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Biological Diversity and Conservation

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Chihuahuas, beagles, and rottweilers are all dogs but they're not the same ... Chihuahua. Beagle. Rottweilers. Diversity of species ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Biological Diversity and Conservation


1
Biological Diversity and Conservation
  • Chapter 5

2
Which do you like better?
B
A
3
Which do you like better?
4
Which do you like better?
5
Which do you like better?
B
A
6
Which do you like better?
A
B
7
Which do you like better?
A
B
8
Biodiversity
What does Bio mean?
Life
Bio
9
Biodiversity
What does Diversity mean?
Diversity Variety
10
There are 3 components of biodiversity
  • Diversity of genesChihuahuas, beagles, and
    rottweilers are all dogsbut they're not the same
    because their genes are different.

Beagle
Chihuahua
Rottweilers
11
There are 3 components of biodiversity
Diversity of speciesFor example, monkeys,
dragonflies, and meadow beauties are all
different species.
Golden Skimmer
Meadow Beauty
Saki Monkey
12
There are 3 components of biodiversity
Variety of ecosystemsPrairies, Ponds, and
tropical rain forests are all ecosystems. Each
one is different, with its own set of species
living in it.
Paines Prairie
Florida Sand hill Pond
Hoh Rain Forest
13
Figure 6-12 The Formation of Acid Rain
Section 6-2
Chemical Transformation Nitric acid Sulfuric acid
Condensation
Emissions to Atmosphere Nitrogen oxides Sulfur
dioxide
Dry Fallout
Precipitation Acid rain, fog, snow, and mist
particulates, gases
Industry
Transportation
Ore smelting
Power generation
14
Species Diversity
Section 6-3
Insects
54.4
Protists
Other Animals
4.2
19.7
Plants
18
Bacteria
Fungi
0.3
3.4
15
Figure 6-16 Biological Magnification of DDT
Section 6-3
Magnification of DDT Concentration
Fish-Eating Birds
10,000,000
Large Fish
1,000,000
100,000
Small Fish
10,000
Zooplankton
1000
Producers
Water
1
16
Sustainable Agriculture
Section 6-4
Cover Crops Legumes, grasses, and other cover
crops recycle soil nutrients, reduce fertilizer
need, and prevent weed growth.
Controlled Grazing By managing graze periods and
herd densities, farmers can improve
nutrient cycling, increase the effectiveness
of precipitation, and increase the
carrying capacity of pastures.
Biological Pest Control The use of predators and
parasites to control destructive
insects minimizes pesticide use as well as crop
damage
A
B
C
Yr. 1
Contour Plowing Contour plowing reduces soil
erosion from land runoff. On hilly areas,
plowing is done across the hill rather than
straight up and down.
Crop Rotation Different crops use and replenish
different nutrients. By rotating crops, the
loss of important plant nutrients is decreased.
alfalfa
oats
corn
Yr. 2
alfalfa (plowed in)
corn
alfalfa
Yr. 3
corn
alfalfa
oats
17
Panda
18
Vanishing Species
  • Biodiversity--variety of life in an area
  • number of different species in given area
  • terrestrial biodiversity increases as you move
    closer to equator
  • tropical regions contain 2/3 of all land species
    on Earth

19
  • Larger islands have more biodiversity than
    smaller islands (similar locations/biomes)
  • more space
  • greater variety of enviornments and ecosystems

20
Importance of Biodiversity
  • Beautification
  • Possible unknown relationships
  • Brings stability to ecosystem
  • Meets human needs
  • Potential to improve health (medicines)
  • (Fig. 5.3, p.118)

21
Biodiversity
22
Loss of Biodiversity
  • Extinction--disappearance of species when last of
    its members dies
  • Threatened species--declining rapidly
  • Endangered species--numbers become so low that
    extinction is possible
  • 40 extinctions since 1940s
  • humans are mainly responsible

23
Biodiversity Loss
24
Biodiversity Loss
25
Threats to Biodiversity
  • Changes to habitat can threaten organisms with
    extinction. Three main ways.
  • -Habitat loss
  • -Habitat fragmentation
  • -Habitat degradation

26
Habitat Loss
  • Biggest threat to biodiversity
  • Destruction of habitats and organisms cant adapt
  • Results from human actions and natural disaster

27
Corral Reefs
28
Habitat Fragmentation
  • Separation of wilderness areas from other
    wilderness areas
  • Ex roads cut across wilderness, building
    projects, etc.

29
Fragmentation Results
30
Habitat Degradation--damage to a habitat by
pollution
  • 3 Main types.
  • -Air Pollution
  • -Water Pollution
  • -Land Pollution

31
Air Pollution
  • Includes acid rain
  • Damages plant tissue and interferes with growth
  • Changes water pH (frogs)
  • Damages ozone (CFCs)

32
Water Pollution
  • Results from excess fertilizers, algal blooms,
    silt, detergents, heavy metals, and solid
    pollutants
  • Point-source vs. Non-point source

33
Land Pollution
  • Pesticides
  • DDT--Rachel Carson
  • Peregrine falcons, bald eagles, brown pellicans,
    etc. (fragile eggs)

34
Land Pollution
35
Exotic Species
  • Organisms not native to a particular area
  • Ex Kudzu
  • Grow at exponential rate due to lack of
    competitors and lack of predators
  • May take over niches and eventually replace
    native species

36
Exotic Species
37
Conservation of Biodiversity
  • Strategies of Conservation --plans to protect
    biodiversity
  • -US Endangered Species Act
  • -Nature preserves and National Parks
  • -Sustainable Use
  • -Habitat Corridors
  • -Reintroduction programs

38
US Endangered Species Act
  • Became law in 1973
  • Made it illegal to harm any species on endangered
    or threatened species lists
  • Also illegal for federal agencies to fund any
    project that would harm organisms on these lists
  • includes damaging their ecosystems
  • Ex bald eagle, American alligator

39
Nature Preserves/National Parks
  • Best way to conserve species is to protect whole
    communities and ecosystems
  • only 6 of Earths land surface is protected

40
Yellow Stone
41
Sustainable Use
  • Using resources of wilderness areas in ways that
    will not damage the ecosystem
  • Harvesting brazil nuts rather than cutting down
    the trees

42
Habitat Corridors
  • Natural strips of land/water that allow migration
    of organisms from one area to another
  • Overcomes habitat fragmentation

43
Reintroduction Programs
  • Release of organisms into an area where their
    species once lived
  • California condors

44
Reintroduction Programs
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