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HACCP and Food Safety


Storing Safe Food. Overview. First In, First Out (FIFO) Labeling and Dating ... best in sweet, acidic foods with low water activity. Basic Biology. Practice ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HACCP and Food Safety

HACCP and Food Safety
  • Information for all SchoolFood Employees

Sept 2006
Table of Contents
  • Introduction
  • What is HACCP?
  • Why use HACCP?
  • Who is responsible for HAACP?
  • When is HACCP used?
  • How is HACCP learned?
  • HACCP Principles
  • Seven Steps of HACCP
  • The SchoolFood HACCP Program
  • Critical Control Points
  • Serving Safe Food
  • It Starts with You
  • Basic Biology
  • Types of Contaminants
  • Microbes 101
  • Bacterial Growth
  • Contamination and Foodborne Illness
  • Overview
  • Safe Employees
  • Overview
  • Uniform Review
  • Handwashing
  • Using Gloves
  • Thermometer Use
  • During Prep and Service
  • Purchasing and Receiving Safe Food
  • Headquarters' Role
  • Receiving Guidelines
  • Inspection of Items Received
  • Storing Safe Food
  • Overview
  • First In, First Out (FIFO)
  • Labeling and Dating
  • Equipment Temperatures
  • Expiration Dates
  • Best If Used By Guidelines

Table of Contents
  • Preparing Safe Food
  • Overview
  • Temperature Review
  • Defrosting Safely
  • Hot Food Issues
  • Cold Food Issues
  • Satellite Food Issues
  • Cross Contamination
  • Storing Prepared Food Safely
  • Cleaning and Sanitizing
  • Preparing Solution
  • Red Bucket, Gray Bucket
  • Clean As You Go
  • Can Opener and Slicer
  • Integrated Pest Management
  • Overview
  • Storeroom Issues
  • Communication
  • HACCP Reviews
  • Overview
  • HACCP Review Form
  • HACCP and DoH Inspections

What is HACCP?
  • Proven method used to ensure the safety of the
    foods we serve
  • Originally developed for NASA space flights
  • Systematic approach that ensures food safety by
    looking at all processes as food flows through
    our kitchens
  • Ordering
  • Receiving
  • Storage
  • Preparation and Holding
  • Service

Why use HACCP?
  • It works!Proven Industry Standard
  • It is mandatedSchoolFood must have procedures in
    place to demonstrate how we maintain and verify
    food safety
  • USDA Requirement
  • New York State Education Dept Requirement
  • New York City Department of Health

Who is Responsible for HACCP?
  • Every SchoolFood employee
  • Each employee has an individual and team role
  • Correct issues immediately and inform coworkers
  • Seek guidance from the Manager and Cook-in-Charge

When is HACCP Used?
  • At all times in our operations
  • HACCP follows the flow of food through our
  • Receiving
  • Storage
  • Preparation
  • Service
  • Clean-up
  • When developing new recipes and procedures
  • HACCP principles guide development and

How is HACCP learned?
  • Training
  • Classroom Training
  • Training Centers
  • Application
  • During 120-day Probation period
  • HACCP Inspection reviews
  • Feedback
  • Ask questions

Big Things to Remember
Key Points
  • Top three causes of food borne illness
  • we control the risk
  • Food Temperatures
  • Calibrate thermometers daily
  • Check food temperatures at preparation, holding,
    and serving
  • Cross Contamination
  • Defrost food properly
  • Keep stations clean
  • Use sanitizing solution between tasks
  • Poor Personal Hygiene
  • Wash Hands frequently
  • Use gloves

Food Temperatures
Key Points
  • Keep food out of the Danger Zone at every stage
    of Production

Protein Items Cooked to Internal Temperature of
Protein Items Stored at proper temperatures
Protein Items Served at Internal Temperature
above 140F
Protein Items Held at Internal Temperature above
Protein Items Cooled to Internal Temperature
below 40F within two hours
Seven Steps of HACCP
HACCP Principles
  • Assess the Hazards
  • Review Operations
  • Identify Critical Control Points
  • Where hazards can be prevented, eliminated, or
  • Set Standards
  • Guidelines for all operations
  • Monitor Critical Control Points
  • Verify proper procedures are being followed
  • Take Corrective Action
  • Correct issues immediately
  • Keep Records
  • Temperature and Production Records
  • Verify the System is Working
  • HACCP Review Team to verify

The SchoolFood HACCP Program
HACCP Principles
  • SchoolFood integrates HACCP procedures into our
    daily practices
  • HACCP is built into our operations
  • Training Manuals provide direction and additional
  • Be ready to implement new procedures
  • Based on real-world experience
  • Based on HACCP reviews
  • Based on new items and recipes

Critical Control Points
HACCP Principles
  • Points where there is a potential danger to food
  • Develop and implement a procedure to minimize the
  • CCP Hot Food must be held at above 140F
  • Procedure
  • Monitor food temperatures during holding time
  • Thermometers calibrated for accurate readings

It Starts With You
Serving Safe Food
  • Understanding how important Food Safety is
  • Applying HACCP principles at work (and home)
  • Helping coworkers understand
  • Asking Questions
  • Following HACCP procedures
  • Wearing a clean uniform
  • Taking action
  • Working smart
  • Keeping customers safe

Types of Contaminants
Basic Biology
  • Bacteria Causes most cases of food borne illness
  • Viruses Focus on personal hygiene
  • Parasites Need a host to survive
  • Fungi spoilage microorganism
  • Some contaminants show their danger
  • Molds
  • Sour Milk
  • Some contaminants hide their danger
  • Salmonella
  • Hepatitis A

Basic Biology
  • Bacteria
  • Living, single-celled organisms
  • Reproduce rapidly under right conditions
  • Can survive freezing
  • Some cause spoilage
  • Some cause disease
  • Some create toxins

Basic Biology
  • Viruses
  • Reproduce inside a living cell
  • Do not reproduce in food
  • Some survive cooking and freezing
  • Transmission
  • Person-to-Person
  • People-to-Food
  • People-to-Food contact surfaces
  • Poor personal hygiene can contribute to the spread

Basic Biology
  • Parasites
  • Need a host to survive
  • Grow naturally in some foods
  • Can be transmitted to humans
  • May be killed by proper cooking or freezing

Basic Biology
  • Fungi
  • Spoil Food and can cause illness
  • Grow best in sweet, acidic foods with low water

Microbes 101
Basic Biology
  • Food Borne Illness may result from
  • Infection
  • Pathogens grow in the intestines of someone who
    has eaten contaminated food symptoms may take
    time to appear
  • Intoxication
  • Caused by eating food containing poisonous toxins
    that are not destroyed by cooking

Basic Biology
  • Bacteria require the following to grow
  • FoodEnergy to multiply
  • AcidityProper pH level
  • Temperatureproper range for growth
  • Timeto multiply
  • OxygenSurvival
  • Moisture
  • How do we control or limit the food bacteria need
    to grow?

Basic Biology
  • Bacteria require the following to grow
  • FoodEnergy to multiply
  • Foods that contain Proteins represent the largest
  • Meat
  • Poultry
  • Dairy Products
  • Eggs
  • How do we control or limit the food bacteria need
    to grow?

Basic Biology
  • Bacteria require the following to grow
  • AcidityProper pH level
  • Bacteria need a neutral pH to grow
  • Between 4.6 and 7.5 pH
  • Acidic foods usually inhibit growth
  • How do we control or limit the food bacteria need
    to grow?

Basic Biology
  • Bacteria require the following to grow
  • Temperatureproper range for growth
  • 40F to 140F is the Danger Zone
  • Refrigeration will slow growth but not eliminate
  • Keeping food out of the Danger Zone will inhibit
    growth but will not kill bacteria
  • Only cooking to proper temperature will kill
  • How do we control or limit the food bacteria need
    to grow?

Basic Biology
  • Bacteria require the following to grow
  • Timeto multiply
  • Growth starts slowly then expands rapidly
  • Some bacteria can double in twenty minutes
  • Four hours in the Danger Zone can produce lethal
    levels of bacteria
  • How do we control or limit the food bacteria need
    to grow?

Basic Biology
  • Bacteria require the following to grow
  • OxygenSurvival
  • Aerobic requires oxygen to grow
  • Some bacteria have different requirements
  • Anaerobic no oxygen required
  • Facultative can grow with or without oxygen
  • How do we control or limit the food bacteria need
    to grow?

Basic Biology
  • Bacteria require the following to grow
  • Moisture
  • Bacteria grow well in moist foods
  • Drier foodless growth
  • How do we control or limit the food bacteria need
    to grow?

