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Biochemistry is the common thread that links all life sciences ... Nutritional Imbalances. Deficiencies, excesses. Endocrine imbalances ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Biochemistry

  • Chapter 1
  • What is Biochemistry and How Does it Relate to
    Other Areas

  • Defined as the science concerned with the
    chemical basis of life
  • Expanded definition The science concerned with
    the chemical constituents of living cells and
    with the reactions and processes they undergo

  • Biochemistry is the common thread that links all
    life sciences
  • The book does a good job of linking Biochemistry
    with Biology, Molecular Biology, Cell biology,
    physics, and chemistry
  • The relationship between Biochemistry and
    Medicine has also stimulated mutual advances

  • The World Health Organization (WHO) defines
    health as a state of Complete physical, mental,
    and social well-being and not merely the absence
    of disease and infirmity
  • From a biochemical view, health may be considered
    that situation in which all of the many thousands
    of intra- and extra-cellular reactions that occur
    in the body are proceeding at rates commensurate
    with the organisms maximal survival in the
    physiological state

  • We believe that most, if not all, diseases are
    manifestations of abnormalities of molecules,
    chemical reactions, or biochemical processes.
  • As a matter of fact, the major factors for
    causing diseases in animals and humans fall into
    one or more of eight categories.

  • Physical agents
  • Mechanical trauma, extremes of temperature,
    sudden changes in atmospheric pressure,
    radiation, electric shock
  • Chemical agents
  • Drugs, toxins, therapeutic drugs, etc
  • Biological agents
  • Viruses, bacteria, fungi, higher forms of
  • Oxygen lack
  • Loss of blood supply, depletion of the
    oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, poisoning
    of the oxidative enzymes

  • Genetic Disorders
  • Congenital, molecular
  • Immunologic reactions
  • Anaphylaxis, autoimmune disease
  • Nutritional Imbalances
  • Deficiencies, excesses
  • Endocrine imbalances
  • Hormonal deficiencies, excesses

Uses of Biochemical investigations and laboratory
tests in relation to diseases
  • To reveal the fundamental causes and mechanisms
    of diseases
  • Demonstration of the nature of the genetic
    defects in cystic fibrosis
  • To suggest rational treatments of diseases based
    on (1) above.
  • A diet low in phenylalanine for treatment of
  • To assist in the diagnosis of specific diseases
  • Use of the plasma enzyme creatine kinase MB
    (CK-MB) in the diagnosis of myocardial infarctions

  • 4) To act as screening tests for the early
    diagnosis of certain diseases
  • Use of measurement of blood thyroxine or
    thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the neonatal
    diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism
  • 5) To assist in monitoring the progress of
    certain diseases
  • Use of the plasma enzyme alanine aminotransferase
    (ALT) in monitoring the progress of infectious
  • 6) To assist in assessing the response of
    diseases to therapy
  • Use of measurement of blood carcinoembryonic
    antigen (CEA) in certain patients who have been
    treated for cancer of the colon

Three Principal Areas of Biochemistry
  • Structural Chemistry
  • Metabolism
  • Molecular Genetics

The Chemical Elements of Living Matter
  • Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus