Assessment of/for Learning Through Differentiation

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Assessment of/for Learning Through Differentiation

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Title: Assessment of/for Learning Through Differentiation


1
Assessment of/for Learning Through
Differentiation
First District RESA October 2007
2
Assessment for Motivation
  • Clear, student friendly targets
  • Accurate assessments
  • Effective communication

3
Three Types of Needed Assessments
  • Pre-assessments Design this after summative
    assessment
  • Formative Identify these last
  • Summative Design this first

4
What do we think?
  • For an assessment to be valid, it must
  • For an assessment to improve student learning, it
    must
  • For an assessment to engage learners and bring
    out their best, it must

5
Assessments reflect long term goals
  • Quizzes
  • reflect short term goals

6
  • Choose a theme or context to focus a unit

7
Africa Its Land and Its People
  • What must students learn? (Knows )
  • How will students demonstrate they can use
    what they learned in a meaningful way? (Dos)

8
Be Selective!
  • Choose standards that have the greatest impact
    on proficiency and growth at any given level
  • Unwrap or Unpack those standards to build the
    unit plan and final assessment
  • Which of the elements are being introduced?
  • Which of the elements are recurring and may need
    to be assessed to a proficient level?

9
Grade 7 Social Studies Standards
  • SS7H1 The student will identify important
    African empires.
  • Describe the development of African empires
    including Ghana, Mali, Songhai, and Ethiopia.
  • Explain the importance of cities such as Timbuktu
    as a center of learning, Djenne as one of the
    oldest cities in Africa, and Zanzibar as a center
    of commerce
  • Describe the significance of Sundiata, Mansa
    Musa, and Zara Yakob.
  • SS7G1 The student will be able to describe and
    locate the important physical and human
    characteristics of Africa.
  • Describe and locate major physical features
    include Sahara, Savannah, Sahel, Topic Rain
    Forest, Congo River, Nile River, Zambezi River,
    Niger River, East African Mountains (Ethiopian
    Highlands), Drakensberg Mountains, Atlas
    Mountains, Kalahari Desert, Lake Tanganyika, and
    Lake Victoria.
  • Describe and locate the nations of South Africa,
    Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Rwanda, Mozambique,
    Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Mali,
    Mauritania, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia,
    Libya, Kenya, and Chad.

10
  • SS7G3 The student will explain the impact of
    location, climate, physical characteristics,
    natural resources, and population size on African
    countries.
  • Describe the impact location has on countries
    such as Chad, Egypt, and South Africa, with
    regard to trade, migration, agriculture, and
    industry.
  • Explain the impact of physical features such as
    deserts, mountains, rivers, and proximity to the
    ocean have on countries such as Ethiopia, Sudan,
    and Morocco.
  • Explain the distribution of natural resources in
    Africa and how that has affected the development
    of countries such as Chad, Sudan, and South
    Africa.
  • Describe the effect the Sahara, Sahel, Savannah,
    and tropical rain forest have on where people
    live, the type of work they do, and
    transportation.
  • SS7G4 The student will describe the cultural
    characteristics of different people who live in
    Africa.
  • Describe the religions, customs, and traditions
    of the Arab, Ashanti, Bedouin, Khoikhoi and the
    San, Ibo, and Swahili ethnic groups.
  • Explain the major artistic and music forms of
    people in the region.

11
  • Mark or star concepts on your overall list that
    must be reflected in the final assessment for the
    unit
  • Remember that not all concepts are created equal

12
Grade 7 Social Studies Standards
  • SS7H1 The student will identify important
    African empires.
  • Describe the development of African empires
    including Ghana, Mali, Songhai, and Ethiopia.
  • Explain the importance of cities such as Timbuktu
    as a center of learning, Djenne as one of the
    oldest cities in Africa, and Zanzibar as a center
    of commerce
  • Describe the significance of Sundiata, Mansa
    Musa, and Zara Yakob.
  • SS7G1 The student will be able to describe and
    locate the important physical and human
    characteristics of Africa.
  • Describe and locate major physical features
    include Sahara, Savannah, Sahel, Topic Rain
    Forest, Congo River, Nile River, Zambezi River,
    Niger River, East African Mountains (Ethiopian
    Highlands), Drakensberg Mountains, Atlas
    Mountains, Kalahari Desert, Lake Tanganyika, and
    Lake Victoria.
  • Describe and locate the nations of South Africa,
    Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Rwanda, Mozambique,
    Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Mali,
    Mauritania, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia,
    Libya, Kenya, and Chad.

