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Ancient Egypt: A Glance Back in Time

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Title: Ancient Egypt: A Glance Back in Time


1
Ancient Egypt A Glance Back in Time
2
Ancient Egypt
Described as the gift of Egypt, the Nile River
was the basis for the great Egyptian
civilization. The Egyptian civilization was an
advanced one with a strong government a complex
writing style and unique beliefs about life and
death.
3
The topics being covered around the theme of
Ancient Egypt are The Old Kingdom Gods and
Serving the Gods Mummification and Preparing for
the afterlife Pyramids Great temples The role of
women Hieroglyphics and hieratic Rosetta
Stone Art
4
The Pyramids of Egypt
  • Man fears time,
  • Yet time fears the pyramids.
  • -Arab Proverb

5
The beginning of pyramids
  • Ancient Egyptians believed that their dead would
    travel to the Underworld in their death but only
    if their body was preserved.
  • Mastabas were used to protect and honor the dead.
    A mastaba is a rectangular tomb made of stone.
  • A Pharaoh named Djoser wanted to have a tomb more
    spectacular than a normal mastaba. His architect,
    Imhotep, came up with the 60 meter high Step
    Pyramid which was six mastabas placed on top of
    each other in decreasing size. This was an early
    predecessor of the true pyramid form.
  • A Pharaoh named Sneferu, a descendant of Djoser,
    also wanted a spectacular tomb. His architect
    answered this with the Bent Pyramid, named so
    because the angle of the pyramid was decreased
    when half way through its construction faults
    began to form. The 341 ft tall Red Pyramid is the
    first true pyramid still remaining.

6
The Great Pyramid of Kufu
  • Pharaoh Kufu of Cheops built his eternal resting
    place on the Giza Plateau. He began this project
    in 2589 B.C. and completed it in 2566 B.C.
  • When this granite pyramid was first built it was
    481 ft including the limestone casing blocks, but
    toay it stands 449 ft tall. It was the worlds
    tallest structure for more than 4,00 years until
    the building of the Eiffel Tower.
  • Over 2,300,000 blocks of stone each weighing
    between 2.5 to 9 tons each. These blocks were
    pulled up mud and brick ramps and then set into
    place. They were placed together so well that you
    cannot slip a piece of paper between two stones.
  • The sides of the pyramid measure 227 meters. Ten
    entire football fields would fit within the base
    of the Great Pyramid. It is so accurate that the
    error margin is less then one percent. Each
    corner was exactly in line with a cardinal
    direction (East, West, South, and North).

7
The pyramid of Khafre
  • Pharaoh Khafre, the son of Pharaoh Kufu, followed
    in his fathers footsteps and built a pyramid at
    Giza that was slightly shorter than Kufus
    pyramid. His pyramid complex includes the Sphinx,
    a Mortuary Temple, and a Valley Temple. His is
    the only pyramid at Giza that still has the
    original limestone casing.
  • This pyramid was built between 2558 and 2532 B.C.
    and stands at 446 ft although it was originally
    471 ft tall.
  • The exact number of stones used is unknown but
    each block weighs from 2.5 to 7 tons each.

8
The pyramid of Menkaure
  • Pharaoh Menkaure, son of Pharaoh Khafre and
    grandson of Pharaoh Kufu, went along with family
    tradition and built the third and last pyramid at
    the Giza complex.
  • The exact date that this pyramid was built is
    undetermined but it was more than a thousand
    years old when Herodotus, a Greek historian,
    visited the Giza complex.
  • This pyramid was originally 215 ft tall but now
    it stands at 203 feet. Each block of stone weighs
    between 2.5 to 7 tons each.

