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Unit 2 Green Spaces in Cities

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Title: Unit 2 Green Spaces in Cities


1
Unit 2 Green Spaces in Cities
???????????? ??
2
Teaching context
  • Time Allotment Unit 2 Section B (50 m)
  • ChapterGreen Spaces in Cities
  • Teaching aimsThe teaching of this text aims to
    enable students
  • to master the new words and useful phrases.
  • to get acquainted with skills of reading
    paragraphs with a general statement that is
    supported by specific details.
  • to get acquainted with skills of reading for main
    ideas.
  • to practice what has been learned.

3
Teaching context
  • Teaching important and difficult points
  • learning the ways of reading skills from the
    passages
  • learning the new words and useful expressions in
    the text
  • doing the relevant exercises after the classes

4
Teaching context
  • Teaching methods
  • utilizing the multi-media classroom to show
    courseware for students
  • listening and reading the words, useful
    expressions and text from the teaching CD
  • Learning these courses as following
    http//www.jxcia.com/e-corner/

5
Reading Skills
  • Finding Out Word Meanings
  • What shall we do when we come across
    unfamiliar words in our reading? Many times we
    can figure out the meaning of an unfamiliar word
    from clues provided by context. The particular
    reading skill introduced for this unit is finding
    out word meanings through context clues. In the
    text we list as many as 7 different ways of
    finding out the meaning of an unfamiliar word.
    The context clues that might be helpful for you
    to recognize the meaning of a new word include

6
Reading Skills
  • Some sentences give the definition for a
    difficult word with the help of punctuation such
    as commas, dashes or parentheses.
  • Context sometimes gives examples to illustrate a
    difficult word rather than define it. We can use
    the examples to figure out the meaning of an
    unfamiliar word.

7
Reading Skills
  • Synonyms (???) are words or phrases that are
    similar in meaning. A synonym is one type of
    context clue that helps you to determine the
    meanings of unfamiliar words.

8
Reading Skills
  • Antonym (???) clues. Antonyms are words or
    phrases that have opposite meanings to other
    words or phrases. Antonym clues can help you
    understand new words.
  • Sentences before or after a sentence that has a
    difficult word sometimes explain the meaning of
    the word.

9
Reading Skills
  • Sometimes we can use our own experiences, or our
    knowledge about a certain topic, to find out the
    meaning of an unfamiliar word.
  • Word part clues. We can often figure out an
    unfamiliar word because we know the prefix or
    suffix attached to the root word, or the two
    words that make up a compound word.

10
Reading Skills
  • Here we have picked out some examples from
    Reading Passage A to explain how this particular
    reading skill is used in practice.
  • Example 1
  • Context clue We can often figure out an
    unfamiliar word because we know the prefix or
    suffix attached to the root word.
  • Example The great majority of nations concern
    themselves with economic development, regardless
    of its effect on the global ecology.
  • Explanation We can find out the meaning of the
    new word global, because we know that this
    adjective is formed by adding the suffix -al to
    the noun globe.

11
Reading Skills
  • Example 2
  • Context clue Sentences before or after a
    sentence containing a difficult word sometimes
    explain the meaning of the word.
  • Example The nations of Eastern Europe ... are
    considered the most polluted of all the worlds
    industrialized countries. Heavy metals from coal
    mining have contaminated much of the areas
    waters. Rivers, land, and forests are so
    contaminated that many are now biologically dead.
  • Explanation The sentence before and after the
    sentence which contains contaminated both help us
    to find out the meaning of the word, that is,
    polluted or made dirty.

12
Reading Skills
  • Example 3
  • Context clue Sentences before or after a
    sentence containing a difficult word sometimes
    explain the meaning of the word.
  • Example Ghanas population has been growing by
    3.2 percent a year. This explosive growth has led
    to removal of forests in much of the country, and
    excessive use of existing farmland.
  • Explanation The first sentence says Ghanas
    population has been growing by 3.2 percent a
    year. This clearly explains that this explosive
    growth in the second sentence means rapid
    growth.

13
Reading Skills
  • Example 4
  • Context clue Sometimes we can use our own
    experiences, or our knowledge about a certain
    topic, to find out the meaning of an unfamiliar
    word.
  • Example Indonesians have traditionally favored
    large families, and their major religion, Islam,
    frowns on birth control.
  • Explanation According to our knowledge about
    Islam (and what is said in the first part of the
    sentence), we know that frown on most probably
    means does not approve of.