13
  • SS7G3 The student will explain the impact of
    location, climate, physical characteristics,
    natural resources, and population size on African
    countries.
  • Describe the impact location has on countries
    such as Chad, Egypt, and South Africa, with
    regard to trade, migration, agriculture, and
    industry.
  • Explain the impact of physical features such as
    deserts, mountains, rivers, and proximity to the
    ocean have on countries such as Ethiopia, Sudan,
    and Morocco.
  • Explain the distribution of natural resources in
    Africa and how that has affected the development
    of countries such as Chad, Sudan, and South
    Africa.
  • Describe the effect the Sahara, Sahel, Savannah,
    and tropical rain forest have on where people
    live, the type of work they do, and
    transportation.
  • SS7G4 The student will describe the cultural
    characteristics of different people who live in
    Africa.
  • Describe the religions, customs, and traditions
    of the Arab, Ashanti, Bedouin, Khoikhoi and the
    San, Ibo, and Swahili ethnic groups.
  • Explain the major artistic and music forms of
    people in the region.

14
  • Circle/ underline the verbs in the chosen
    standards and elements
  • Students must demonstrate the elements at this
    level on the quizzes, chapter tests, performance
    tasks, academic prompts, and other assessments
    for this unit
  • Students must demonstrate the standards at this
    level on the summative assessment

15
Grade 7 Social Studies Standards
  • SS7H1 The student will identify important
    African empires.
  • Describe the development of African empires
    including Ghana, Mali, Songhai, and Ethiopia.
  • Explain the importance of cities such as Timbuktu
    as a center of learning, Djenne as one of the
    oldest cities in Africa, and Zanzibar as a center
    of commerce
  • Describe the significance of Sundiata, Mansa
    Musa, and Zara Yakob.
  • SS7G1 The student will be able to describe and
    locate the important physical and human
    characteristics of Africa.
  • Describe and locate major physical features
    include Sahara, Savannah, Sahel, Topic Rain
    Forest, Congo River, Nile River, Zambezi River,
    Niger River, East African Mountains (Ethiopian
    Highlands), Drakensberg Mountains, Atlas
    Mountains, Kalahari Desert, Lake Tanganyika, and
    Lake Victoria.
  • Describe and locate the nations of South Africa,
    Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Rwanda, Mozambique,
    Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Mali,
    Mauritania, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia,
    Libya, Kenya, and Chad.

16
  • SS7G3 The student will explain the impact of
    location, climate, physical characteristics,
    natural resources, and population size on African
    countries.
  • Describe the impact location has on countries
    such as Chad, Egypt, and South Africa, with
    regard to trade, migration, agriculture, and
    industry.
  • Explain the impact of physical features such as
    deserts, mountains, rivers, and proximity to the
    ocean have on countries such as Ethiopia, Sudan,
    and Morocco.
  • Explain the distribution of natural resources in
    Africa and how that has affected the development
    of countries such as Chad, Sudan, and South
    Africa.
  • Describe the effect the Sahara, Sahel, Savannah,
    and tropical rain forest have on where people
    live, the type of work they do, and
    transportation.
  • SS7G4 The student will describe the cultural
    characteristics of different people who live in
    Africa.
  • Describe the religions, customs, and traditions
    of the Arab, Ashanti, Bedouin, Khoikhoi and the
    San, Ibo, and Swahili ethnic groups.
  • Explain the major artistic and music forms of
    people in the region.

17
Cautions
  • Scope-and-sequence approaches will not maximize
    student growth in a standards-based and data
    driven world
  • Published materials are resources to use in a
    unit, but are not the unit
  • A teacher who lists 15 elements/standards or a
    series of numbers/letters will not get the same
    results as those who are selective and focused

18
Chunking
Segment the learning into key concepts and
combinations of concepts that need to be taught
by dividing a topic of study into logical
portions of learning
19
Chunk learning by critical thinking level and
skill load.
  • Historical development of African Empires
  • Importance/significance of their major cities
  • Major physical features of Africa
  • Description and location of nations in Africa
  • Impact of location, climate, physical
    characteristics, natural resources, and
    population size on African countries
  • Religions, customs, traditions, and major
    artistic and music forms of people in the region

20
Determine the optimal sequence of these concepts
and layering of learning.
  • Major physical features of Africa
  • Historical development of African Empires
  • Importance/significance of their major cities
  • Description and location of nations in Africa
  • Impact of location, climate, physical
    characteristics, natural resources, and
    population size on African countries
  • Religions, customs, traditions, and major
    artistic and music forms of people in the region

21
  • Performance and thinking can be verified through
    ongoing formative assessment.
  • formative assessment that tells us whether the
    student has reached the desired level of critical
    thinking and use of the concept
  • during and at the end of each chunk of learning
    in a unit
  • Learning that may need to be differentiated does
    not occur quite as conveniently as daily lesson
    planning would lead us to believe.
  • Some chunks will take only one day
  • Most chunks of a unit will take multiple days or
    even longer

22
  • Unit Skills How will students demonstrate they
    can use what they learned in a meaningful way?
  • Skills are the demonstrations of student learning
    necessary to provide the rehearsal and learning
    for the final assessment.
  • All of these skills will be needed for the final
    assessment in some form and to some degree.