9
Works Cited
  • Unknown. The Great Pyramids. The Great
    Pyramids. Date published unknown.
    lthttp//www.geocities.com/SoHo/Atrium/1157/pyrami
    ds.html gt
  • (9/30/2003).
  • Unknown. Red Pyramid. Red Pyramid. Unknown
    publication date.lt http//www.crystalinks.com/redp
    yr.html gt
  • (9/30/2033).
  • Unknown. Bent Pyramid. Bent Pyramid. Unknown
    publication date.http//www.crystalinks.com/bentpy
    r.html
  • (9/30/2003).
  • PBS. The Pyramids The Pyramids. Unknown
    publication date. lt http//pbs.org/wgbh/nova/pyram
    id.html gt
  • (9/30/2003).
  • Unknown. The Great Pyramids. The Great
    Pyramids. Unknown publication date.
  • lt http//www.kingtutone.com/pyr
    amids.html gt (9/30/2003).

10
Ancient Egyptian Art
  • Millie Hardison
  • 10/2/03

11
Ancient Egyptian Art
  • In the Egyptian form of art called Frontalism the
    people are always drawn in profile
  • But the eyes are drawn in full
  • And the body is drawn from the front
  • This is an example of ancient Egyptian art and it
    is draw in fontalism
  • In this picture there is a noble hunting fowl and
    cat

12
Ancient Egyptian Art
  • The Ancient Egyptian also made sculptures
  • The sculpture to the left is made of wood and is
    an example of frountalism
  • The sculpture is named Sheik

13
Ancient Egyptian Art
  • Later the sculptures were made from stone such as
    this one
  • This was known as Menkue and his Queen
  • This sculpture could not stand freely because of
    the slight unevenness
  • It was dated to be older than Sheik
  • This sculpture was a way to show authority

                     
14
Ancient Egyptian Art
Works Sited Kremen, Lisa. Understanding
Egyptian Art. Ancient Egypt A History of Art
and Culture. 12/17/96. http//www.bergen.org/AAST
/Projects/Egypt/egyptia n_art.html (2 Sept.
2003).
15
The Old Kingdom
  • Sunmi Lee ?

16
What is the Old Kingdom?
  • The two kingdoms (Upper Egypt- south Lower
    Egypt- north) were unified by King Narmer, Menes
  • about 2664- 2180 B.C.
  • The pyramid age (3rd to 6th dynasties) of ancient
    Egypt
  • Ruling family (power passed one dynasty to
    another)
  • Pharaohs- Egyptian rulers (believed to be a god)

17
A Strong Government
18
Beliefs on after life
  • Pyramids
  • Tombs for eternity
  • Provided dead kings with everything they would
    need in their new lives (clothes, jewelries, or
    even slaves)
  • All made by human
  • Take a long time to built that pharaoh even
    begins to make his tomb right after he gets power

19
The Afterlife
  • Hope Scott
  • Hope Scott

20
Preparation for the Afterlife
  • Burials customs for Egyptians called that the
    body be preserved. This process was given ample
    time once it was known that a ruler might die
  • The afterlife was to be the same as the life you
    lived on earth.

21
Supplies for the Afterlife
  • Since the afterlife was considered to be a
    continuation of your life on earth, everyday
    materials were supplied in the tomb
  • Materials such as writing supplies, clothing,
    wigs, hairdressing supplies and other tools
  • Food was also provided for the deceased daily, by
    it magically transforming to the model that was
    drawn on the walls of the tomb
  • There were also blessings written on the wall, so
    that they would be said once the owner got the
    food.

22
Shabtis
  • After the annual floods of the Nile, the
    population of Egypt was subject to compulsory
    labor on the irrigation system
  • Shabtis was a statuette that took the place of
    ones labor in the afterlife so the deceased
    person would not have labor
  • The Shabtis was placed in tombs around the Middle
    Kingdom(2040-1640BC).
  • During the third intermediate period, Shabtis was
    placed in a special box, in the tomb.

23
Parts of Personality
  • XAt Mummy in the tomb, after the house of ba
  • kA The double individual of the person, printed
    as a duplicate in the tomb
  • Ax The transfigured spirit, which was
    transferred after the funeral rituals were
    completed
  • Rn Name of the person, which was in scripted on
    the funerary texts, on papyrus or the tomb walls
  • Swt Protected the individual from harm
  • Ba Human Headed bird

24
Works Cited
  • OBrian, Alexandra A. Death in Ancient Egypt
    Oriental Institute Research Archives. 1996-1999.
    http//www-oi.uchicago.edu (30 Sept 2003) .

