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Promoting Driver Safety

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Title: Promoting Driver Safety


1
Promoting Driver Safety Mobility Options in
Livable, Senior-Friendly Communities
  • North Carolina Conference on Aging
  • September 11, 2007
  • Fran Carlin-Rogers, Carlin Rogers Consulting,
    Orlando, Florida
  • Suzanne LaFollette-Black, North Carolina AARP
  • Jane Stutts, UNC Highway Safety Research Center
  • Phyllis Bridgeman, NC Division of Aging Adult
    Services

2
Goals of Todays Workshop
  • Have a basic understanding of how promoting
    driver safety and mobility issues are integral to
    advancing livable, senior friendly communities
  • Become familiar with the array of safe driving
    and mobility programs, resources and options
    available to older adults in their communities

3
White House Conference on Aging 2005 Select Top
Ranked Recommendations
  • 3 Transportation Options
  • Ensure that Older Americans have transportation
    options to retain their mobility and
    independence
  • 47 Capacity for Safe Driving
  • Support Older Drivers to Retain Mobility and
    Independence through Strategies to Continue Safe
    Driving
  • Source www.whcoa.gov

4
National Overview
  • More older people
  • More of them will be driving
  • Driving more miles than ever before
  • Driving at older ages than ever before
  • More women driving
  • Few real alternatives to driving

5
The Issue
6
Consider This
  • As a group, older drivers are safe
  • Self-regulation necessary reductions in driving
    work for most
  • Still, due to increased frailty, older adults are
    more likely to die when involved in car crashes
  • Increased frequency of medical conditions at
    about age 55
  • Increased frailties of age put elder _at_ greater
    risk for serious injury or death

7
2001 National Household Transportation Survey
  • 90 of all trips taken in automobile
  • For individuals who stop driving, 1 use public
    transportation
  • 1-2 of all seniors use of public transportation
  • Bus use increases for long distance trips
  • (1 for 25-54 y.o to 6 for 75)
  • 9 of Americans walk to their destinations
  • Non drivers take far fewer shorter trips

8
Important Issues
  • Most radical increase of at risk crashes comes
    with medical conditions which impact cognitive
    skills
  • Identification of drivers who are medically at
    risk
  • Testing should be focused on ability, not age!

9
Its Not The Years.. Its The Mileage!
10
Many diseases conditions may impair driving
skill
  • Medication use
  • Effects of anesthesia surgery
  • Vision (cataract, macular degeneration, glaucoma)
  • Cardiovascular (arrhythmias, CHF,Vavular HD)
  • Cerebrovascular (stroke, TIA, etc)
  • Neurologic (Brain tumor, Dementia,Migraine, Head
    injury, Parkinsons,MS, sleep disorders,seizures,e
    tc)
  • Metabolic ( diabetes, hyper/hypothyroidism)
  • Respiratory (COPD, respiratory failure)

Source NHTSA
11
Drivers with Cognitive Decline
  • May not restrict driving as others do
  • Lack of recognition of traffic situations
  • Confusion about environment
  • Driving environment is more complex
  • Crash risk is 7.6 times higher than healthy
    drivers ( age matched)
  • Loss of appropriate reactions

12
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13
Why a focus on driving?
14
At least two reasons
  • Older adults (like everyone else) are highly
    dependent on cars for meeting their
    transportation needs
  • The safety of older drivers presents special
    challenges.

15
Mode of Travel by Age
Source 2001 NPTS, Unpublished Data
16
Older Drivers Have Fewer Crashes
Crashes per 100,000 drivers
(Source NCSA, 2000)
17
Fatalities per 100 Crashes
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
16-19
20-24
25-34
35-44
45-54
55-64
65-74
75-84
85
Source Li, Braver and Chen, 2003
18
Projections of Fatal Crash Involvements by Age of
Driver
24.9
20.0
14.8
13.7
Source Lyman et al., 2002
19
Projected Growth in NC Population Age 65
Population X1000
20
Safety of NC Older Drivers
  • Drivers age 65 are 8 of all drivers in crashes,
    but 18 of those killed in crashes.
  • Over 27,000 older drivers are involved in crashes
    each year in NC.
  • On average, 150 older drivers are killed in
    crashes each year.
  • These numbers have remained fairly stable over
    the past several years but this may be changing.