14
Reading Skills
  • Example 5
  • Context clue We can often figure out an
    unfamiliar word because we know the prefix or
    suffix attached to the root word.
  • Example Observers say the program has succeeded
    in strengthening the countrys agricultural base
    and bringing a new source of wealth to villagers.
  • Explanation This noun is formed by adding the
    suffix -er to the already familiar verb observe,
    so we can find out the meaning of the word
    someone who observes.

15
The Practice of Reading Skills
  • Warm-up Questions and lead-in
  • Ss do the relevant exercises in Reading
    Skills, then T check the right answers for
    reference

1.A 2.D 3.B
4.A 5.C
16
Preview
  • Environmental awareness takes second place to
    economic development in most nations of the
    world. As damage to our environment increases,
    however, some nations are developing programs to
    protect their natural resources.
  • The passage tell us how some cities have begun to
    increase the amount of green spaces in balance
    with nature or we will destroy the earth home we
    share.

17
Background Information
  • Founded in 1972, the Trust for Public Land (TPL)
    is the only national nonprofit organization of
    America, working only to protect land for human
    enjoyment and health. TPL helps protect land for
    recreation and soul food and to improve the
    health and quality of life of American
    communities.
  • Portland, a seaport in U.S.A., is the largest
    city of Maine.
  • Maine is a state on the northeastern coast of the
    U.S.A.. Augusta is its capital. It is very hilly,
    with the White Mountain lying in the west. Maine
    was visited by Cabot in 1498, and colonized by
    the English in the 17th and 18th century. It
    became the 23rd state of the U.S.A. in 1820.

18
Background Information
  • Portland Parks and Recreation Department is a
    city government department. Parks and Recreation
    Department can be found at all levels of
    governments in the U.S., whose mission is usually
    to assure access to leisure opportunities,
    enhancing natural beauty and promoting tourism.
  • The Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean,
    separating America from Asia and Australia. Its
    length is 15,000km. Its width from Panama to
    Malaya is 18,000km. With its coasts it makes up a
    great volcanic area.

19
Background Information
  • Phoenix, the capital and largest city of Arizona,
    U. S.A., is the center of an irrigated
    agricultural district as well as electrical and
    electronic engineering, farm machinery, aircraft,
    food processing, metallurgy, and tourism.
  • Arizona is a state in the southwestern U.S.A..
    Its capital is Phoenix. It is divided by
    mountains with a high plateau in the northeast
    and desert in the southwest. The U.S.A. acquired
    most of the state from Mexico in 1848, and the
    rest as part of the Gadsden Purchase in 1854. It
    became the 48th state of the U.S.A. in 1912.
  • Salt River in this text refers to the Salt River
    lying in the middle east of Arizona. Another one
    is located in the middle north of Kentucky. Still
    there is another one in the northeast of
    Missouri.

20
Background Information
  • Baltimore is a port and import-export center of
    Maryland, U.S.A., on an inlet from the Chesapeake
    Bay.
  • Lying at the base of the San Francisco Peaks at a
    height of 7,000 feet above sea level, Flagstaff
    offers four distinctive seasons of weather, great
    hiking and outdoor recreation opportunities, a
    rich and diverse art and culture community. The
    quality of life in Flagstaff is so near perfect
    that each year it is judged one of the top cities
    in which to live.
  • The San Francisco Peaks is the mountain that lies
    at the north of Flagstaff, Arizona. It is the
    highest place in Flagstaff.

21
Learning the text
  • Warm-up Questions and lead-in
  • Ss read the text with 4 questions, then T ask Ss
    to answer them.
  • 1.What do most countries concern themselves
    with?
  • 2. Why and how do people change their
    attitudes towards increasing green spaces?
  • 3.How did Portland increase its green spaces?
  • 4.What measures did other countries take to
    increase theirs green spaces?

22
New Words and Phrases
  • container
  • amateur
  • gardener
  • pea
  • salad
  • costly
  • ditch
  • lorry
  • erect
  • Mister
  • Vice
  • Nineteen
  • vacant
  • rare
  • option
  • enormous
  • private
  • ownership
  • literally
  • urban
  • pave
  • mud
  • childhood
  • bulb

Next step
23
New Words and Phrases
  • conservation
  • trail
  • characterize
  • housing
  • recreation
  • acre
  • canal
  • excursion
  • comparable
  • strip
  • summit
  • plot
  • civilian
  • open field
  • in fact
  • on top of
  • work on
  • power line
  • coordinate ones efforts to
  • clean up
  • up to
  • for instance
  • wash away
  • lead into

24
vacant
  • a.
  • 1. not filled or occupied empty ?????,???
  • There are several vacant plots in the area
    available for building on.
  • ???????????????????
  • 2. (position or post) unfilled (??????)???
  • Today there are thought to be about 100
    full-time posts vacant.
  • ???????100??????????
  • 3. showing no interest or activity ???,???
  • His mind seemed completely vacant.
  • ????????????