Bacterial GrowthTime
Basic Biology
  • How Bacteria Grow over time
  • Multiplication
  • Bacteria will grow as long as conditions are

Bacterial GrowthConditions
Basic Biology
  • How Bacteria grow in good conditions
  • Growth Chart
  • Lag Phase stable and preparing for growth
  • Log Phase rapid growth
  • Stationary Phase rate of death and growth are
    the same
  • Death Phase More bacteria dying than growing

Number of Bacteria
Bacterial GrowthTemperatures
Basic Biology
  • How Bacteria Grow at Different Temperatures

At 50F
At 95F
At 44F
Number of Salmonella Cells
At 42F
Contamination and Foodborne Illness
Contamination and Foodborne Illness
  • Biological contamination
  • Bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi
  • Chemical contamination
  • Toxic metals, pesticides and chemicals
  • Physical contamination
  • Foreign matter, staples, metal shavings

Contamination and Foodborne Illness
Contamination and Foodborne Illness
  • Biological contamination
  • Bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi
  • To reduce the risk
  • Cook and hold foods at proper temperatures
  • Limit the time food spends in the Danger Zone
  • Practice proper handwashing and good personal

Contamination and Foodborne Illness
Contamination and Foodborne Illness
  • Chemical contamination
  • Toxic metals, pesticides and chemicals
  • To reduce the risk
  • Store chemicals away from food storage
  • Store foods in proper containers
  • Read labels

Contamination and Foodborne Illness
Contamination and Foodborne Illness
  • Physical contamination
  • Foreign matter, staples, metal shavings
  • To reduce the risk
  • Examine contents of cans and cases
  • Check can opener for metal shavings, nicks in the
  • Evaluate products during preparation
  • Report Foreign Matter incidents to LIC
    Headquarters and Field Office

Standard Operating Procedures
  • SOPs provide guidance on how to complete many
  • Review posted SOPs and follow correct procedures

Safe Employees
Safe Employees
  • Safe food begins and ends with you
  • SchoolFood employees are on the front line
  • Work to provide safe food to your customers
  • Apply what you learn to your daily tasks
  • Adhere to SchoolFood practices and procedures
  • Ask questions if you are unsure of the proper

Uniform Review
Safe Employees
  • Follow SchoolFood procedures
  • Wear a clean uniform daily
  • No nail tips or polish
  • Visible Jewelry
  • Wedding Band with no stones
  • Watch
  • Safe shoes
  • Restrain Hair
  • Hairnet worn hairline-to-hairline
  • SchoolFood Hat if all hair is restrained
  • Hairnet and Hat to restrain hair

Safe Employees
  • How
  • Wet Hands using Hot water
  • Apply Soap
  • Lather and Wash for 20 seconds
  • Rinse
  • Dry with paper towels
  • Wash Hands After
  • Using restroom
  • Touching your hair or face
  • Eating or Smoking
  • Completing a task and before using new gloves
  • After touching any source of contamination

Using Gloves
Safe Employees
  • Gloves protect the food, not the employee
  • Use gloves to avoid bare-hand contact with food
    during preparation and production
  • Wear gloves while serving food
  • Change gloves
  • When moving from task to task
  • After touching your hair or face
  • After touching any source of contamination
  • Do not store gloves in pockets or apron

Thermometer Use
Safe Employees
  • A Tool for Food Safety
  • Test and calibrate thermometers daily
  • Use slush mixture of ice and water
  • Place thermometer in mixture
  • Needle should read 32F
  • Adjust if necessary
  • Retest if dropped

During Prep and Service
Safe Employees
  • Sanitizing Solution at all work stations
  • Clean as You Go
  • Clear, Clean, and sanitize work station between
  • Follow temperature guidelines when preparing
    temperature-sensitive foods
  • Sandwiches
  • Hot Foods
  • Label and Date prep items and leftovers

Purchasing and Receiving Safe Food
Purchasing and Receiving Safe Food
  • SchoolFood Food Technology Department sets
    specifications for our products
  • Working with manufacturers
  • Manufacturers monitor their food safety practices
    during production
  • Microbiological testing completed regularly
  • Receiving procedures continue the focus on safe

Receiving Guidelines
Purchasing and Receiving Safe Food
  • Apply Food Safety principles when receiving
  • Check temperatures of items
  • Frozen items must be received in a frozen state
  • Wet boxes signal the product has been defrosted
  • Ice crystals signal the product has been thawed
    and refrozen
  • Look for expiration dates
  • Return unsatisfactory products to vendor

Inspection of Items Received
Purchasing and Receiving Safe Food
  • Milk Temperatures
  • Production dates and expiration dates
  • USDA stamps
  • Open cases of fruits and vegetables
  • Notify Manager or Cook-in-Charge if you have

Storing Safe Food
Storing Safe Food
  • Store frozen and refrigerated products quickly
  • Date all products before stocking shelves
  • All food stored 6 above the floor on racks
  • Labels facing out
  • Monitor refrigerator and freezer temperatures
  • Utilize Best If Used By Guidelines