21
(2001-2004 NC Crash Data)
Statewide 28.6
22
What we want
  • Enable older drivers to make appropriate driving
    choices that
  • Maximize personal and community safety
  • Utilize community options, when needed, to
    maintain mobility

23
Our Goals
  • Keep older adults driving as long as they can do
    so safely.
  • Maximize personal and community safety.
  • Provide transportation options , when needed, to
    maintain mobility.

24
Todays Situation
  • Most older adults modify driving behavior
    voluntarily, but..
  • Some not soon enough
  • Some too soon
  • Some in the wrong way

25
Why is this important?
  • If they give up driving earlier they may create
    MOBILITY problems
  • If they continue to drive when they shouldnt
    they will create SAFETY problems

26
What Can Be Done?
  • Roadway improvements
  • Vehicle safety and design
  • Driver licensing
  • Driver education and awareness
  • Public awareness
  • Alternative transportation
  • Land use planning

27
Thank You!
Jane Stutts Jane_Stutts_at_unc.edu
28
NC Senior Driver Safety Coalition
  • Initiated by the UNC-CH Highway Safety Research
    Center under a grant from the Governors Highway
    Safety Program
  • Initial partners in 2004 AARP
    and the Division of Aging and Adult Services
    soon became 20 partners

29
NC Senior Driver Safety Coalition
  • NC DOT traffic engineers
  • NC DMV, Medical Evaluation Branch
  • Physicians and Occupational Therapists
  • NC Assistive Technology Program
  • NC MS Society
  • AAA Carolinas
  • University researchers
  • Law enforcement

30
NC Senior Driver Safety Coalition
  • September 2005 new role for the Coalition
  • NC Executive Committee for Highway Safety, Older
    Driver Working Group
  • Examples of other issue groups
  • Aggressive driving
  • Unlicensed drivers
  • Inattentive drivers
  • Speeding

31
NC Senior Driver Safety Coalition
  • Identification of needs and ways a coalition
    might respond
  • Mission and membership
  • Sharing of current programs activities

32
NC Senior Driver Safety Coalition
  • Immediate focus on roadway improvements and
    community awareness
  • Promoting safer roadways for older drivers,
    especially signage
  • Raising general awareness among not only older
    drivers and families, but also planners,
    engineers, doctors, and other health care
    professionals

33
NC Senior Driver Safety Coalition
  • Roadway improvements
  • Identification of locations where older drivers
    were over-involved in crashes
  • 5 sites selected for greater examination
  • Characteristics of crashes to identify common
    factors for older drivers
  • Identifiable fixes?

34
NC Senior Driver Safety Coalition
  • Raising community awareness
  • Toolkit of resources and information
  • Broad array of information useful to many
    different audiences
  • Community forums
  • DMV license examiner offices
  • Senior centers

35
NC Senior Driver Safety Coalition
  • Raising community awareness - 5 community forums
    across NC in 2006
  • Wilmington
  • Greensboro
  • Waynesville
  • RTP
  • Southern Pines

36
NC Senior Driver Safety Coalition
  • Strategies of the Older Driver Working Group
    currently in process
  • Signage
  • Roadway and driving environment
  • Hazardous intersections for older drivers
  • Senior driver safety website for NC
  • Law enforcement capacity building

37
NC Senior Driver Safety Coalition
  • Accomplishments to date
  • Community forums in five pilot locations and
    development of community toolkits
  • CarFit events
  • Training for DOT engineers on federal guidelines
    for highway design for older drivers and
    pedestrians
  • Identification of hazardous intersections to
    serve as pilot for systematic upgrading to
    improve safety
  • Law enforcement training

38
NC Senior Driver Safety Coalition
  • Future work
  • Working with health care professionals to
    identify and assist high-risk drivers
  • Public education through a web site, DMV
    materials, and adaptations of tool kit for
    special audiences
  • Assistance to communities in forming local
    coalitions

39
GAO Report Older Driver Safety 07-413 April,
2007
  • Older Driver Safety Knowledge Sharing Should
    Help States Prepare for Increase in Older Driver
    Population
  • www.gao.gov/new.items/d7413.pdf
  • The title says it all!
  • Risk will increase with ? population? ages ?
    mileage
  • Drivers with dementia is a particular concern
  • States should be allowed to share information
    best practices
  • Coalition partnership strategies

40
Monash University Elderly Mobility Literature
Review
  • Recommend
  • Coordinated approach
  • Innovative strategies
  • Mobility management initiatives
  • Target Areas
  • Safe (r) road users
  • Mgmt of at risk drivers
  • Licensing procedures
  • Education training
  • Safe (r) vehicles
  • ?crashworthiness
  • Occupant protection
  • ITS technology
  • Safe (r) roads
  • Alternative transportation options

