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## Power System Engineering

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### 7.5 MW Wind System and 500kW PV System. Atlantic City, NJ. Final Quiz #3 MONDAY 4.45PM ... HAWT downwind. HAWT upwind, requires yaw control. Power in the Wind ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Power System Engineering

1
Power System Engineering
• ECE 0909.408.01
• ECE 0909.504.02 - Lecture 13
• 1 May 2006
• Dr. Peter Mark Jansson PP PE

2
• Final Training Tour
• Leaves 1.00 PM THIS Thursday
• 4 May 2006
• Atlantic City Utility Authority
• 7.5 MW Wind System and 500kW PV System
• Atlantic City, NJ
• Final Quiz 3 MONDAY 4.45PM

3
Aims for Today
• Course Evaluations
• The Power System of the Future
• Able to handle a myriad of distributed resources
• Power in the Wind
• PV potential
• My ideas

4
Wind Turbines
• Wind energy is proportional to V3, Why?

5
Simple Rule of Thumb
• Annual Energy (kWh) 1.64 D2 V3
• D rotor diameter, meters
• V annual average wind speed (m/sec)

6
Wind Turbine types
• VAWT
• HAWT downwind
• HAWT upwind, requires yaw control

7
Power in the Wind
8
Why using average wind speed is a poor
approximation of site potential
• Lets use our new equation to consider the
following
• What is energy in 200 hours of 7m/s wind?
• Compare with energy in 100 hours of 4m/s and 100
hours at 10m/s
• (NOTE both average 7m/s)?

9
Power in the Wind
10
Impact of Tower Height
11
Example
• If you have anemometer data from a 10-m tower (6
m/s ave.) across a surface of crops, hedges, and
shrubs and want to estimate how much higher the
wind is at 40 meters, how do you do it?

12
solution
13
Max theoretical rotor efficiency
• Max theoretical is called Betz efficiency
• For typical turbines this is 59
• Under ideal conditions todays turbines can
achieve 80 of the max theoretical
• So many turbines range between 45-50

14
Rayleigh Probability Density Function
• With wind we typically do not have a normal
distribution.
• A Weibull or Rayleigh p.d.f. is much more common,
we will learn the Rayleigh a form of Wiebull when
k2. (see below)

15
Rayleigh Probability Density Function
• With the assumption of a Rayleigh distribution we
have a very powerful analytical tool.
• To calculate the number of hours in a given year
we will experience wind above or below a certain
level the process is quite simple

16
Example
• If we have a site where the wind speed (average)
is 7 m/s and we assume a Rayleigh distribution,
how many hours per year will the wind speed be
less than 4 m/s (the cut in velocity for an NEG
micon 1000/54 wind turbine)?

17
Solution
• How many hours per year will the wind speed be
less than 4 m/s?

18
Solution
• How many hours per year will the wind speed be
less than 4 m/s?
• 0.2262 x 8760 1982 hours

19
Using this and a WT Power Spec
• Combining these two we can predict effectively
the power generated at any given site

20
Rayleigh PDF and Power Curve
• 2) calculate hours at each speed (see below).
• 3) use manufacturers data for turbine generation
at each wind speed
• 4) estimate annual generation

21
Wind PV Production (96-03)
Wind production PV production
22
Wind Grows 20 in 04, 25 in 05
59,322
2005
23
U.S. Leads installs (05) - 2,431 MW
Bowling Green, Ohio
24
Before Renewables Efficiency First!
• Make buildings homes that are more
• Energy Efficient
• Cost-effective to Operate
• Environmentally Friendly

25
NJ Wind Resources
26
Wind Turbines
27
Wind Turbines
• A wind turbine obtains its power input by
converting the force of the wind into a torque
• The amount of energy which the wind transfers to
the rotor depends on the density of the air, the
rotor area, and the wind speed.

28
Wind Turbines
• A wind turbine will deflect the wind before it
even reaches the rotor plane which means that all
of the energy in the wind cannot be captured
using a wind turbine.