25
Egyptian Mummification
  • By Chandler Knight

26
What is Mummification?
  • The preservation of a body, either human or
    animal.
  • There are 3 ways a mummy can be preserved and
    they are wet, frozen, or dried.

Http//members.aol.com/egyptart/mummy.html
27
Why Egyptians were Mummified
  • The physical body, shadow, name, ka (spirit), ba
    (personality), and the akh (immortality).
  • These are the 6 aspects that Egyptians believed
    to be important.
  • Each aspect played an important role in the well
    being of an individual. Each was crucial to
    achieve rebirth into afterlife.
  • The Egyptians believed that by mummifying their
    dead they were assuring the person a successful
    journey into the afterlife.

http//members.aol.com/egyptart/mummy.html
28
How the Bodies were Mummified
  • By eliminating the bodies moisture you eliminate
    decay.
  • By using Natron (a salt mixture) they dried the
    bodies.
  • Natron- natural substance found in the Nile River
  • Natrons four salts
  • Sodium carbonate- dried the body by drawing out
    the water
  • Sodium bicarbonate- increase the pH in the body
    which kills bacteria when subjected to any kind
    of moisture.
  • Sodium chloride
  • Sodium sulfate

http//members.aol.com/egyptart/mummy.html
29
Egyptian Gods
  • By Ligon Brooks

30
Ra
  • Sun God, King of the Gods
  • Ra is sees as a falcon with a sun disk on its
    head or a man with a falcons head

31
Osiris
  • God of the dead
  • Osiris is shone dressed in white with crook and
    flail and green skin
  • Husband to Isis and father of Horus

32
Isis
  • Queen of Goddess
  • Shown with a crown on her head
  • Wife of Osiris and mother of Horus

33
Other Gods
  • Seth- god of the desert, storm and violence
  • Hathor- goddess of love, music, and dance
  • Nut- sky goddess and Geb- earth god
  • Thoth- god of wisdom
  • Maat- goddess of justice
  • Bastet- cat god
  • Anubis- god of embalming
  • Amun- god of ceation

34
Source
  • Egyptian gods.Edkins Family.http//www.gwydir.de
    mon.co.uk/jo/egypt.htm.(9/30/03)

35
Serving the Gods in Ancient Egypt
Serving the Gods in Ancient
Egypt Taylor McEwen
  • Taylor McEwen

36
Egyptian Temples
  • Egyptian temples were said to be the homes of the
    gods and goddesses
  • Each temple was dedicated to a god or goddess and
    he/she was worshipped there
  • The large temples were made of stone so that they
    would last forever.
  • Walls of the temple were covered with scenes that
    were carved into stone and then painted.
  • The scenes showed pharaohs fighting in battles
    and performing rituals with the gods and
    goddesses

37
Offering Rituals
  • Food and drink were put before the god.
  • They believed in keeping the gods happy because
    they thought the god would provide them with
    protection and bring them wealth
  • They offered joints of meat, roasted fowl, bread,
    fruits, vegetables.
  • Offering always included flowers bound in
    garland.

38
Sanctuaries
  • Sanctuary was located inside the temple
  • Shrines were built where the statue of a
    god/goddess would have lived

39
Women In Ancient Egypt
  • Drenika Mosby

40
The Status of Women in Egyptian Society
  • Women and men are equal
  • Legal rights were based on social classes not
    gender
  • When the Greeks conquered Egypt in 332 B.C.E,
    Egyptian women had more rights than Greek women
  • Egyptian women could manage, own, and sell land
  • Women can also have slaves

