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Industrial Activity

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Air Pollution ... Air Contaminants/Pollutants ... result of SOx, NOx, acidic particulates in air ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Industrial Activity


1
CHAPTER 3
  • Industrial Activity
  • and
  • The Environment

2
Air Pollution
  • Contaminants may be considered any materials
    other than the permanent gases seen in air
  • Pollutant is any contaminant derived from
    mankinds activity
  • Contaminants may or may not have adverse health
    effects

3
Air Contaminants/Pollutants
  • Pollutants are legitimate concerns as they deal
    with air quality, whereas contaminants may be
    accepted as a part of the natural world in which
    we live

4
Airsheds
  • analogous to watersheds
  • the land area that contributes to a regions air
    - and the things found in the air
  • far less distinct than watersheds and very large
    in size
  • do not conform to political boundaries unless a
    regional approach is taken

5
Layers of Earths Atmosphere
6
Global Wind Patterns
7
Composition of the Atmosphere
8
Air Pollutants
  • Carbon monoxide
  • colorless, odorless, non-irritating poison
  • attaches to hemoglobin reduces oxygen carrying
    capacity
  • results in headaches, drowsiness and asphyxiation
  • Hydrocarbons
  • denotes a large group of volatile organic
    compounds
  • some are carcinogens, poison etc.

9
Air Pollutants (cont.)
  • Sulfur Dioxide
  • colorless corrosive gas
  • respiratory irritant and poison
  • can result in H2SO4
  • Particulates
  • small pieces of solid or liquid materials
    dispersed in the atmosphere
  • 0.005-100 um
  • reduction in visibility, respiratory problems

10
Air Pollutants (cont.)
  • Nitrogen Oxides
  • critical component for smog formation
  • compounds acid precipitation problems
  • Photochemical Oxidants
  • products of secondary atmospheric reactions
    driven by solar energy
  • e.g., O3, PAN, acrolein
  • strong oxidants, eye irritant etc.

11
Air Pollutants (cont.)
  • Lead
  • released as metal fumes or suspended particles
  • major source was leaded gasoline
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • generally considered non-toxic and innocuous
  • not listed as air pollutant
  • increasing concentrations have been related to
    global warming

12
Air Pollutants (cont.)
13
Air Pollutants (cont.)
  • Criteria Pollutants
  • are those for which federal concentration limits
    have been set as the dividing line between
    acceptable air quality and poor air quality
  • CAA 1970 designated seven major pollutants as
    conventional or criteria pollutants
  • includes, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide,
    hydrocarbons, particulates, nitrogen oxides,
    ozone, and lead
  • Maximum ambient air standards have been set
  • Non-criteria
  • defined in different legislations
  • other than designated contaminants and are toxic
    or hazardous

14
Comparisons
Criteria Pollutants
Hazardous Air Pollutants
  • Few (7)
  • not bioaccumulated
  • lung is primary target (except CO)
  • health effects readily available
  • latent time range from minutes to months
  • Numerous
  • may bioaccumulate
  • many target organs
  • dose-response data rarely available
  • long latent periods

15
SMOG
  • The term smog comes from a combination of the
    words smoke and fog
  • Made up of photochemical oxidant gases
  • Interaction between nitrogen oxides and
    hydrocarbons in the presence of sunlight

16
Acid Rain
  • Rain that is more acidic than normal because it
    contains sulfuric acid or nitric acid
  • result of SOx, NOx, acidic particulates in air
  • involves all forms of acid deposition, even if
    rain is not involved

17
Coal Production in US
18
SO2 and NOx Emissions in US
19
Global Warming
  • Pollutants from a small area can accumulate and
    spread in the upper atmosphere and affect entire
    earths weather
  • increase in CO2 is resulting in increase of
    earths temperature
  • can result in melting of ice caps, coastal
    flooding, shift in weather patterns, etc.

20
Illustration of Some of Many Interactions That
Control The Global Climate
21
Atmospheric CO2
22
What is a Green House?
  • Greenhouses are much warmer inside than the air
    is outside because the glass is transparent to
    light and allows short-wavelength light to pass
    through and heat the contents of the greenhouse.
    It also reflects back the longer wavelength heat
    radiating within the greenhouse, thus preventing
    if from passing back out.

23
Greenhouse Effect In A Greenhouse
24
What is Green House Effect?
  • In a glass greenhouse, heat builds up and gets
    trapped due to presence of carbon dioxide and
    other heat trapping gases in the upper
    atmosphere.
  • CO2 is analogous to glass.
  • Earths surface analogous to floor which radiates
    back absorbed energy as longer wave infrared
    heat.

25
Green House Effect
  • Does Greenhouse effect cause warming of the
    earths surface?
  • YES!, for without a greenhouse effect due to
    gases in the atmosphere, the average temperature
    of the earths surface would be 00F.
  • Earths surface temperature is about 600F due to
    greenhouse effect.