23
Pulling it together to design summative
  • It is imperative that teachers think in terms of
    the unit plan before developing any lessons or
    activities.
  • The challenging and thought-provoking concepts
    help us create the final assessment at the
    standard level.
  • Simpler concepts may help build understanding
    throughout the chunks of learning within a unit
    (the element level).
  • More difficult concepts may provide the framework
    and categories for the simpler concepts. Key
    Concepts What must students remember and be able
    to use, even after this unit?

24
When we are thinking of the summative assessment,
we should be considering the transfer and
personal meaning-making of the information.
25
Summative only assesses transfer if
  • Student is drawing from a repertoire for a
    complex task
  • Teacher gives minimal cues, prompts, graphic
    organizers
  • Learner is mindful of a particular context the
    setting, audience, purpose, etc.

26
Effective Summative Assessments
  • The tests must involve situations new to the
    studentIdeally we are seeking a problem which
    will test the extent to which the individual has
    learned to apply an abstraction in a practical
    way.
  • Bruner, Process of Education

27
ELEMENTS
Measuring Skills
Scientific Method
STANDARD/BIG IDEA
How do plants thrive? Develop a brochure for the
local nursery
Plant parts
28
Learning and Cognition
  • Students develop flexible understanding of when,
    where, why, and how to use their knowledge to
    solve new problems if they learn how to extract
    underlying principles and themes from their
    learning exercises.
  • Bransford

29
  • The final assessment will ask What does the
    demonstration of learning for this unit look
    like?
  • Create a simple description of the final
    assessment for your unit plan. This will guide
    and focus your work regardless of the method of
    performance assessment you choose.

30
Example of Assessment Description
  • Students will use what they know about Africa,
    its land and its people, to convince others to
    settle in one of its nations. Students will be
    able to discuss concerns such as the impact of
    physical features, climate, natural resources,
    and location on daily living conditions,
    agriculture, economy, etc. and population size on
    the nations ability to prosper.

31
Unit Assessments Authentic performance-based
assessments are the best types for unit-level
summative assessments.
  • A well-written prompt and set of directions
  • A rubric form and scoring
  • Models or templates to assist the student in
    proficient performance

32
Warning
  • It is not acceptable to modify and differentiate
    the standards unless the student has a special
    education or English as second language plan that
    legally allows us to differentiate and
    accommodate the standards for an individual
    learner.
  • The rest of the class must be held accountable
    for the same standard, concepts, and
    demonstrations of final learning.
  • How we get there, with what resources, at what
    rate, and with what guidance and tools is another
    matter.

33
Summative Assessments Culminating Projects
  • Complex challenges that mirror the issues and
    problems faced by adults
  • Range in length from short-term tasks to
    long-term, multistaged projects
  • Yield one or more tangible products
  • Yield one or more performances
  • The evaluative criteria and performance standards
    are known in advance and guide student work

34
Critical Features of Culminating Projects
  • At key junctures in a course or grade level
  • Demonstrate independent understanding through
    explanation, application, interpretation, and
    self-knowledge
  • Simulate real-world, adult tasks
  • Typically require extended time to complete
  • Require product and, usually presentation
  • Typically provide choice of products or formats
  • May be individual or group effort

35
GRASPS
  • Goals from the real world
  • Roles that are authentic and based in reality
  • Audiences to whom students will present final
    products and performances
  • Situations involving a real-world conflict to be
    resolved, decision to be made, investigation to
    be completed, invention to be created, etc.
  • Products and Performances which culminate from
    the study and provide appropriate evidence of
    understanding
  • Standards for evaluating project-based products
    and performances

