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... Process might be in Asia (the Gandhi Tradition of Grassroots Movements) ... Compare what 'is' (facts) to what should be (according to the plan) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Agenda

  • Review of Last week
  • Anther word on Partnering
  • Working with the United Nations
  • Rules for Radicals and Advocacy
  • Paticipatory methods
  • Monitoring Evaluation

Group Meetings
  • History and Evolution of NGOs
  • Defining NGOs
  • Justifying their Place
  • Development Process
  • Problems and Solutions
  • Project Planning Logical Frameworks
  • From Project to Programs and Strategy
  • Missions and Broader Development Goals
  • NGO Organizational Structures, Boards
  • Partnering

Decision Making at the UN
  • The UN Who Makes Decisions?
  • How are Decisions Made?

Where do NGOs fit into the UN System?
  • Seek Accreditation Observer Status
  • Consutation to UN Bodies
  • Monitoring and Sharing Information
  • Activism, Press Releases, etc.
  • BUT . . . Governments remain main force for

UN NGO Interface Points
  • Liaison Office
  • Department of Economic and Social Affairs
  • Department of Public Information
  • CONGO http//
  • World Summit for Information Societies
  • Panel of Emminent Persons
  • http//

UN Programs and Funds
  • Strategy - http//
  • Program for Action
  • http//

Serenity Complex, Ramnagar Colony,Pashan, Pune
411 021. INDIA Tel 91-020-2952003/4
  • Public Advocacy is a planned and organized set of
    actions to effectively influence public policies
    and to get them implemented in a way that would
    empower the marginalised. In a liberal democratic
    culture, it uses the instruments of democracy and
    adopts non-violent and constitutional means.
    Public advocacy generally promotes public good
    and attempts to bring about social justice. It
    focuses attention on furthering the well being of
    the underprivileged members of the community.
  • Advocacy Institute
  • International Budget Project

Methods Typically Discussed
  • Engaging the mass media,
  • Working through legal systems,
  • Lobbying law makers,
  • Networking, forming coalitions
  • raising questions in parliament,
  • access to information (Freedom of Information
  • door-to-door awareness campaigns and mass
    mobilization for demonstrations
  • civil disobedience.
  • Voter registration
  • What else?

Typical Advocacy Objectives
  • Laws Changed
  • Rights Granted
  • Budgets modified
  • Programs Created or Stopped
  • What else?

  • Born in 1909, the son of Russian Jewish
    immigrants, Alinsky
  • Passion for justice which originated from his
    experience growing up in Chicago's Jewish ghetto
  • Motivated by his mother, Sarah Rice...She taught
    him that...individuals must be responsible for
    other individuals and that you can't just walk
    away when you see something that's not right.
  • In 1950 Challenged Mayor Richard J. Daley's
    powerful political machine through a radical
    voter registration drive.
  • In 1965, Alinsky took on Eastman Kodak over the
    issue of racial hiring.

Saul Alinsky
His Quotes, Industrial Areas Foundation
  • . . . education of the radicals of today, and
    to the conversion of hot, emotional, impulsive
    passions that are impotent and frustrating to
    actions that will be calculated, purposeful, and
  • It becomes a contest of power those who have
    money and those who have people. We have nothing
    but people.
  • . . . this is accompanied by charitable
    handouts dressed up in ribbons of moral principle
    and freedom with the price tag of unqualified
    political loyalty to (the haves).
  • We must see the world as it is and not as we
    would like it to be.
  • Change Constantly examining life

13 Rules for Radicals
  • Power is not only what you have, but what the
    target thinks you have.
  • Never go outside the expertise of your people.
    Feeling secure stiffens the backbone.
  • Whenever possible, go outside the expertise of
    the target. Look for ways to increase insecurity,
    anxiety, and uncertainty.
  • Make the target live up to its own book of rules.
    If the rule is that every letter (or e-mail) gets
    a reply, send thousands.
  • Ridicule, especially against organizational
    leaders, is a potent weapon. There's no defense.
    It's irrational. It's infuriating. It also works
    as a key pressure point to force concessions.
  • A good tactic is one your people enjoy. They'll
    keep doing it without urging and come back to do
    more. They'll even suggest better ones.

