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Antisocial Relations Module 58


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Title: Antisocial Relations Module 58

Antisocial RelationsModule 58
Social Relations
  • Social psychology teaches us how we relate to one
    another from prejudice, aggression and conflict
    to attraction, altruism and peacemaking.

  • Simply called, prejudgment, a prejudice is an
    unjustifiable (usually negative) attitude toward
    a group and its members often of different
    cultural, ethnic or gender groups.

Components of Prejudice
  • Beliefs (stereotypes)
  • Emotions (hostility, envy, fear)
  • Predisposition to act (to discriminate)

modern prejudice
  • a study of 390 colleges and universities, 53 of
    African American students felt excluded from
    school activities, compared to 24 of Asian
    Americans, 16 of Mexican Americans, and 6 of
    European Americans.
  • Greenwald et. Al (1989) showed that 9/10 people
    who deny having prejudices took longer to
    identify pleasant words when presented with Black
    (vs. White) faces.
  • Harber (1998) found that White university women
    gave higher ratings and fewer harsh criticisms to
    authors of papers they believed were African
  • Correll et. Al and Greenwald et. Al shoed that in
    a simulated police situation in which a mans
    wallet was mistaken for a gun, both Black and
    White people more often mistakenly shot at
    targets who were Black

How Prejudiced are People?
  • Over the duration of time many prejudices against
    interracial marriage, gender, homosexuality,
    minorities have waned.

Racial Gender Prejudice
  • Americans today express much less racial and
    gender prejudice, but prejudices still exist.

  • Nine out of 10 white respondents were slow at
    responding to words like peace or paradise
    when they saw a black individuals photo compared
    to a whites (Hugenberg Bodenhausen, 2003).

Gender Bias
  • Worldwide, women are more likely to live in
    poverty and 2/3 of children without schooling are
  • South Korean male births have exceeded female
    births by 14, China now has 120 boy babies for
    every 100 girls, and India has 126 (in spite of
    the fact that sex determination tests are illegal
    in India).
  • In China and India together have 76 million fewer
    females than they should have, and globally, 100
    million women are missing.

  • Although prejudice prevails against women, more
    people feel more positively toward women than
    men. Women rated picture b feminized higher
    (665) for a matrimonial ad (Perrett, 1998).

Social Roots of Prejudice
  • Why does prejudice arise?
  • Social Inequalities
  • Social Divisions
  • Emotional Scapegoating

Social Inequality
  • When people have money, power and prestige, and
    others do not, prejudice develops. Social
    inequality increases prejudice.

In and Out Groups
  • Ingroup People with whom one shares a common
    identity. Outgroup Those perceived as different
    from ones ingroup. Ingroup Bias The tendency to
    favor ones own group.

Scotlands famed Tartan Army fans.
Emotional Roots of Prejudice
  • Prejudice provides an outlet for anger emotion
    by providing someone to blame. After 9/11 many
    people lashed out against innocent
    Arab-Americans. (Scapegoat Theory)

Cognitive Roots of Prejudice
  • One way we simplify our world is to categorize.
    We categorize people into groups by stereotyping
    them. The hindsight bias may also affect our

Foreign sunbathers may think Balinese look alike.
Cognitive Roots of Prejudice
Vivid cases like the 9/11 terrorists can feed
stereotypes or prejudices (terrorism). Most
terrorists are non-Muslims. (Availability
Cognitive Roots of Prejudice
  • The tendency of people to believe the world is
    just and people get what they deserve and deserve
    what they get (the just-world phenomenon).

Aggression can be any physical or verbal behavior
intended to hurt or destroy whether done
reactively out of hostility or proactively as a
calculated means to an end.
Research shows that aggressive behavior emerges
from the interaction of biology and experience.
The Biology of Aggression
Three levels of biological influences on
aggressive behavior are
  • Genetic Influences
  • Neural Influences
  • Biochemical Influences

Genetic Influences Animals have been bred for
aggressiveness for sport and at times for
research. Twin studies show aggression may be
genetic. In men, aggression is possibly linked to
Y chromosome.
Neural Influences Some centers in the brain,
especially the limbic system (amygdala) and the
frontal lobe are intimately involved with
Biochemical Influences Animals with diminished
amounts of testosterone (castration) become
docile, and if injected with testosterone
aggression increases. Prenatal exposure to
testosterone also increases aggression in female
The Psychology of Aggression
Four psychological factors that influence
aggressive behavior are
  • Aversive Events
  • Learning Aggression is Rewarding
  • Observing Models of Aggression
  • Acquiring Social Scripts

Aversive Events
Studies in which animals and humans experience
unpleasant events reveal that those made
miserable often make others miserable.
Ron Artest (Pacers) attack on Detroit Pistons.
Even environmental temperature can lead to
aggressive acts. Murders and rapes increased with
temperature in Houston.
Frustration-Aggression Principle
A principle in which frustration (caused by
blocking to achieve some goal) creates anger,
which can generate aggression. Some suggest that
frustration is the cause of all aggression, but
research does not support this idea.
Learning that Aggression is Rewarding
When aggression leads to desired outcomes, one
learns to be aggressive. This is shown in animals
and humans alike.
Cultures that favor violence breed violence.
Scotch-Irish settlers in the South had more
violent tendencies than their Quaker, Dutch
counterparts in the Northeast of the US.
Observing Models of Aggression
  • Sexually coercive men are promiscuous and hostile
    in their relationships with women. This
    coerciveness has increased due to television
    viewing of R- and X-rated movies.

Acquiring Social Scripts
  • The media portrays social scripts and generates
    mental tapes in the minds of the viewers. When
    confronted with new situations individuals may
    rely on such social scripts. If social scripts
    are violent in nature, people may act them out.

Do Video Games Teach or Release Violence?
  • The general consensus on violent video games is
    that to some extent it breeds violence.
    Adolescents view the world as hostile, get into
    arguments, and get bad grades after playing such

  • Conflict is perceived incompatibility of actions,
    goals, or ideas.
  • Social Trap a situation in which the conflicting
    parties, by each rationally pursuing their
    self-interest, become caught in mutually
    destructive behavior.

A Game of Social Trap
  • By pursuing our self-interest and not trusting
    others, we can end up losers.