    had made during Reconstruction.

39
  • b. The backroom Compromise of 1877 involved ____
    (number) disputed electoral votes in the 1876
    election between Republican Rutherford B.
    ________ and Democrat Samuel J. _______. The deal
    gave the presidency to _________ in return, among
    other things, for the Democratic desire to
    withdraw the last federal troops from the South.
    This ended Republican commitment to racial
    equality in the South and completed the reversion
    of southern state governments to the white
    redeemers. What effect did the following have
    on the institution of legalized social
    segregation (Jim Crow laws) and black economic
    subservience in the South?
  • (1) Compromise of 1877
  • (2) Civil rights cases (1883)
  • (3) Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
About PowerShow.com