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THE SCOTTISH INFLUENCE ON THE AMERICAN RESTORATION MOVMENT'

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Title: THE SCOTTISH INFLUENCE ON THE AMERICAN RESTORATION MOVMENT'


1
THE SCOTTISH INFLUENCE ON THE AMERICAN
RESTORATION MOVMENT.
2
The Seed of the Restoration Movement Were First
Planted in Scotland in the 18th Century.
3
DUNDEE
4
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5
Why Scotland?
  • A History of Religious Turmoil
  • Joined England in rejecting Catholic church.
  • John Knox introduced Calvinism
  • Founding of Church of Scotland, Presbyterian in
    government.
  • Division in church.

6
  • Work of lay preachers
  • Powerful leaders
  • Common Sense School of Philosophy and John Locke.
  • Dissatisfaction with relationship of Church of
    Scotland with Great Britain
  • Fierce Spirit of Independence

7
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9
  • 1695 Born in Fife, Scotland. His father was a
    minister of the church of Scotland.
  • 1713 Graduated from University of St. Andrews
    with M. A. Then attended University of
    Edinburgh.
  • 1718 Licensed as Presbyterian minister. Preached
    at Dunkeld.

10
  • 1719 Moved to Tealing. Here he preached a series
    of sermons comparing doctrine of Presbyterians
    with the Bible.
  • 1727 Wrote The Testimony of the King of Martyrs
    Concerning His Kingdom.
  • Opposed state churches

11
1725 Left Tealing church and started an
Independent church. About 100 went with him.
  • Church agreed to follow Glas as overseer.
  • Observed Lords Supper monthly
  • Practiced discipline found in Matthew 18.

12
  • 1726-26 Glas brought before several synods.
    Finally deposed as a preacher.
  • 1739 General Assembly broke precedent and revoked
    sentence of deposition He was restored as a
    preacher but not for the church of Scotland.
  • 1775 Died at age of 78. His wife and all fifteen
    children preceded him in death.

13
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14
Teachings of John Glas
  • Authority of Scriptures over all creeds.
  • Restoration if New Testament Christianity.
  • Church is a local congregation
  • Autonomy of local church
  • Faith demonstrated by obedience
  • Baptism is the sign of our covenant with Christ.
    Unites one with Christ and the Church,

15
  • . . . the washing of our bodies. . . in baptism
    imparts purification from the defilement of sin.
    . . .
  • Still accepted sprinkling as dedication of
    infants.
  • Lords Supper to be observed weekly.
  • Acts 242 is a pattern for worship.

16
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17
ROBERT SANDEMAN
18
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19
1718 Born April 29, in Perth Scotland. His
father, David, an indifferent Glasite by
membership, introduced his son to Glas ideas at
an early age.
20
1734 Enrolled in the University of Edinburgh,
completing two terms While a student at the
University of Edinburgh that Sandeman became a
member of a Glasite church.
21
During his time in Edinburgh, Sandeman had the
opportunity to personally meet Glas and some of
his associates.
22
  • 1735 Left the University and became an apprentice
    in the weaving business.
  • 1737 Married John Glas daughter Catherine.
  • 1741 Left a prosperous weaving business he had
    established with his brother. Income from this
    allowed him to devoted his full time to
    preaching. He also took part in the church where
    Glas was an elder.

23
  • 1744 At the age of 26, Sandeman was appointed an
    elder of Glas congregation and became their
    primary literary publisher.
  • 1745 As an elder, he wrote a letter reproving
    his father for neglecting the assembly.

24
  • 1757 Published the most controversial and widely
    read of all his works was Letters on
  • Theron and Aspasio (1757). This work was a
    dialogue between Sandeman and James Hervey, a
    well-known Calvinist minister from
    Northamptonshire, concerning Herveys work
    Dialogues between Theron and Aspasio (1755) This
    dialogue brought Sandemans theology

25
  • 1760 Word reached Sandeman in London that his
    work Letters on Theron and Aspasio had caused
    quite a stir in the American colonies.
  • 1763 Sandeman invited by several men in America
    to visit and teach. Since his wife had died, he
    accepted the invitation.