36
Culminating Project 7th Grade Social Studies
  • Imagine that you are visiting Africa during the
    rise of such nations as South Africa, Zimbabwe,
    Tanzania, Rwanda, Mozambique, Democratic Republic
    of the Congo, Ghana, Mali, Mauritania, Sierra
    Leone, Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia, Libya, Kenya, and
    Chad. You like it so much that you decide to
    start a business an agency to help nomadic
    tribes settle in an ideal area for the
    development of a promising nation. Since you
    brought your expert knowledge on Africas land
    and people with you, you feel that you can help
    your first clients, Nellie and Norman Nomad (and
    their very extended family), become a part of one
    of the newly established nations. You must
    convince them, in a proposal, why they will
    benefit from becoming a part of a prosperous
    nation as opposed to remaining nomadic.
  • Your Proposal (include the following things in
    your proposal)
  • Name of the nation you select for them
  • Characteristics (physical, economical, and
    cultural) that make this nation great
  • Historical development of the nation, stemming
    from the roots of African empires
  • Impact that physical features, location, and
    distribution of natural resources of the nation
    may have on their daily lives in this area
  • How they will be contributing, as a part of that
    nation, to later African history
  • Other nearby important cities that would be
    attractive vacationing spots, explaining their
    significance to Africa
  • Write your proposal and also include some
    pictures or drawings that will help convince the
    Nomads to settle in your chosen nation (and
    therefore pay you!). You will give a 2 minute
    presentation to the Nomads (aka teacher) in
    class.

37
Goal The goal is to relate enough information
about the physical features, cultural
characteristics, historical development, and
other nearby significant cities to convince the
nomads to settle in the African nation of your
choosing. Role Somewhat like a real-estate
agent Audience Nomads (teacher) Situation You
are visiting Africa when nations were developing,
so you see opportunity to make money acting as an
agent by promoting nations based on their growth,
development, features, and impact that location
and distribution of resources may have on the
nation. Product and Performance Proposal (with
pictures or drawings) pitching your chosen
African nation and 2 minute presentation in
class Standards Rubric for content and
presentation

38
Components of an Effective Culminating Project
  • Goals from the real world
  • Roles that are authentic and based in reality
  • Audiences to whom students will present final
    products and performances
  • Situations involving a real-world conflict to be
    resolved, decision to be made, investigation to
    be completed, invention to be created, etc.
  • Products and Performances culminate from the
    study and provide appropriate evidence of
    understanding
  • Standards for evaluating project-based products
    and performances

39
A New Beginning Your school has just moved into
a new school building. The principal, Mr.
Johnson, had his first school-wide meeting this
morning talking about a new beginning. He wants
to focus on promoting unity among the teachers,
the students, and the administrators. He is
asking the 6th grade mathematics students to help
with promoting positive school spirit by creating
a new design for school t-shirts for sale to
students and staff. MR. JOHNSON WANTS
YOU!!!!! He wants each 6th grader to be a member
of a small group and for each group to create a
design for a t-shirt that is representative of
middle school students. Isnt that cool!!!! You
get to be a designer of your very own t-shirt
shop. Where do you begin??? Your group must have
a plan. First, you must choose an image to
enlarge or shrink to fit on a t-shirt. The image
must come from the existing images which are
representative of the school. A lot of work goes
into owning your own business. For production,
you will need to prepare a design plan detailing
what process you used to make your selected image
fit on the shirt. Now, it is not good enough to
have the best design if nobody will buy it. You
will also need to design a way to market your
t-shirt. Keep in mind, your group wants your
design to be chosen for production and sale
therefore, it needs to be most appealing to other
middle school students and staff. All t-shirt
shop owners will present their designs in their
own mathematics classes using their marketing
plan. Each class will select one design to be
presented for the principal and his
administration. They will use a rubric to
determine the most appealing t-shirt with the
best marketing plan. It will be selected for
production.
40
Goal Promote positive school spirit by creating
a new design for school t-shirts for sale to
students and staff Role T-shirt designer and
marketing representative Audience Fellow
students in mathematics classes and possibly the
principal and administration Situation You and
your group are designing a new t-shirt for your
middle school that you hope will be selected by
first your fellow classmates and then your
principal and administration to be the one that
will be massed produced Product and Performance
t-shirt design with scaled drawings, marketing
plan, and presentation Standards See rubric
41
Analyzing GRASPS
  • To what extent would the project provide
    meaningful assessment data about students level
    of understanding and independent application?
  • Which, if any, of the GRASP elements might
    present challenges or problems?

42
2 Questions A Practical Test of Your Ideas
  • Could the performance be accomplished without
    in-depth understanding?
  • Could the specific performance be poor, but the
    student still understand?

43
Writing a Culminating Project
  • Use your standards and elements for your unit to
    write a culminating project.
  • Share your culminating project with another
    teacher.
  • Check one anothers projects for GRASPS
    components and for alignment with targeted
    standards and elements.