Storing Safe Food
  • First In, First Out
  • Rotate stock to utilize the oldest product first
  • Label cases with delivery dates
  • mm/dd/yy
  • Use FIFO in all storage areas
  • Freezers
  • Refrigerators
  • Storerooms
  • Paper Storage

Labeling and Dating
Storing Safe Food
  • Label cases with delivery date and production
  • Label individual cans if they are removed from
    the case
  • Ask Manager or Cook-in-Charge for help with some
    production dates
  • Julian Calendar
  • Use dates to monitor FIFO
  • Cover, Label, and Date all leftover products

Equipment Temperatures
Storing Safe Food
  • Monitor daily
  • Freezers 0F - -10F
  • Refrigerators 36F 40F
  • Milk Chests 36F 40F
  • Warmers To hold food above 140F
  • Opening and closing doors will affect internal
  • Place equipment repair request if equipment is
    not working properly

Expiration Dates
Storing Safe Food
  • Expiration Date on package
  • Milk
  • Fresh Juices
  • DoD Produce
  • Yogurt
  • Cookies
  • Soda
  • Monitor these dates and take action
  • Notify the Manager or Cook-in-Charge if a product
    is approaching the expiration date

Best If Used By Guidelines
Storing Safe Food
  • Use production date to calculate shelf life
  • Periodic review of all products
  • Utilize products that are nearing their
    expiration date
  • Inform Manager and Cook-in-Charge
  • Ask questions!

Preparing Safe Food
Preparing Safe Food
  • Preparation is where our focus on safety pays
  • Temperature Control
  • Monitor Internal Temperature
  • Monitor Holding Temperature
  • Temperature Abuse
  • Food held in Danger Zone
  • Failure to cook to internal temperature of 165F
  • Failure to properly chill foods
  • Preparing meals too far in advance

Temperature Review
Preparing Safe Food
  • Cold Foods
  • Served and held at 40F and below
  • Hot Foods
  • Cooked to an internal temperature of at least
  • Served and held at 140F and above
  • Hot Foods cooled quickly for storage
  • Two hour window to safe temperatures
  • Wrap, label, date, refrigerate

Cold Food Hold and Serve at 40F and below
Cook to this temperature 165F
Hot Food Hold and Serve at 140and above
Defrosting Safely
Preparing Safe Food
  • Defrost raw products on bottom shelf of
  • Prevent cross contamination
  • Wash utensils and equipment between tasks
  • Standardized recipes provide item-specific
  • Holding temperatures
  • Holding times

Standardized Recipes
  • Each recipe classified for Food Safety Purposes
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • Follow HACCP and preparation instructions to
    maintain food safety

Hot Food Issues
Preparing Safe Food
  • Always use Preheated ovens
  • Batch Cook
  • Monitor Cooking Temperatures
  • Reheat once to over 165F if temperature falls
    below 140F
  • Evaluate items for service the following day
  • Wrap, Date, Refrigerate

Cold Food Issues
Preparing Safe Food
  • Use Ice Packs and Cold Wells to maintain
    temperatures below 40F
  • Monitor Temperatures during production
  • Cold Wells and Salad Bars must have all spaces
    covered to be effective

Satellite Food Issues
Preparing Safe Food
  • Satellite Meal Issues
  • Temperature
  • Verify temperatures before pick-up by courier
  • Time
  • Limit time between preparation and consumption
  • Menu
  • Certain items identified for Satellite use
  • Quantity
  • Check for proper production amounts

Cross Contamination
Preparing Safe Food
  • Transfer of bacteria from one product to the
  • Prevent cross contamination
  • Create barriers between food products
  • Do not mix food from different batches
  • Defrost raw meat on bottom shelf in refrigerator
  • Use glovesno bare-hand contact with food
  • Wash, Rinse, and Sanitize

Storing Prepared Food Safely
Preparing Safe Food
  • Cool product as quickly as possible
  • Transfer to shallow pans
  • Place in refrigerator
  • Place in Freezer
  • On Ice Packs
  • In Ice Water bath
  • Stir contents frequently
  • Monitor temperatures
  • Drop to 70F within 2 hours
  • Drop to 40F within an additional 4 hours
  • Wrap, Date, and Label
  • Do not crowd refrigerator
  • Evaluate the following day for service
  • Reheat to over 165F only once

Cleaning and Sanitizing
Cleaning and Sanitizing
  • Bleach Solution
  • 1 cap bleach to 1 gallon cool water
  • Bleach is killed by hot water
  • Immerse for at least one minute
  • Allow to air dry
  • Use paper towel to dry if needed
  • Change solution after 2 hours or if it becomes
  • Quaternary Solution
  • 1 QuixPlus Towel in 1 gallon cool water
  • Change solution after 2 hours or if it becomes

