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Microbe of the Day Staphylococcus aureus

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Staph lives on our skin. And sometimes it gets in. Making ... Staphylococcus aureus. Opportunistic pathogen: makes toxins. Skin abscesses. Food poisoning ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Microbe of the Day Staphylococcus aureus


1
Microbe of the Day Staphylococcus aureus
2
Staphylococcus aureus
  • Golden-colored colonies

3
Staphylococcus aureus
  • Behold Staphylococcus aureus,
  • A gold-colored Gram positive coccus
  • Staph lives on our skin
  • And sometimes it gets in
  • Making toxins that sure disagree with us!

4
Staphylococcus aureus
  • Gram positive coccus
  • Grape-like clusters
  • Common on skin and nose grows in high salt

5
Staphylococcus aureus
  • Opportunistic pathogen makes toxins
  • Skin abscesses
  • Food poisoning
  • Toxic shock syndrome

6
Staphylococcus aureus
7
Staphylococcus aureus
8
Prokaryotes
  • Functional Anatomy
  • Part 2

9
TOPICS
  • External structures
  • Cell Envelope
  • Internal Structures
  • Cell Shapes, Arrangement, and Sizes
  • Classification
  • Archaea

10
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11
http//www.arches.uga.edu/kristenc/cellwall.html
12
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13
Gram Stain
14
Gram Positive Bacteria
15
Gram Negative Bacteria
16
Atypical Cell Walls
  • Mycobacteria (TB, leprosy)
  • Very thick outer lipid layer - acid fast
  • Slow nutrient exchange
  • Slow growth

17
Acid Fast Stain Mycobacteria
18
Internal Structures
  • Cytoplasm
  • Genetic structures
  • Storage bodies
  • Actin
  • Endospore

19
Cytoplasm
  • Site for cells biochemical activities
  • 70-80 water
  • Bacterial chromosome
  • Ribosomes - protein synthesis
  • Actin - cytoskeleton

20
DNA - Bacterial Chromosome
  • Single long circular chromosome
  • Double-stranded DNA
  • No nuclear envelope
  • Attached to plasma membrane
  • May have small circular DNA plasmids outside
    chromosome

21
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22
RNA
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) - transcribed from DNA,
    carries code for protein synthesis
  • Transfer RNA (tRNA) - one for each amino acid
  • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) - structural part of ribosome

23
Ribosome
  • rRNA protein
  • Site of protein synthesis
  • Inhibited by some antibiotics

24
Inclusion bodies
  • Reserve deposits
  • Nutrients
  • minerals
  • enzymes for CO2 fixation
  • Magnetosomes (Fe3O4)
  • Gas Vacuoles buoyancy

25
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26
Actin Cytoskeleton
  • Found in rod-shaped and spiral bacteria just
    under plasma membrane
  • Influences cell shape

27
Endospores
  • Highly durable dehydrated dormant cells (boil for
    20 hours to destroy)
  • Allow cells to survive adverse conditions
  • Sporulation is spore formation
  • Germination is return to vegetative (growing) cell

28
Spore Stain
29
Medical Significance of Endospores
  • Bacillus anthracis - anthrax
  • bioterrorism
  • Clostridium
  • C. tetani - tetanus
  • C. botulinum - botulism
  • C. perfringens - gas gangrene

30
Shapes and Arrangements of Bacterial Cells
  • Coccus (cocci) spherical
  • Bacillus (bacilli) rod-shaped
  • Spirillum or Spirochete spiral
  • Diplo - 2
  • Tetrads - 4
  • Strep - chains
  • Staphylo - bunches

31
Bacterial Cell Size
  • 0.2-2 mm in diameter, 2-8 mm long
  • Some bacteria have varied shapes (pleomorphism)
  • Cellular shapes and arrangements can be used to
    identify bacteria

32
Streptococcus pyogenes
33
Streptococcus pneumoniae
diplococcus
34
Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis
35
Vibrio cholerae
36
Borrelia burgdorferi
Leptospira interrogans
37
Classification of Bacteria
  • Phenotypic methods
  • morphology (size, shape, colony morphology)
  • growth characteristics
  • Molecular methods
  • genes, RNA
  • antigens (immunology)
  • Taxonomic Scheme
  • Bergeys Manual of Determinative Bacteriology

38
Medically Important Gram Positive Bacteria
39
Medically Important Gram Negative Bacteria
40
Unusual Bacteria
  • Obligate intracellular parasites
  • Lack some enzymes that they need for survival
  • Rickettsias - Rocky Mtn Spotted Fever
  • Chlamydias - blindness and STD

41
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42
Unusual Bacteria
  • Photosynthetic Bacteria
  • Cyanobacteria - blue-green bacteria

43
Purple Sulfur Bacteria
44
Unusual Bacteria
  • Gliding, Fruiting Bacteria - Myxobacteria
  • Gram negative bacteria
  • Complex life cycle

45
Archaea
  • Prokaryotic
  • Singluar circular chromosome
  • Unique rRNA sequences
  • Unique Cell membrane lipids
  • No peptidoglyc an in cell walls
  • Often live under extreme environmental conditions

46
Archaea
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