26
The Greenhouse Effect
27
Effects of Major Greenhouse Gaseson Global
Warming
Percent contribution Gas to global
warming Carbon dioxide 57 Chlorofluorocarbons
25 Methane 12 Nitrous oxides 6
28
Greenhouse Effect Some Questions!
  • What is the effect of anthropogenic gases?
  • What is the contribution to global climate
    change?
  • Are all the effects bad?

29
Concentrations And Lifetimesof Greenhouse Gases
30
What Can We Do?
  • Reduce Worlds Population?
  • Reduce or maintain current levels of CO2 in the
    atmosphere

31
Contribution of CO2 Toward Global Warming
Activity Percent contribution Energy use
49 Industrial processes 24 Deforestation
14 Agriculture 13
32
Ozone Depletion
  • Stratospheric Ozone absorbs harmful ultraviolet
    (lt340nm) radiation from the Sun
  • 1 loss of ozone 2 increase in UV radiation
    106 extra cancers
  • ozone hole 7.7 million sq. miles
  • CFCs HCFCs are the primary causes

33
Chlorine Content in Stratosphere
34
Ozone Whats Being Done?
  • Montreal Protocol
  • complete phase-out of CFCs by 2000
  • critical need to come up with inexpensive
    non-halogenated coolants
  • if everyone abides, ozone loss should peak
    between 2001 and 2005
  • ozone levels should return to normal

35
Solid Wastes
  • US generates
  • 210 million tonnes of MSW
  • 3 billion tonnes of mining wastes
  • 500 million tonnes of agricultural wastes
  • EPA Solid Waste definition
  • any discarded material, including solid, liquid,
    semi-liquid, or contaminated gaseous material
    resulting from industrial, commercial, mining and
    agricultural operations, and from community
    activities

(all figures are per year)
36
Major Sources of Solid Wastes in the U.S.
37
Total Solid Waste Production in the U.S.
38
Fate of Solid Wastes
39
Municipal Solid Waste
  • consists of residual wastes and bulky wastes such
    as furniture, commercial and institutional
    wastes, street refuse, dead animals, abandoned
    vehicles, etc..
  • 1.4 - 4.5 kg/cap-day
  • in UK and European countries, this number is
    reduced in half
  • composition depends upon many factors

40
Refuse Composition (1990)
Constituent Composition () Cinders 50 A
sh 12 Dirt and dust 20 Paper, straw,
vegetable refuse 13 Miscellaneous 5
(tins, 0.7 metal, 0.2 bottles, 1.5)
41
Current Composition
42
MSW Whats Being Done?
  • disposal of yard wastes in landfills banned
  • instituting solid waste recycling programs
  • developing new technologies which can
    economically and effectively use all the
    recyclable and collected material
  • developing better packaging
  • encouraging use of readily recyclable materials

43
Composition of MSW by Country
44
Industrial Wastes
  • process wastes remaining after manufacturing of a
    product
  • commercial wastes from office activities,
    cafeterias, labs, etc.
  • waste water sludges created during wastewater
    treatment
  • industrial solid wastes handled more or less the
    same as MSW

45
Other Wastes
  • Sewage Sludges
  • sludges left over after treatment of wastewater
  • Agricultural Wastes
  • crop residues
  • manure from animal feeding facilities
  • Mining Wastes
  • overburden materials and mine tailings
  • current law requires reclamation of mining area,
    which is essential and beneficial but very costly

46
Sanitary Landfills
  • approximately 61 of solid wastes go to sanitary
    landfills
  • sanitary landfills are not open dumps, but rather
    are engineered systems
  • waste is deposited in compacted layers and
    covered with earth at the end of each day
  • have impermeable liner, leachate and gas
    collection systems

47
Landfills In The U.S.
48
Incineration
  • burns wastes, though usually not completely
  • residual is about 10-20 of original material
  • can cause odors, soot and other air pollutants
  • may emit dioxins and furans, which are highly
    toxic
  • residue can be much more concentrated in trace
    metals, etc. and can create more difficulties for
    disposal
  • can be used for cogeneration of energy

49
Incineration of MSW
50
Composting
  • aerobic biological process operated under
    elevated temperatures
  • microorganisms decompose organic carbon/wastes to
    CO2, water and humus
  • resulting humus can be used as manure, soil
    reconditioner, etc.
  • sometimes costs can be high and compost may be
    contaminated with unwanted materials

51
Resource Recovery
  • can involve
  • fairly simple methods like manual sorting
  • very complex automated material sorting and
    recovery facilities
  • reduces amount of disposable waste to about 1/3

52
Schematic of a Typical Resource Recovery Facility
53
Potential Recovery of MSW Components
54
Impact of Recycling on Newsprint Prices
55
Recycling of MSW in the U.S.
56
Recycling of MSW in the U.S. (cont.)
57
MSW Management
58
Conservation
  • best way to reduce waste is to reduce waste
    generation or conservation
  • includes reducing packaging, substituting old for
    new, making products more recyclable

59
Hazardous Wastes
  • RCRA definition
  • cause or significantly contribute to an increase
    in mortality or an increase in serious
    irreversible, or incapacitating reversible,
    illness or pose a substantial present or
    potential future hazard to human health or the
    environment when improperly treated, stored,
    transported or disposed of, or otherwise
    mismanaged