25
rare
  • a.
  • 1. not often happening or seen, etc. not common
    ???,?????? It is rare for her to
    arrive late. ??????
  • 2. not common and as a result sometimes valuable
    ???,??? The museum is full of rare and
    precious treasures. ????????????

26
option
  • n.
  • 1. thing that is or may be chosen choice
    ??????,???????? There werent many options
    open to him.
  • ????,??????????
  • 2. power or freedom of choosing choice
    ???,????,?? I have little option but to go.
    ?????,????

27
enormous
  • a. very large ???,???,??? He earns enormous
    pay, so he can live in an enormous house and
    drive an enormous car. ?????,???????,????
  • It gives me enormous pleasure to welcome
    Professor Hall. ?????????????

28
private
  • a.
  • 1. of, belonging to or for the use of one
    particular person or group only
    personal???,???,???,??? She never spoke about her
    past or her private life. ?????????????????
  • 2. not to be told to others secret
    ???,??? This letter is strictly private.
    ????????
  • 3. of, belonging to or run by an individual or a
    self-governed company rather than the State not
    state-controlled
  • ???,???,?????? Banks should be supporting
    small, private businesses. ?????????????

29
ownership
  • n. state of being an owner (right of)
    possession ????,??(?) The restaurant is under new
    ownership. ??????????? The ownership of the land
    was transferred to John Smith. ?????????????????
    ?

30
literally
  • ad. in a way that follows exactly the original
    exactly ???,???,??? When he said he never wanted
    to see you again Im sure he didnt mean it
    literally. ???????????,??????????????
  • Idioms usually cannot be translated literally
    in another language. ?????????????????

31
urban
  • a. of, located in or living in a city or town
    ???,?????,????? the urban population ???? He
    prefers country life to urban life.
    ????????????????

32
pave
  • vt. cover (a surface) with flat stones or bricks
    or tar
  • ?(????)??????
  • The country boys thought the streets of
    London were paved with gold.
  • ??????????????

33
mud
  • n. soft wet earth ??,?
  • The rain turned dust into mud.
  • ??????????
  • My shoes were covered with mud.
  • ?????????

34
container
  • n. box, bottle, etc. in which sth. is kept,
    transported, etc.??(????)
  • She kept the buttons in an old ice-cream
    container.
  • ???????????????

35
amateur
  • a. taking part in an activity for pleasure, not
    as a job, or (of an activity) done for pleasure,
    not as a job
  • ???,????
  • Lawton was an amateur singer until the age of
    40, when he turned professional.
  • ?????????,??40?????????
  • n. person who practices a sport or arts skill
    without receiving money for it
  • (??????????????)?????
  • Although he's only an amateur he's a first
    class player.
  • ???????????,???????????

36
gardener
  • n. person who works in a garden, either for pay
    or as a hobby
  • (??????) ?????????,??
  • I'm not much of a gardener.
  • ????????
  • Our new garden is so big that we have had to
    hire a gardener.
  • ????????,?????????????

37
costly
  • a. costing much expensive
  • ???,????
  • It would be too costly to repair the car.
  • ??????????????
  • Our holiday in Australia was very costly.
  • ??????????????

38
erect
  • vt.
  • 1. build, set up establish ??,??,??
  • They plan to erect an office building
    there.
  • ????????????????
  • 2. set straight up put up ??,??
  • The pole was erected on a firm base.
  • ??????????????
  • a. standing on end ???,???,???
  • He's very tall and erect for his 78 years.
  • ???? 78??,???????,?????

39
vice
  • a. acting instead of ???,??vice president
    ???,???,???
  • Geraldine Ferraro tried to become the first
    woman Vice President of the US, but did not
    succeed.
  • ????.????????????????, ?????

40
conservation
  • n. prevention of loss, waste, damage,
    destroying, etc. ??,??, ??wildlife
    conservation ??????
  • As well as helping the environment, energy
    conservation reduces your fuel bills.
  • ???????????,???????????