29
Wind Turbine Energy
• The annual energy delivered by a wind turbine can
be estimated by using the equation

The cost of electricity will vary with wind
speed. The higher the average wind speed, the
greater the amount of energy, and the lower the
cost of electricity
30
Wind Power Classifications
31
Delaware Bay / Coastal Wind Speeds
• Areas along shore or in mountains may be ideal
for wind power
• Wind speeds as low as
• 4.5 -5.5 m/s
• for res farms/comm
• gt6.0 m/s can be used
• for power farms
• At 6.5 m/s, electricity can be below
• 0.07/kWh

True Wind Solutions
32
2006 NJCEP Rebates
• Wind and Sustainable Biomass Systems
• Systems lt 10 kW 5.00/watt
• Maximum incentive (60 of system costs)
• Systems gt 10kW
• First 10 kW 3.00/watt
• gt 10 to 100 kW 2.00/watt
• gt 100 to 500 kW 1.50/watt
• gt 500 kW, up to 1000 kW 0.15/watt
• Maximum incentive (30 of system costs)

33
Sample 10 kW Turbine in NJ
• 5.1 m/s at ground, 24 m (80ft) 5.7 m/s aloft
• Power generated 18,000 kWh/year
• Turbine 24,750
• Tower 6,800
• Install/Misc 5,500
• NJCEP Rebate (60) 22,230
• Net Cost 14,820
• 15 year electric cost 5.5/kWh
• Simple Payback 7.5 years

- Class II wind regime
34
Eachus Dairy Farm
Neptune Organic Farm
ACUA 7.5-MW New Jersey Wind Farm
Bayshore Discovery Project
35
New Jersey Wind Farm 7.5MW
36
Most important wind info
• At least 1 year of data more preferable

37
PV in NJ
• Nations First Solar State

38
Wind PV Production (96-03)
Wind production PV production
39
Solar Resources Total Diffuse
40
Semi-Conductor Physics
• PV technology uses semi-conductor materials to
convert photon energy to electron energy
• Many PV devices employ
• Silicon (multi-crystalline, amorphous or single)
• Other electrically active semiconductor materials
• Cadmium telluride, gallium asenide, CIS, etc.

41
Historic PV modules price/cost decline
• 1958 1,000 / Watt
• 1970s 100 / Watt
• 1980s 10 / Watt
• 1990s 3-6 / Watt
• 2000-2004
• 1.8-2.5/ Watt (cost)
• 3.50-4.75/ Watt (price)

42
PV cost projection
• 1.50 ? 1.00 / Watt
• 2005 ? 2008
• SOURCE US DOE / Industry Partners
• Today you could have a grid interactive PV System
installed by a contractor (Home Depot) for
between 6.75 and 8.45 per watt. Equipment Only
in range of 4.10-5.50/watt.

43
PV system types
• Grid Interactive and BIPV
• Stand Alone
• Irrigation Pumping / Livestock Watering Troughs
• Cathodic Protection
• Battery Back-Up Stand Alone
• Refrigeration
• Communications
• Rural Electrification
• Lighting

44
How Large a System do You Need?
• Method
• First Determine Electric Use (try to reduce 1st)
• Determine Solar Resource (SP, model, calcs)
• Select PV Modules or
• Select DC-AC Inverter
• Assure Module Strings Voc and Isc meet inverter
specifications (for max and mins)
• Estimate Your Production (1200 kWh/ kW-DC)

45
Grid-interactive roof mounted
46
NJ Solar (PV) Incentives
• NJ Clean Energy Program
• 5.10/watt rebate for grid connected systems up
to 10kW (Smaller rebates above 10kW)
• Net Metering to 2MW
• Solar Renewable Energy Certificates
• NJ RPS requires 2 MW 2004 ? 90 MW 2008
• lt 8 MW currently installed in the state

47
NJCEP Rebates
• Solar Electric Systems 2006 (PV Rebates)
•
• System Size
• 0 to 10,000 watts 5.10/watt
• 10,001 to 40,000w 3.90/watt
• 40,001 to 100,000w 3.45/watt
• 100,001 to 700,000 3.20/watt

- Reduce by ITC if eligible and to 85 of value
for self-install
48
Economic Value a NJ Home
• PV Systems would have 25-30 year payback
• With NJCEP Rebates reduces to 10 year
• With SREC payments it could be less than 7 year
• 5 years of SRECs at 15 /kWh 3600 for 4kW
system
• PV Systems can produce between 1100 and 1350 kWh
per installed kW annually across New Jersey
• Cost After Rebate 9,000 for a 4 kW system
• 20 year electricity cost 9.4/kWh w/o SREC
• 5.6/kWh w/5yrs of SREC at 15 /kWh

49
• Month Max Min Cum Av
• June 05 250 80 179
• July 05 260 110 189
• August 05 265 100 201

50
Solar PV - Practical Information
• Approx South Facing Roof or field
• Roof angles from 20-50 degrees
• Less than 200 from loads
• Every 70 square feet of area can yield up to 1000
kWh per year in New Jersey

51