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Civil War: 18611865


and Martyr in Liberia, Africa (1833) Important Mission Firsts. Ann Green Wilkins, 1st women ... Methodist missionary, Liberia, 1836-1857. Apostles to India ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Civil War: 18611865

Civil War 1861-1865
Both the MEC and the MECS pastors served as
chaplains, leading worship and following their
flags into battle. The MEC used this
opportunity to occupy MECS churches during war,
raising tensions.
MEC Works Through U.S. Christian Commission/MECS
Spreads Revival and Bibles
MEC Becomes Adjunct to Union Army
  • Connection between Methodism and the Union Army
    symbolized by General Ulysses S. Grants
    Methodist Hymnal
  • 300,000 Soldiers Methodist, 500 Army Chaplains,
    458 in U.S. Christian Commission.
  • Bishop Ames authorized by Sec. Of War Stanton to
    occupy MECS without pastors, inflaming church
    wounds. Lincoln limits this to abandoned churches.

Post War Period Reconstruction
  • Sweeping social change from 1865-1914 brings
    rapid economic growth, urbanization and
    immigration to the North, but struggles to
    rebuild society and Methodism in South
  • MECS dropped from 750K to 500K in members,
    suffering loss of churches and leaders. MECS
    votes to stay independent in Palmyra Manifesto of
    1865. Although Bishop Haygood writes of New South
    and mission to blacks, a separate CME is formed.
  • Both churches prosper in Reconstruction and
    social change by 1920 MECS reaches 2 million
    members MEC 4 million MPC 185K UB 350K EA

CME Formed by Southern Black Methodists and
Southern Blacks petition General Conference of
MECS in 1870 and gain fraternal independence in t
he Colored MEC. MECS supports the
move constitutionally, culturally, and
financially. 1st Bishop W.H.Miles
MEC Grows to National Prominence after War under
Matthew Simpson
The MEC expanded into 10 Annual
Conferences of the South that
inflamed Southerners as ecclesiastical
Carpetbagging. More positive was
the formation of the Freedmans
Aid Society that founded black
colleges in North and South. Bishop
Simpson traded upon his friendship
with Lincoln and the upper class to
propel Methodism to national status
after the war.The economic growth
and immigration also created new
impulses for home and foreign
mission, which the MEC seized.
Westward Expansion to Pacific
Westward Competition Mission American Style
  • After Flathead and Nez Perce Indians travelled to
    St. Louis asking for Christian instruction, Jason
    Lee was sent in a highly publicized mission to
    start the first Methodist mission in the Pacific
    Northwest, 1833. Mission politics/ recal/
  • Prevenient grace pushed Methodism theologically,
    but often maverick Methodist missionaries were
    chasing somebody resettled Indians,
    gold-seekers, or trying to compete with rival
    Methodists for new settlements after Homestead
    Act (1862)
  • The Missioary Society took the circuit-rider form
    and transformed into the Home missionary. Both
    the MEC and the MECS engaged in competition
    (through Church Extension societies after the
    war) to rapidly expand and then slowly

Charles C. McCabe and Church Extension
  • Imprisoned Chaplain in Civil War, McCabe used his
    inspiring story to raise money for Church
    Extension as its Secretary. The 1866 Centenary
    raised 8.7 million.
  • He defended the church against the famous
    agnostic, Robert Ingersoll,
    who predicted The
    churches are dying out all over the
    land, they are struck with death.
  • C.C. McCabe wired Ingersoll
    All Hail the Power of
    Jesus name.
    We are building more than one
    Methodist Church for every day in
    the year and
    soon will make it two a day.
  • Were building two a day became
    Methodisms visionary watchword.
  • McCabe was elected Bishop in 1896.

The Heavenly Twins
Western Apostles of Methodism
William Van Orsdel 1848-1919 Sent by C.McCabe
to Montana in 1872,Brother Van established
almost 170 churches and brought Montana Metho
dism from 300 to 24, 000 members in his 47 yea
r ministry. He became known as the best loved
man in Montana, and was adopted into the Bla
ckfoot Tribe in 1915.
Thomas C. Iliff 1845-1918 Husband of Mary,
McCabes cousin, Iliff was a popular
missionary and assistant secretary of the Ho
me Mission Church Extension Society in Montana,
Utah and Colorado from 1871 to 1909. Raised 3
m. dollars and dedicated 500 churches.
Wyandot Indian Mission Ohio-1825
John Stewart (African American) is converted and
overcomes alcohol, launching mission to the
Wyandot in 1815. Most of the great nations
(Shawnee, Cherokee, Choctow, Chickasaw, Creek,
Seminole) were removed in 1830. Methodists
followed and began educational work in Eastern
Oklahoma. (Indian Mission Annual Conference of
1844.) Chief Samuel Checote became great lay
preacher. At the split, the MECS gets the
mission. White settlers take conference in 1906.
Wyandots removed to Oklahoma in 1842 MEC Indian
Mission Conference formed from Wyandots in 1889,
and becomes the MEC Oklahoma Conference 1892.
Diversification of Methodist Mission
Wilhelm Nast (1807-1899)
  • Born in Stuttgart, trained at Tübingen, Nast
    immigrates to America and teaches German at U.S.
    Military Academy.
  • 1835 responds to call for Methodist German
    preachers sent by Ohio Conference to Cincinnati
    as probationer.
  • Converts, educates, and directs two generations
    of German Methodist preachers in mission to
  • Develops German Methodist Conferences, translates
    Wesleyan documents, and publishes journals/books
    that nourish German Methodism on both sides of

Ludwig Sigismund Jacoby (1813-1874)
  • Converted in Cincinnati under Nasts preaching.
  • Becomes early disciple of Nast, active in
    German-speaking Methodism, and Superintendent of
    St.Louis German district in 1840.
  • Sent to Bremen in in December 1849 at age 36,
    with only 5 dollars worth of tracts and against
    his wifes wishes.
  • Due to Bremens relative religious freedom,
    Jacoby soon gathered believers into the first
    organized Methodist Church in Germany.
  • Methodism spreads from Bremen.