41
trail
  • n.
  • 1. path, esp. through country ??,????
  • Keep to the trail if you leave it, you'll
    get lost.
  • ????????????,???????
  • 2. mark or sign in the form of a long line left
    by sth. or sb. passing by ??,??
  • The hunters followed the tiger's trail.
    ??????????
  • v.
  • 1. drag be dragged along behind ?,?,??
  • Her skirt was trailing along in the mud.
    ????????????
  • 2. fall behind (????)??,??
  • They trailed by two goals to one at
    half-time. ????????????
  • vt. follow the trail of track ??,??
  • Hunters can trail wild animals through the
    forest.
  • ??????????????

42
characterize
  • vt.
  • 1. be common to (sb./sth.)
  • ??... ...???,?... ...???
  • Bright colors characterize his early
    paintings.
  • ??????????????
  • The education approach there is characterized
    by an emphasis on success in exams.
  • ????????????????
  • 2. describe … by stating its main qualities
  • ??(????)??,??(????)??
  • The story characterizes the wolf as a tricky
    and cruel animal.
  • ????????????????????

43
housing
  • n.
  • 1. houses, flats, etc.
  • ?????,??(????)
  • The government has promised to provide cheap
    housing for poor people.
  • ???????????????
  • 2. providing houses or flats for people
  • ????,????
  • the city's housing policy ???????

44
recreation
  • n. (means of) entertaining oneself after work
    relaxation ??,??,??,????
  • My favorite recreation is singing.
  • ???????????
  • I climb mountains for recreation.
  • ?????????

45
excursion
  • n. short journey for pleasure ????,??
  • Next week we are going on a day excursion to
    the mountains.
  • ?????????????????
  • An optional excursion has been organized for
    every day of your holiday to a nearby place of
    interest.
  • ????????????????????????????

46
compared
  • a.
  • 1. similar, that can be compared, equal to
    ???,???
  • A comparable car would be much cheaper out of
    the country.
  • ????????????????
  • 2. meriting being compared ???,????
  • The profits of these two companies are not
    comparable with each other.
  • ??????????????????

47
strip
  • long narrow piece (of material, etc.) or area (of
    land, etc.)
  • ?????(??)???(??)
  • a strip of paper ????
  • We lost thousands of soldiers in the war and
    all we got was this narrow strip of land in
    return.
  • ??????????????,??????????????

48
strip
  • vi. take off one's clothes ????
  • The doctor asked the patient to strip.
  • ??????????
  • vt.
  • 1. take off (clothes, parts, etc.) from sb./ sth.
  • ??,??,??(??????????)
  • The paint will be difficult to strip off.
  • ?????????
  • 2. take away (money, honors, etc.) from sb.
    ??... ...?(??????)
  • When the athlete was found to have taken
    drugs, he was stripped of his gold medal.
  • ????????????????????,????????????

49
summit
  • n.
  • 1. highest point top, esp. of a mountain
  • ???,(????)?,??
  • He is now at the summit of his career.
  • ?????????????
  • 2. meeting between the heads of two or more
    governments, esp. of the world's most powerful
    countries
  • ???????(??????????)??????????
  • the summit powers ??????????

50
plot
  • n.
  • 1. small marked or measured piece of land, esp.
    for a special purpose (?????????) ????, ????
  • a building plot ????
  • 2. (plan or sketch of the) events in the story of
    a play or novel
  • (????????)??
  • She began to tell me the plot in great
    detail.
  • ??????????????
  • 3. secret plan made by several people to do sth.
    ????,??
  • The plot was discovered in time.
    ????????
  • v. make a secret plan (to do sth.) plan (sth.)
    with others ??,??
  • The army is plotting the takeover of the
    government.
  • ?????????

51
civilian
  • n. person not serving in the armed forces or the
    police force ??
  • Two soldiers and one civilian were killed in
    the explosion.
  • ?????????????????
  • He left the army and returned to civilian
    life.
  • ????????????

52
open field
  • field which is not covered with trees, etc. ??
  • It isn't a very good idea to camp in the
    middle of an open field.
  • ?????????????

53
in fact
  • in truth really ???,???
  • For eight years she was in fact living in the
    countryside.
  • ???,??????????

54
on top of
  • over or above
  • ?... ...??
  • Put the letter on top of that pile of books,
    where it can be seen easily.
  • ???????????,????????

55
work on
  • Give one's attention to doing or trying to do
  • ???
  • You will have to work on the weak points in
    your English if you want to pass the examination.
  • ????????,?????????????????

56
coordinate ones efforts to
  • work together efficiently
  • ????
  • We must coordinate our efforts to help the
    poor.
  • ??????????????

57
clean up
  • make a place clean by removing the dirt
  • ??,??,??
  • The workers cleaned up before they left.
  • ??????????????????
  • This room needs cleaning up.
  • ????????????

58
up to
  • reach a certain number or amount ??,??
  • Research suggests that up to two thousand
    people have taken this drug.
  • ???????????????????

59
for instance
  • as an example for example ??
  • Several of his friends came Ben, Carol and
    Mike, for instance.
  • ????????,??,?????????

60
wash away
  • (of water) remove or carry sb./sth. away to
    another place
  • (??)??,??
  • The banks are being slowly washed away by the
    sea.
  • ???????????

61
lead to
  • (of a road, etc.) provide a way (for sb.) to
    enter ( a place) ??,??
  • This path leads halfway into the forest and
    then strops.
  • ???????????????

62
Learning the text
  • Listening and reading the text. Lead-in
  • Where do children play? Years ago, any open
    field, any vacant lot, any group of trees --
    these were the places where children played. As
    families left family farms, small towns, and the
    countryside, and moved into cities, the places
    for their children to play in became rarer.
    Children in the cities had few options, fewer
    choices of places to play.

Next step
63
Text Structure Analysis
  • Years ago, any open field, any vacant lot, any
    group of trees these were the places where
    children played. (Para.1)
  • Meaning Quite a few years before now, children
    amused themselves at games in any area that was
    not closed in, not occupied for any particular
    purposes such as for building or parking cars on,
    or was only planted with trees.

64
Text Structure Analysis
  • … any vacant lot… (Para.1)
  • vacant a.
  • not filled or occupied, empty
  • The hospital has no vacant beds.
  • ????????????
  • There are several vacant plots available
    for building on in the area.
  • ????????????????????
  • In some cities there are more vacant
    buildings than can house homeless people.
  • ?????,????????????????????

65
Text Structure Analysis
  • (position or post) unfilled, not filled at
    present
  • Today there are thought to be about
    100full-time posts vacant.
  • ???????100??????????
  • The post of chairman has been vacant for
    some time.
  • ??????????????
  • The top post in the company was still
    vacant.
  • ????????????

66
Text Structure Analysis
  • (of ones look or expression) showing no interest
    or activity, suggesting that sb. does not
    understand sth. or that he is not thinking about
    anything in particular
  • She has a vacant look on her face.
  • ?????????????
  • His mind seemed completely vacant.
  • ????????????

67
Text Structure Analysis
  • … any vacant lot … (Para.1)
  • Lot n. a small area or land that belongs to a
    person or company, esp. one for a particular
    purpose such as for building or parking cars on
    used mainly in American English
  • There is a parking lot around the corner.
  • ??????????
  • If oil or gold is discovered under your lot,
    you can sell the mineral rights.
  • ??????????????????,?????????

68
Text Structure Analysis
  • … the places for their children to play in became
    rarer. (Para.1)
  • rare a.
  • not often happening or seen, etc. not common
  • Its rare to find these birds in England, but
    there is a small population of them in the
    northwest.
  • ????????????,??????????
  • It is rare for her to arrive late.??????
  • not common and as a result sometimes valuable
  • a book of rare value ???
  • The museum is full of rare and precious
    treasures.
  • ????????????

69
Text Structure Analysis
  • Children in the cities had few options, fewer
    choices of places to play. (Para.1)
  • option n.
  • C a thing that is or may be chosen a
    choice
  • Make a list of the various options.???????????
    ?
  • There werent many options open to him.
  • ????,??????????
  • I am keeping my options open. I have not made
    a decision on either matter.
  • ????????,?????????????
  • 2) U power or freedom of choosing choice
  • I have little option but to go.?????,????
  • We have no option but to leave the meeting.
  • ????????,?????????

70
Conclusion
  • Everyone has responsible for contributing the
    city to be a garden.
  • ???????????,????!
  • Protecting the environment, starts from you and
    me.
  • ????,?????.
  • Green spaces is the heart of our city.
  • ????????.

71
Homework
  • Do all the exercises of Unit two
  • Writing Do a composition about environment
    (protect or fight against), showing your ideas
    and making them clear, interesting and
    convincing. Specific details can be an
    illustration, a case or explanations.
  • Preview the next unit.
  • Visiting and listening the teaching platform
    http//www.jxcia.com/e-corner/
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