26
SANDEMANS VIEWS
  • His views were very similar to those of Glas.
  • He believed in strict discipline, similar to that
    of the church of Scotland.
  • Elders must be in every church. The Lords Supper
    could not be observed with elders present.
  • Justification and faith.
  • Faith is man accepting the redeeming work of God,
    not earning it.
  • Faith is an activity instead of mere mental
    assent.

27
  • They called themselves the church of Christ
    but did not believe this was a specific name.
  • Opposed all religious creeds.
  • Refused the title, reverend and did not wear
    clerical clothing.
  • Foot washing and the holy kiss
  • The holy kiss was practiced at the end of the
    love feast.
  • Foot washing was only occasional.

28
James and Robert Haldane
29
James Haldane
30
Robert Haldane
31
  • 1764 Robert born in London.
  • 1768 James born in Dundee, father died two weeks
    later.
  • 1778 Mother died, reared by maternal grandmother.
    Both served in the Royal Navy, James reaching
    rank of captain.
  • 1785 James marries Katherine and move to
    Airthery, near Stirling. Attended a
    Congregational church. Robert had previously been
    influenced by Robert Bogue, brother-in-law of
    Greville Ewing.

32
  • 1793 James leaves Navy. While living in London
    meets and is influenced by Willliam Innes, an
    Independent preacher.
  • 1796 Robert hears of great mission work in India
    and determines to go. Invites Bogue, Ewing and
    others to accompany him.
  • However, government permission denied.

33
Meanwhile, James becomes associated with John
Campbell in Sabbath Schools. He established 34
in vicinity of Edinburgh in six months. Robert
joins in effort.
34
1798 Greville Ewing preaches last sermon for
church of Scotland. He, William Innes and the
Haldanes form a Congregational church after
order of Glas and Sandeman.
35
1799 Started Tabernacle church with 300 members
  • Lords Supper every first day, if minister
    present.
  • Weeky collection for the poor.

36
  • 1798 Robert sent 10 young men to David Bogues
    school in Gosport, England.
  • 1799 Formed own school in Edinburgh, Greville
    Ewing in charge. In May, moved to Glasgow where
    Ewing preached for the Glasgow Tabernacle.
  • 1800 Disagreement between Robert Haldane and
    Ewing over which church in charge of school.
    Haldane moved church back to Edinburgh. However,
    school came under influence of Glas / Sandeman.

37
Beliefs
  • New Testament as pattern for worship
  • Apostolic church as model for all ages.
  • Congregational autonomy
  • Elders served to guide and teach church.
  • Each church had ministers and deacons
  • Weekly observance of Lords Supper

38
  • In 1808 the Haldanes rejected infant baptism and
    were immersed.
  • Practiced foot washing, more as a custom of
    hospitality.
  • Replaced Holy Kiss with more contemporary
    greetings.
  • Called self, Church of Christ

39
Relation to Haldenes with Glas/Sandeman
  • Haldanes influenced much by Glas. They either
    agreed or adopted much of Glas understandings.
  • Robert Haldane became a great admirer of Robert
    Sandeman.

40
Differences
  • Infant Baptism.
  • Discipline. Glas was much stricter.
  • The Haldanes were more evangelistic. Glas and
    Sandeman were more teachers.

41
Influence in America
  • 1816-18 George Forrester moved to Pittsburgh and
    founded a church and school.

42
THE SCOTCH BAPTISTS
  • Developed from the Independent movement and were
    much influenced by Haldanes.
  • Some called Haldane Baptists.

43
Teachings
  • Baptism for remission of sins.
  • Followed pattern of worship in Acts 242
  • Observed love feast and washing of feet.
  • Avoided gaudy, worldly appearance.
  • Retained some Calvinistic beliefs but thought
    elect could back slide.