Nasts Mission Legacy 10 German-American
Methodist Conferences and Mission to Europe in
1904 Stats 63,000 German-American Methodists
20,000 German/Swiss
Sectarian Movements/Theology
Ms. Palmer, a lay Methodist, was an evangelist w
ho stressed conversion and the second blessing
of instant sanctification based on ideas of Wesl
eyan perfection. She enjoyed influence across
Methodism and into other denominations through
revival preaching and her Tuesday morning meeting
s at the New York Five Points Mission.
Bishop Simpson was impressed with her work.Where
such holiness could not be brought into
Methodism, splinter groups arose such as the
Globalization of Methodist Mission
Founded in 1820 to bring extra-Conference control
and financing to ad hoc mission initiatives,
the formation of a separate society for mission
signalled that Methodism had developed away fro
m seeing itself as essentially missionary. All t
he branches of the Methodist family had Societie
s and employed many men and women after the Civil
Methodist Mission Pioneers
John Stewart, 1st Missionary to
Wyandot Indians (1816)
Melville B. Cox, 1st Missionary
and Martyr in Liberia, Africa (1833)
Important Mission Firsts
Ann Green Wilkins, 1st women Methodist missionary
, Liberia, 1836-1857
Apostles to India
James M. Thoburn, India (1859)
later Bishop of India Malaysia.
William Butler, India (1857) later pioneered Mexi
co Mission
in 1873.
Methodism Enters Diverse Cultures
Ludwig Jacoby, Germany, (1849).
Bishop William Taylor 1870-1910, formed
Self-supporting missions in India, S.America, Afr
Henry Appenzeiler, Korean pioneer (1886).
MECS Mission Dynasty
Dr. J.W. Lambuth established the
MECS mission in China in 1847 and maintained it
through Civil War. With his son, he pioneered the
Japan mission, dying there in 1892.
Walter R. Lambuth, China 1877-1886, Japan
1886-1891, Secretary MECS Board of Missions
1892-1910, Bishop at Shanghai 1910-1921. Congo
Southern Methodism in Mission
Charles Taylor, preacher, doctor,
MECS missionary to China (1848)
Bishop Arthur Moore, GA FL,
President Board of Missions
E. Stanley Jones 1884-1973Missionary to India,
Friend of Gandhi, and Premier Methodist
Evangelist of 29th Century
AME Mission to Liberia1891
Nora Taylor AME Missionary to Liberia 1920s
Monrovia, Liberia 1920s
Monrovia, Liberia 1996
Methodist Mission Homes
Civil War Evacuation Easter 1996
Social Change and Methodist Response Civil War
to WWI
  • Theological shifts toward Liberalism and Higher
    Criticism impacted some in Methodism to promote
    Kingdom of God and activist ethic stressing love,
    service, and an increasing sensitivity to
  • Lay participation in Conferences became ratified
    in most branches after Civil War, but the role of
    Women as lay and clergy leaders came to a head.
  • Issues surrounding urbanization, immigration,
    poverty and justice began to be addressed,
    through revivalism and social action, expressed
    through Deaconess movement and Social Creed

Womens Temperance Addresses Social Ills and
Empowers Women
Frances Willard waged two wars for justice in the
late 19th century temperance and womens rights
in Church. As national head of the
WCTU Temperance movement, she led women in direct
action for justice, as well as being elected (not
seated) as first delegates to General Conference
of 1888. Her courage led to victory for laywomen
in 1904.
The Movement for Womens Clergy Rights
During the late 1800s, women in Methodism
could serve as missionaries and deaconesses,
but not as ordained clergy. The United
Brethren licensed Charity Opheral in 1847,
and the Methodist Protestant Church ordained
Anna Howard Shaw in 1880 after she was
turned down by the MEC. The New England
Conference of the MEC presented Anna
Oliver, a Boston seminary graduate (1st in
America) for ordination in 1880, but the
controversy was too great and the candidacy
was terminated. She pastored in another
denomination. Not until 1924 would women
be given licenses to preach (missionaries),
and in 1956 full clergy status was granted.
Deaconess Movement Founded as Response to
Urbanization Poverty1888
Lucy Rider Meyer and other young Methodist Women
lived with the poor and immigrants in Chicago to
help educate them (1887). Meyer founded the Deac
oness movement the following year, and these
women spearheaded Methodist urban ministry in
the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Belle Har
ris Bennett brought the movement South.
Deaconess Movement Mission to the Urbanized
The Social Gospel
  • Responding to the industrialization and
    scientific critiques of Christianity in late 19th
    century, some Methodists began to shift focus
    from private pietism to social transformation.
  • William Carwardine preached and led strikes
    against the oppression of Pullman railroad town
    workers in 1894. Raised consciousness toward
    workers rights and led to the founding of the
    U.S. Strike Commission.
  • Even if many upper class Methodists neglected
    the urban poor, leaders like Frank Mason North
    and Harry Ward kept the social application of the
    Gospel on the national agenda.

The Social Creed 1908
  • The Methodist Federation for Social Service was
    formed by Harry F. Ward and Frank Mason North in
    1907 to herald the application of Wesleyan piety
    to social transformation.
  • Ward and North successfully drafted the first
    Social Creed in the Discipline (1908) advocating
    protection of workers and womens rights. This
    becomes the precursor to the Social Principles.
  • Federal Council of Churches (1908) adopted the
    creed, and this was forerunner of NCC. Optimism
    of US and Methodism not yet broken by WWI