44
Rubrics and Scoring Guides
  • Students improve their achievement on
    performance tasks when they have a clear
    understanding of how they will be evaluated. The
    more they apply the criteria articulated in
    rubrics and scoring guides, the more likely they
    are to internalize them and apply them
    independently.

45
  • On the rubric, remember to base the left-hand
    column on concepts, not directions for the unit
    assessment or parts of the assessments.
  • It is possible to differentiate the assessment
    without differentiating the rubric. This will
    help teachers stay aligned to grade-level or
    course expectations.

46
Resources
  • http//rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php
  • http//landmark-project.com/rubricbuilder/index.ph
    p

47
Three Types of Needed Assessments
  • Pre-assessments Design this after summative
    assessment
  • Formative Identify these last
  • Summative Design this first

48
Pre-assessing the Gap
  • Remember to focus your gap analysis on concepts,
    thinking skills, and the type of demonstration of
    learning students will need to be successful on
    the final assessment.
  • You can use your analysis of this data to create
    differentiation opportunities in grouping,
    teaching methods, and learning methods.

49
2 Questions to Consider when Pre-assessing
  • Part One What do we already know about our
    students?
  • Part Two What do we need to know to get students
    to grow from where they are to the final
    assessment?

50
Example and Practice
  • Part One What do we already know about our
    social studies students?
  • I have information from a previous pre-assessment
    which includes initial ability of reading maps,
    identifying continents, and labeling physical
    features of an area such as mountains, deserts,
    and rivers. I also know students can look up
    information based on an earlier internet search
    activity.
  • Part Two What do we need to know to get students
    to grow from where they are to the final
    assessment?
  • I need to know what informal understanding they
    have about how physical features, climate, etc.
    impact daily living. I also need to know their
    familiarity with Africa its physical features,
    countries and nations, history, and cultures.

51
Choose the Pre-Assessment Format
  • In groups of 4, students will have a photocopied
    outline of Africa with its countries outlined.
    Given a short list of cities, countries, nations,
    and physical features, students will collectively
    label their maps. They will write a conclusion
    statement about the impact that location may have
    on a countrys economy, agriculture, supply of
    natural resources, job opportunities, trade,
    travel, or development.
  • Conduct a gallery walk of student maps and draw
    conclusions based on what they see during a
    teacher-led discussion.
  • For a possible homework assignment, students will
    complete a K-W-L chart on African culture

52
What are the Gaps?
  • What do students know based on the pre-assessment
    data?
  • What can students do based on the pre-assessment
    data?
  • What else do students need to know and be able to
    do (based on the elements) to meet proficiency
    for each chunk?

53
Pre-assessment Analysis
Standards-Based Content
Pre-assessment method or tool
Filling in the Gap
B
Filling in the Gap
Filling in the Gap
Concepts or skills in place
A
Concepts or skills in place
Concepts or skills in place
High Degree
Approaching
Beginning
54
Standards-Based Content The student will
identify important African empires. The student
will be able to describe and locate the important
physical and human characteristics of Africa. The
student will explain the impact of location,
climate, physical characteristics, natural
resources, and population size on African
countries. The student will describe the cultural
characteristics of different people who live in
Africa.
Pre-assessment method or tool KWL chart, map
activity, gallery walk, discussion
Needs historical knowledge cause and effect of
characteristics of Africa more exposure to
African culture Empires and nations Describes
physical features in greater detail
Needs exposure to African culture Needs
historical knowledge Cause and effect
characteristics of Africa Major empires and
nations Describing physical and human
characteristics of Africa
B
Cannot name empires in Africa, needs historical
knowledge, more cause and effect links
Locates and describes major physical features in
Africa Impact of location and climate Some
cultural characteristics of Africa
A
Can make inferences based on geography Some
cultural knowledge Locates some physical features
with reference to resources
Basic map skills and recognizes African continent
High Degree
Approaching
Beginning
55
Acquire Information
  • Read the relevant textbook chapter on the
    relation between geography and population
    settlement.
  • Quiz on possible elements of chapter.

56
Thinking Slide
  • To assess students ability to transfer what they
    have learned to new tasks, the assessment must
    _______________
  • To prepare students for assessments involving
    transfer, instruction should give them
    opportunities to _________________

57
Rules for learning that makes sense for adult and
child learners (Kuzmich, 2002)
  • What teachers ask is what they get.
  • What teachers choose to model is what they get.
  • What teachers spend time doing in class gets
    done.
  • What dialogue and discourse occurs in a classroom
    directly influences learning.

58
Transfer
Authentic
Standards
Valid
Performance Task
Summative Assessment