13 Rules for Radicals
  • A tactic that drags on too long becomes a drag
  • Keep the pressure on. Never let up. Keep trying
    new tactics to keep the opposition off balance.
    As the target masters one approach, hit them with
    something new.
  • The threat is usually more terrifying than the
    thing itself
  • The major premise for tactics is the development
    of operations that will maintain a constant
    pressure upon the opposition.
  • If you push hard on the negative, it will break
    through into its counterside.
  • The price of a successful attack is a
    constructive alternative
  • Pick the target. Target an individual,
    personalize the attack, polarize and demoralize
    his/her supporters. Go after people, not
    institutions. Hurting, harassing, and humiliating
    individuals, especially leaders, causes more
    rapid organizational change.

Industrial Areas Foundation
  • http//

Saul Alinsky
Transnational Actors
  • Need to recognize the issues, questions, and
    controversy about the role of International NGOs
    in Advocacy Movements
  • What do we mean by transnational actors
  • Apolitical Agencies - Epistemic Communities
    (Global Warming, etc.)
  • More political Actors the One Campaign, etc.
  • Again, what is the acceptable role

Can we trust NGO Advocates?
  • Constructivists View NGOs true to mission
  • Skeptics NGOs serve interest of staff

Transnational Action
  • If you accept the constructivist argument that
    NGOs are indepenedent and tied to their missions
    . . .
  • THEN we need to ask whether or not we think that
    they can be effective advocates abroad or not.
  • Transnational Advocacy Networks link scales of
    organization and political action with
    implications for the strengthening of Ecuadorian
    democracy and civil society. (Thomas Perreault)

Political Responsibility in Transnational NGO
  • How do they define political responsibility?
  • Can We?
  • Embrace Goal of Campaign as well as democratic
    process in all facets

Parameters to Assess Political Responsibility
  • Dividing Political Arenas
  • Agenda Setting and Strategy Building
  • Raising and Allocation Financial Resources
  • Information Flow
  • Information Frequency and format
  • Information Translation
  • Formalization of Relationships

Typology of Campaign and Political Responsibility
NCAs Strategy on Advocacy
Bonos Ones Campaign
  • http//
  • http//

Participatory Methods
  • Multi-disciplinary, qualitative approach to
    learning and problem analysis
  • Data collection is as valid as any
  • Participatory Development Processes considered to
    be a major contribution from NGOs
  • Recognized that things like poverty is rooted in
  • Project Target Groups have own needs and

Participatory Methods
  • Roots of the Participatory Process might be in
    Asia (the Gandhi Tradition of Grassroots
  • In any work, peoples participation will be
    critical for making the initiative meaningful and
  • Tools, Best Practice Developed in 1970 and 1980,
    Became Standard in late 1990s.
  • Pioneered by NGOs, Recently adopted by big
    donors, multi lateral organizations, etc.

Participatory Methods
  • Through overuse, the term has lost some meaning,
  • Involves many people with diversity as a goal
  • flexibility to the interest of all parties
  • All people have a role in a team process
  • Efficient and Effective analysis of data
  • Systematic process following established

What has such Participation Allowed?
  • Avoiding obvious mistakes What do people really
  • Improved Understanding of local conditions
    (operations research)
  • Improved Communication Continuous Problem
  • Improved Resource Allocation Mobilizing local
  • Improved Sustainability The programs are
    important to locals
  • Save Time and Better Results

What are the Different Types?
  • RRA, PRA, PPA, PLA, PME versus versus AIC
  • Rapid Rural Appraisal
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal
  • Participatory Poverty Assessment
  • Participatory Learning Assessment
  • Participatory Monitoring Evaluation
  • Appreciation, Influence, and Control