Cleaning and Sanitizing
Cleaning and Sanitizing
  • Buckets
  • Red Buckets for Sanitizing Solution
  • Wash, Rinse, and Sanitize daily
  • Grey Bucket
  • Half Soapy Hot Water for Washing
  • Half Hot Water for Rinsing

Clean As You Go
Cleaning and Sanitizing
  • Keep your station clear as you work
  • Wash, Rinse, Sanitize between tasks
  • Prevent work from piling up
  • Work Clean
  • Better Organization

Can Opener and Slicer
Cleaning and Sanitizing
  • Breeding ground for bacteria
  • Wash, Rinse, and Sanitize between each use
  • Small details have a big impact
  • Question What could happen?

Integrated Pest Management
Integrated Pest Management
  • Team approach to managing pest control
  • SchoolFood Staff
  • Custodian
  • Pest Control Technician
  • Safe, approved products used in all areas
  • Kitchen staff maintains a clean, clear
  • Notify custodian of issues needing repair
  • Inform Pest Control Technician if activity has
    increased or changed

Storeroom Issues
Integrated Pest Management
  • All items stored on shelves at least 6 off floor
    on racks
  • Date and rotate all items
  • Check expiration dates weekly
  • Sweep and check for activity daily
  • Change glue boards
  • Inform Manager of increased activity or entry

Integrated Pest Management
  • Successful implementation requires open
    communication between all groups
  • Each has their role to play in maintaining a safe
  • SchoolFood
  • Cleanliness and reporting
  • Custodian
  • Repairs
  • Pest Control
  • Service school regularly

HACCP Reviews
HACCP Reviews
  • HACCP Team evaluates our operations
  • Schools are scored on how they implement and
    demonstrate safe food handling practices
  • Strive for improvement and increased safety
  • Discuss issues and develop safe work habits

HACCP Review Form
HACCP Reviews
  • Review categories and subject
  • Flow of Food followed through the operation
  • Critical Control Points
  • Proper procedures in place
  • All employees engaged in the process
  • Reinforcement and communication to resolve issues

HACCP Review and DoH Inspections
HACCP Reviews
  • Each follow the same flow of food
  • Use HACCP as a benchmark
  • Schools with positive HACCP reviews will do well
    on DoH inspections
  • How are we doing?
  • DoH data posted for each school
  • Parent review
  • Principal review

What Happens Next
  • Look for HACCP procedures during your training
  • Apply HACCP principles daily
  • Ask questions and seek guidance from your Manager
    and Cook-in-Charge
  • Be ready to accept change as HACCP procedures are
    updated to react to operational issues
  • Be a team player! Positive HACCP and Department
    of Health results show effective teamwork

Group Task
  • Review the scenario presented to your group
  • Each group has fifteen minutes to discuss the
  • One person from each group will review their
    scenario with the entire group

Scenario 1
Group Discussion
  • Think About This
  • PS 234 is serving Fried Rice for lunch. The rice
    was properly cooked the day before at 10am. The
    covered rice was placed on the countertop and
    allowed to cool to room temperature. At 3pm the
    cook placed it in the refrigerator. At 9am the
    next day the cook combined the rice with the
    other ingredients and cooked the mixture to 165F
    for at least 15 seconds. The cook covered the
    rice and left it on the stove until she reheated
    it for service at 12noon. Within an hour of
    eating the rice, several children began vomiting,
    and a few had diarrhea. Samples from the children
    revealed that the rice, not the other
    ingredients, was considered the cause of the
  • What Happened and Why?

Scenario 2
Group Discussion
  • Think About This
  • PS 152 receives 3 cases of Teriyaki Chicken
    Patties with their delivery. The patties are
    frozen at the time of delivery, but you notice a
    lot of ice crystals inside the box. The patties
    will be used to make teriyaki wraps the next day
    and they are placed in the refrigerator (at 38F)
    until needed for preparation. The SchoolFood
    staff follows all proper preparation, cooking,
    holding, and serving procedures. Unfortunately,
    several children report cramps and pain and each
    one of them had eaten the teriyaki wrap.
  • Explain why this may have happened

Scenario 3
Group Discussion
  • Think About This
  • Ed was instructed by the Cook-in-Charge to take
    out three boxes of raw chicken to defrost in the
    reach-in refrigerator. Ed placed the boxes above
    the bottom shelf because the pies for the
    Teachers Dining room were on the bottom shelf.
  • What should Ed have done differently?
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