44
INFLUENCE OF SCOTCH REFORMERS ON ALEXANDER
CAMPBELL
  • We cannot determined how much they influenced
    him. He claimed he was not a member of any
    movement.
  • Rich Hill, where he lived was often visited by
    Haldane ministers. He heard James Haldane preach.
  • He was acquainted with Alexander Carson who lived
    near him. In attempting to answer a Scotch
    Baptism on the mode of baptism, Carson accepted
    immersion.

45
In 1808 the Campbell family sailed for America to
join Thomas. However ship was wrecked off coast
of Scotland.
46
  • Family spent winter in Glasgow.
  • Alexander Campbell able to attend University of
    Glasgow.
  • Became associated with Greville Ewing and
    Haldanes.
  • It was during this period that the Haldanes
    rejected sprinkling as baptism.

47
Areas of agreement and disagreement.
  • Agreed with Glas in many areas. Felt he was
    inconsistent on Infant baptism.
  • Agreed that faith more than belief in the truth.
  • Thought Sandeman had incomplete understanding of
    faith and baptism.

48
Campbells Visit to Great Britain in 1847
  • Visited many Scotch Baptist, Sandemanian and
    Independent churches.
  • The Scotch Baptists must certainly unite with
    our brethren in England and Scotland
  • In Edinburgh he went to hear James Haldane but
    he was not there. Disappointed in condition of
    the congregation.

49
  • A Haldane congregation in Londonderry converted.
  • Campbell led a cooperative meeting in Chester,
    England and agreed to help find an evangelist in
    America to help them.

50
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51
THE SCOTCH BAPTISTS
  • The Scotch Baptists developed out of the Scottish
    independent tradition that sought to live
    separate from the authority of the Church of
    Scotland.
  • Some called Haldane Baptists

52
BELIEFS
  • Followed worship pattern of Acts 242
  • Observed the kiss of charity
  • The washing of one another's feet, when it is
    really serviceable as an act of hospitality.
  • They thought that a gaudy external appearance in
    either sex, be their station what it may, is a
    sure indication of the pride and vanity of heart.

53
  • They also consider gaming, attending plays,
    routs, balls, and some other fashionable
    diversions, as unbecoming the Christian
    profession.
  • They retained some Calvinistic beliefs but
    consider the elect could back slide.
  • They taught baptism for the remission of sins.

54
INFLUENCE OF SCOTTISH REFORMERS ON ALEXANDER
CAMPBELL
55
Campbell doubtless was influenced by Independent
leaders while in Ireland and Scotland. Yet he
claimed he belonged to none of them.
56
  • Rich Hill, where Thomas Campbell lived, was often
    visited by Haldane ministers.
  • In his youth Alexander Campbell heard Rowland
    Hill on his evangelistic tour of northern
    Ireland.

57
Rowland Hill
1744-1833
58
  • James Haldane visited Rich Hill in 1801.
  • AC was also acquainted with Alexander Carson who
    lived nearby. In 1808 Carson challenged a Scotch
    Baptist on the mode of baptism. In his attempts
    to answer him from a study of the Bible, he
    accepted immersion.

59
In October, 1808, the Campbell family sailed for
America to join Thomas. However, the were ship
wrecked and spent the winter in Glasgow.
60
  • Here he came associated with Greville Ewing and
    the Haldanes.
  • During this period these men had accepted
    immersion, as Carson had recently done.

61
INFLUENCE
  • From Glas AC learned the separation of church
    and state, congregational independence, weekly
    observance of the Lords Supper, and anti
    creedalism.
  • He saw Glas as inconsistent on infant baptism.
  • He and Sandeman saw this as a dedicatory rite.
    The Haldanes later rejected this.

62
  • He disagreed with the dogmatic and uncharitable
    attitude he saw in some of the Sandeman
    persuasion.
  • He agreed with him on the nature of faith. . . .
    faith is no more than belief in the truth. . .
  • He saw that Sandeman had in incomplete
    understanding on the necessity of faith and
    baptism as expressions of faith.