41
Varying Approaches to Action
  • Florida
  • Community Center model
  • Summits
  • Training
  • Community events
  • Legislative change
  • California
  • Coalition
  • Pilot of 3 tier testing
  • Missouri
  • Coalition team
  • Saturation strategy
  • Outcome measurement
  • North Carolina
  • Coalition
  • Proactive
  • Summit
  • Community events

42
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43
Community Transportation Critical Success Factors
  • Customer Satisfaction
  • Safety
  • Access
  • Affordability
  • Choices
  • Best Practices
  • Sustainability
  • Outcomes
  • Right Time
  • Right Places
  • Right Price
  • Coordination
  • Accountability
  • Partnerships

44
It is Time for Your Community To Take Action!
  • Gather key stakeholders
  • Create partnerships
  • Coordinate efforts
  • Dont reinvent the wheel!
  • Identify your communitys
  • critical success factors
  • Create sustainability
  • Measure the outcomes
  • of your efforts

45
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46
Driver Safety Education Programs
  • AARP- on-line and classroom- 8 hours
  • AAA- Roadwise on-line and classroom-8 hours
  • AARP We Need to Talk-30-60 minute seminar on
    family conversations about older drivers
  • Carfit-12 point assessment checklist of how
    driver fits in own car
  • DriveWell- community education

47
Resources Available
  • Driver education brochures from AARP/AAA/DMV and
    others
  • Medical Transportation Toolkit and best practices
  • Inventory of older adult resources
  • Livable Communities Evaluation Guide
  • AARP Mobility Toolkit/packet-forum planning,
    riding the bus and pedestrian guide, publications

48
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49
What can you do in your community?
  • Provide driver safety education and programs in
    your community
  • Advocate to expand and enhance federal, state and
    local laws about mobility options.
  • Implement best practices to engage community
    partners to improve options
  • Use the Livable Communities Evaluation Guide to
    assess mobility, drivability and walking
    accessibility

50
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51
Next StepsOutcomes
  • Transportation options are expanded/integrated
  • Offer a wide range of mobility options
  • Enhance and expand mobility policy options
    through Federal, state, and local laws.
  • Inform and engage the public in understanding and
    acting on the need for mobility options.
  • Older drivers can drive safely as long as
    possible with lessoned concern about the lack of
    mobility options when they cease driving.

52
  • Under development a senior driver website for
    North Carolina

The Keys to Safe Driving for Older Drivers and
Drivers with Disabilities
Being over 40, but not over the hill Exercises
for mobility Refresh your driving skills
A lifetime of safe driving How does aging affect
driving? Trip planning Does your car still fit?
Vehicle adaptations
53
  • Under development a senior driver website for
    North Carolina

The Keys to Safe Driving for Older Drivers and
Drivers with Disabilities
Being medically at risk Medications Health
problems Mental changes Driver Rehabilitation
Specialists Physician guidelines
Giving up the keys Signs that its time Steering
without fearing Self-tests
54
  • Under development a senior driver website for
    North Carolina

The Keys to Safe Driving for Older Drivers and
Drivers with Disabilities
Taking the keys Telling someone you love, We
need to talk. . . . Referring an unsafe driver
to DMVs medical evaluation program
Retiring the keys Transportation options and
driving alternatives
55
  • Under development a senior driver website for
    North Carolina

The Keys to Safe Driving for Older Drivers and
Drivers with Disabilities
Drivable, walkable, livable communities How does
your community rate? Get involved! Sponsor
a DriveWell program CarFit program NCDOT
initiatives for accommodating older drivers and
pedestrians
56
Mobility Options
  • If your car broke down, how
    would you get around?
  • If you couldnt drive or didnt
    have access to a car, what would
    you do?

57
Mobility Options
  • Fran Carlin-Rogers, Carlin Rogers Consulting,
    Orlando, Florida
  • 407-422-0991, fcr201_at_aol.com
  • Suzanne LaFollette-Black, North Carolina AARP
  • 919-508-0269, SLCameron_at_aarp.org
  • Jane Stutts, University of North Carolina Highway
    Safety Research Center
  • jane_stutts_at_unc.edu
  • Phyllis Bridgeman, NC Division of Aging and Adult
    Services
  • 919-733-0440, phyllis.bridgeman_at_ncmail.net
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