60
Hazardous Wastes (cont.)
  • legally, a subset of solid wastes
  • has one of the following four characteristics
  • Ignitability
  • Reactivity
  • Corrosivity
  • Toxicity
  • 700 million tonnes per year (hazardous)
  • 11 billion tonnes per year (by other definitions
    of hazardous)

61
Largest Producers ofHazardous Wastes, 1990
62
Superfund Sites
  • abandoned disposal sites which are highly
    dangerous to the environment and have passed a
    point scoring system of Federal government
  • Love Canal
  • Times Beach

63
Common Contaminants At Superfund Sites
64
RCRA Sites
  • Current disposal sites
  • covers problems caused by present working
    industrial wastes

65
Water Pollution
  • NPDES regulates surface disposal
  • 90 of total water used by industries is used for
    cooling care should be taken not to contaminate
    this cooling water
  • two case studies that bring out ill effects of
    water pollution
  • Minimata Disease
  • The Kepone Incident

66
Minimata Disease
  • Time 1950s
  • Location small village of Minimata, Japan
  • Killed/Injured 100/thousands
  • Cause mercury poisoning
  • Why high conc. of mercury in fish tissues
  • From where mercury laden wastes from Chisso
    Chemical Plant into Minimata Bay
  • Repair stop all inputs, dredge up all mercury
    contaminated sediment

67
The Kepone Incident
  • Time 1975
  • Location Hopewell, Virginia
  • Who Was Affected and How? many workers poisoned
    reported tremors, chest pains, and other problems
  • Cause Kepone, a very toxic synthetic chlorinated
    insecticide
  • Why high conc. in fish tissues, air, soil, and
    well water
  • From where process wastes discharged into the
    James River
  • Repair shutdown of plant, banning of fishing
    clean up would have costed gt 1 billion
  • Future Still present and will remain there for
    thousands of years

Kepone
68
Energy Use
  • History
  • Energy Consumption
  • 95 comes from fossil fuels
  • renewable sources contribute only 2.5
  • remaining 2.5 comes from nuclear plants
  • developed countries 20 population consumes 78
    natural gas, 65 oil, 50 coal
  • US and Canada 5 population 25 of total energy
    usage
  • US/India 300 GJ/cap-year vs. ltone barrel/cap-year

69
Wood And Coal Usage
70
Worldwide Commercial Energy Consumption
World Resources Institute, 1992
Year 1989
71
Per Capita Energy Use And GNP
World Resources Institute, 1990
72
Energy Usage In US
Changes in US Energy Consumption
Cunningham and Saigo, 1995
US Department of Energy, 1995
73
Energy Flow In The U.S., 1995
(US Department of Energy, 1996)
74
Energy Sources
75
Coal Flow In The U.S., 1995
units million tons
(US Department of Energy, 1996)
76
World Proven Oil Reserves, 1991
(World Resources Institute, 1991)
77
Petroleum Flow in the U.S., 1995
units millions barrels per day
(US Department of Energy, 1996)
78
Natural Gas Reserves, 1990
World Resources Institute, 1990
79
Nuclear Reactors
  • Boiling Water Reactors
  • water used to moderate the nuclear reaction
  • steam formed in the reactor is used to run a
    turbine
  • steam contains radioactive materials and must be
    treated
  • Pressurized Water Reactor
  • water pumped past the nuclear core rods
  • water gets heated to 3170C at 2235 psi
  • pumped to steam generator where it heats a
    separate water line producing steam which in turn
    runs a turbine generator
  • pressurized steam may be radioactive and is
    recycled to the reactor
  • turbine running steam is non-radioactive

80
Nuclear Power Plants In The US
(US Department of Energy, 1995)
81
Renewable Energy Sources
  • Water Power
  • Geothermal Power
  • Wind Power
  • Solar Power
  • Biomass

82
Electricity Flow In The U.S., 1994
(US Department of Energy, 1996)
83
Energy Conservation
84
Earths Structure
  • composed of many layers
  • Core dense, intensely hot molten metal, 4,000 km
    in diameter
  • Mantle surrounds core, layer of pliable rock,
    extends to 2900 km below earths crust
  • Crust outermost layer, floats on mantle

85
Earths Composition
86
Recoverable Resources
  • Proven Resources
  • resources that have been thoroughly mapped and
    are economical to recover at current prices and
    technology
  • Known Resources
  • located but not completely mapped
  • may or may not be economical at present
  • Undiscovered Resources
  • only speculative or inferred

87
Recoverable Resources (cont.)
  • Recoverable Resources
  • accessible with current technology
  • not economically recoverable in foreseeable
    future
  • Non-Recoverable Resources
  • so diffuse or remote that they are not ever
    likely to be technologically accessible

Only 0.01 of all minerals are in upper one
kilometer of earths crust and economically
recoverable
88
Categories of Natural Resources
Cunningham and Saigo, 1995
89
World Consumption ofMineral Resources
90
Major World Mineral Sources
Statistical Abstract of the US, 1992
91
Mineral Composition
Kupchella and Hyland, 1986
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