63
In 1759, the estate was sold to Captain Robert
Haldane of Plean. In 1791, his son, Robert
Haldane, commissioned the design by the eminent
architect Robert Adam, which is the basis of
Airthrey Castle today.
64
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65
Robert Sandeman
66
?Sandeman was like a giant among dwarfs. He was
likeSamson with the posts of Gaza on his
shoulders
67
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68
JohnGlas1695-1773
  • Born September 21, 1695
  • His Father, Thomas Was Minister Of The Church of
    Scotland
  • Attended Grammar School At Perth, Later Attending
    St. Leonards College at St. Andrews. Received
    M.A. May 6, 1713
  • Then Attended University Of Edinburgh
  • Received A Calvinistic Education Both At Home
    University
  • Licensed As A Presbyterian Minister At Dunkeld
    Presbytery On May 20, 1718, Later At Tealing In
    Forfarshire May 6, 1719
  • At Tealing Presbyterian Church 5 Years

69
JohnGlas1695-1773
  • 1727 Wrote The Testimony Of The King Of Martyrs
    Concerning The Kingdom
  • Against State Churches
  • Intervention Of Civil Authorities In Church
    Matters
  • Believed
  • The Church Is Made Up Of Those Who Experienced
    The Grace Of Christ
  • Separated Themselves From The World
  • Gathered Themselves In The Church
  • Therefore, No Place For Civil Affairs
  • Separated From Tealing Church, July 13, 1725,
    Starting An Independent Church
  • 100 People Followed
  • Agreed To Follow Christ As Lord
  • Subjected Themselves To Glas Leadership
  • Observed The Lords Supper Monthly (Not Quarterly
    Like Scottish Church)
  • Followed Matthew 18 Church Discipline
  • Formed A Society Of Believers

70
JohnGlas1695-1773
  • Divisions Continue
  • August 6, 1726 At Strathmartine
  • Taught John 1836,37 Christs Kingdom Is Not Of
    This World
  • No Earthly Civil Designation Of Authority
    (Against Physical Kingdom Teaching In That Day)
  • Close To Treason
  • Brought Before A Number Of Synods
  • Aug. 1726 Synod of Angus Mearns
  • Sept. 6, 1726 Synod Of Dundee
  • Oct. 1727 Synod of Montrose
  • April, 1728 Synod Of Angus Mearns
  • Members Submitted 26 Questions To Glas And His
    Reply Was Discussed
  • Glas Was Suspended As Presb. Minister
  • Appeal To Gen. Assembly At Edinburgh May 2, 1728

71
Glasite Church - Dundee
72
JohnGlas1695-1773
  • Still More Presbyterian Synods
  • Oct. 17, 1728 Synod Of Dundee
  • Should They Suspend Or Depose Glas?
  • He Was Deposed
  • Mar. 12, 1730 Appealed To Highest Presbyterian
    Court Who Confirmed The Sentence To Depose Him
  • 1739 The General Assembly Broke Precedence And
    Revoked The Sentence Of Deposition
  • Though It Restored Glas As A Minister, It Did Not
    Restore Him As A Minister In The Church of
    Scotland
  • Glas Never Requested This, But Its Happening
    Showed A Sign Of Softening Against
    Congregationalism

73
John Glas - 1695-1773
  • Last Years Of Ministry
  • 1730 Continued To Minister To New Tealing
    Society
  • Moved To Dundee To Support Himself By Opening A
    Bookstore
  • Moved To Perth In 1733
  • His Independent Reputation Was Not Quickly
    Accepted
  • When Opening A New Meetinghouse There Some In
    Town Threw Mud At Attendees
  • George Miller, The Town Clerk Intervened And Kept
    The Meetinghouse From Destruction
  • 1734 Established A Congregational Church in
    Edinburgh
  • Met Robert Sandeman There
  • Later Became His Son-In-Law
  • Died November 2, 1773 78 Years Old
  • Survived By 15 Children, Wife Died In 1749
  • Most Of Family Buried At Dundee In Old Howff
    Cemetery