Examples of PRA
  • How people use PRA tools?
  • Who facilitates and consolidates PRA information?
  • What problems there might be?
  • What happens after a PRA exercise?
  • Info sharing OR consultation OR collaboration OR

Resources on the Web
  • http//
  • Tanzania - http//
  • Uganda - http//
  • http//
  • http//

Some Examples
  • Please Note participatory resources on Links

Where we are with these Methods Now?
  • Many Governments and Multilateral Orgs see the
    worth or these tools and they are essentially a
    standard in the development field now
  • BUT
  • They require excellent facilitators
  • The Tools can be misused or co-opted

Monitoring versus Evaluation
  • How do I know the activities are being
    implemented according to our design?
  • versus
  • How do I know if a program's strategy and
    interventions are working?
  • http//

  • Also called performance monitoring, program
    monitoring, output monitoring.
  • Record what the project has attempted and
    accomplished (identifying inputs and outputs).
  • Compare what is (facts) to what should be
    (according to the plan).
  • Make adjustments if the difference between the
    results and planned objectives is too great.

  • Good implementation monitoring answers the
    following questions
  • Are we on the way to our planned objective?
  • To what extent are planned activities being
    implemented (actually realized)?
  • Are project activities being carried out
    correctly, on time, and within budget?
  • How well are services being provided?
  • What services are we providing, to whom, when,
    how often, for how long, and in what context?
  • Are the objectives and targets reasonable?

Evaluation For Example
  • Outcome evaluation examines specific program
    outcomes and accomplishments.
  • Impact assessment is a specific type of
    retrospective evaluation that uses the results
    from an evaluation to comprehensively document
    the accomplishments of a program and to identify
    the contextual constraints and facilitating
    factors that have influenced the implementation
    and effectiveness of program activities. The goal
    of impact assessment is to strengthen the design
    and replication of effective programs and

Program Evaluation
  • Timing Before, During, and After project
  • Multi-faceted working on different levels
  • Variety of Methods
  • Costs is always an issue
  • Is the project a pilot initiative where you are
    testing a model OR is the model proven?
  • The most comprehensive Evaluation process
    examines change at all levels of your project
    (framework, org, target group, environment, etc.)

Balancing monitoring and evaluation
Collecting and Analyzing Data
  • Five typical methods
  • Review of programme data
  • Review of official records and other documents
  • Field visits and direct observation
  • Focus groups and other qualitative
  • Quantitative surveys

Measuring Tools (Arthur Brooks, MSU 2004)
Types of Surveys
  • Quantitative Methods
  • Academic Research, Statistical Analysis
    Intervention Control
  • Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP Surveys)
  • Pre-test Post Test in terms of knowledge gained
    in training courses
  • Biological surveillance information,
  • In-depth interviews

Traditional verse PME http//
Becoming a Student of Evaluation
Variables in Monitoring Evaluation
(Lindenberg, Going Global, p. 223)
Program Review Sector Evalautions Lessons Learned
Stakeholder Review Assessments
System-wide standard setting and strategies
Partners Roles Capacities for Participatory
Donor Requirements
Partners with Different Donor Requirements
Donors Roles and Relationships
Monitoring Evaluation Assessing Impacts
Widely enhance performance accountability and
learning across family network
  • Tomorrows Assignment
  • Working with NIKE
  • Should PDI take on the project or not? Take the
    position of PDIs General Manager in Hanoi making
    a recommendation to PDIs Regional Director.
  • Keep in mind is what this scenario implies about
    NGO-private sector partnerships. Are there ways
    of developing guidelines or policies for NGOs in
    deciding with whom to partner?

Tomorrows Readings
  • Case Study Hogar De Christo
  • Bornsteins Social Entrepreneur
  • Synergos Mobilizing Resources