74
John Glas Buried In Howff
75
RobertSandeman1718-1771
  • Born April 19, 1718
  • Father, David, A Linen Merchant And Magistrate In
    Perth
  • Attended University Of Edinburgh To Prepare For
    The Ministry In Church Of Scotland 0 1734
  • As A Youth He Became Acquainted With Glas Ideas
  • 1735 Choosing To Give Up Ministry Idea, He
    Returned To Perth To Begin An Apprenticeship In
    Weaving Business
  • 1737 He Married Katherine, Daughter Of John Glas
  • 1740 Set Up A Weaving Business
  • 1756 His Brother Married Another Of Glas
    Daughters

76
RobertSandeman1718-1771
  • 1744, Age 26 Became Elder Of Perth
    Congregational Church
  • Preached For Next 16 Years At Perth, Dundee
    Edinburgh
  • 1757 Wrote 2 Volume Work, Letters On Theron And
    Aspasio Against James Harveys Teachings On
    Calvinism
  • James Hervey Had Written An Apologetic Of
    Calvinism Called Theron And Aspasio 1755
  • As A Result Of Letters On Many English
    Congregational Churches Began Appearing
  • 1761 He And Brother William Went To London To
    Teach His Congregational Ideas
  • By 1766 Many Congregational Churches Are In
    England

77
Glas Church In Edinburgh
78
RobertSandeman1718-1771
  • American Influence
  • 1760 Letters On Theron And Aspasio Appear In
    Colonies
  • 1763 He Receives A Letter Urging A Visit To
    America
  • August 30, 1764 Sandeman Departs Scotland
    Arriving In Boston Harbor, Oct. 18, 1764
  • Glas/Sandemanian Churches Established In
    Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Other
    New England States
  • Sandeman Died In Danbury, Connecticut, April 2,
    1771 At 53 Years Of Age, Two Years Before Glas In
    Scotland

79
Some Beliefs Of The Glasites/Sandemanians
Believed They Could Reenact 1st Century Order In
Christianity
  • Denied Tenets Of Calvinism
  • Had Lords Supper Every Sunday
  • Observed Love Feasts
  • Had Foot-Washings
  • Mutual Exhortations
  • Casting Lots, etc.

80
Robert Sandeman, Danbury, Conn.
81
Robert James Haldane
  • 1798 Started A Church In England After The
    Glas/Sandeman Order
  • The Tabernacle Church Beg. 1799 With 310 People
  • L.S. Administered Every Sunday
  • Weekly Collections Taken
  • Operated Schools Throughout England
  • Close Associate To Greville Ewing
  • Associated With Baptists

82
Haldane Home Airthrey Castle, Sterling, Scotland
83
Tabernacle Church Teaching
  • N.T. Contained The Pattern For All Christian
    Service
  • Apostolic Church Model Provided Church Model For
    All Ages
  • Thus Teaching Restoration Or Restitution
  • Congregational Autonomy
  • Elders Served In Each Congregation, Teaching
    Ruling
  • Each Church Had Its Own Deacons Minister
  • Civil Authorities Had No Right In Church Matters
  • Weekly Observance Of The Lords Supper
  • By 1808 Both Haldanes Believed That Immersion Was
    The Only Proper Mode Of Baptism
  • Haldanes Differed With Glas Over Discipline, Took
    A More Loving Approach

84
Haldane Tabernacle - Edinburgh
85
Greville Ewing
  • 1767-1841- Born In Edinburgh, Scotland
  • Supported Mission Congregationalism In Scotland
  • Founding Member Secretary Of Edinburgh (Later
    Scotland) Missionary Society, March, 1796

86
Influence Of Greville Ewing
  • Met And Worked With Haldane Brothers Until 1808
    Teaching In Schools, Preaching
  • 1800-1839 Minister Of Mother Church of Scottish
    Congregationalism, Glasgow, Scotland
  • Instructed At University of Glasgow
  • One Of His Students 1808,1809 Year Was Alexander
    Campbell
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