41
Marriage
  • A girl/women got married when she was 14, or when
    she begin to menstruate
  • Her husband was anywhere from 17-20 or a divorced
    man
  • A important part of marriage was birth, death and
    rebirth
  • The placed false penises on the male mummies and
    false breasts on the women mummies
  • Divorce was a private matter the government did
    not interfere

42
Fertility
  • Pregnancy was important to an Egyptian women
  • A fertile woman was an successful woman
  • For a man to father a child that would prove his
    manliness
  • Midwives used spells to protect the expectant
    women
  • A purification ritual for females followed
    fourteen days after giving birth
  • A Egyptian mother named her child immediately
    following birth incase the child dies and it
    would have a name in after life

43
Hatshepsut's Temple
ClickNext
YJulie SaderY
44
Hatshepsut's Temple
This temple (belonging to Hatshepsut, who ruled
Egypt during the Greek/Roman period) was found
under decades of sand, engraved into the side of
a mountain near the banks of the Nile The
architect was Senmut, Hatshepsuts lover for more
than 20 titles Two ramps connect the three
levels and there are sphinxes with Hatshepsuts
head at the entrance The temple is said to be
dedicated to her so called parents Amon and
Hathor For Senmuts work, he was awarded with
enough money for him to build himself his own
temple, not too far away from his Hatshepsuts
ClickNext
ClickPrevious
http//www.bediz.com/hatshep/temple.html
45
Pictures
Click The End
http//www.ehabweb.net/hatshebsut_temple.html
46
Egyptian Hieroglyphics
47
History of Hieroglyphics
  • Language started in 3000 B.C.
  • Last know text is from 394 A.D
  • Used for religious purposes as well as economical
    purposes in Egypt
  • One of the first languages in the world
  • Hieroglyphics were known as the words of God
  • The first hieroglyphics were pictograms that
    depicted objects
  • Then they moved to more complex writing called
    ideograms which symbolized an idea or action
  • The language was found in 1799 by one of
    Napoleon's solders in a stone, know as the
    Rosetta Stone, but the language was hard to
    translate
  • In 1822 a French scholar named Champollion
    discovered the hieroglyphic language
  • The language was lost for 1500 years

48
The Hieroglyphic alphabet
  • Hieroglyphic's can be written left to right,
    right to left, and up to down
  • There are over 2,000 hieroglyphic symbols
  • There are three different kinds of signs in the
    Hieroglyphic language Alphabetic signs, Syllabic
    signs and Determinative signs.

49
Work Cited and your name in Hieroglyphics
  • Your Name in Hieroglyphics http//www.7cs.com/nomh
    iero.htm
  • Ellis, Elisabeth and Anthony Esler. World
    History. New Jersey Upper Saddle River, 2003.
  • Strachen, Richard and Kathleen Roetzel. Ancient
    Egyptian Culture. The Story of the Rosetta
    Stone, Finding a Lost Language. 1997.
    http//www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/hier
    oglyphics/rosetta.com (1 Oct. 2003)
  • Unknown. Hieroglyphics. Hieroglyphics. Unknown
    Publication date. http//www.eyelid.co.uk/hiero1.
    html (1 Oct. 2003)
  • Unknown. Hieroglyphics Overview. Hieroglyphics
    Writing. Unknown Publication date.
    Http//www.greatscott.com/hier/hiero_over.html
    (1 Oct. 2003)
  • Unknown. Explore Ancient Egypt. Explore Ancient
    Egypt. http//www.mfa.org/egypt/explore5Fancient
    5Fegypt/hiero5Fwr (1 Oct. 2003)
  • Unknown. Egyptian Hieroglyphic Alphabet.
    Egyptian Hieroglyphic Alphabet.
    Http//www,jimloy.com/hiero/alpha.htm (1 Oct.
    2003)
  • Class, Ashley. Hieroglyphics. Egyptian Writing.
    https//wedsever.sms.org/intranet/classes/history
    /worldhist/egyptproject/Aclass. html ( 1 Oct.
    2003)

50
The Rosetta Stone
  • By Chelsea Jacobs

51
Physical features
  • 1 meter high
  • 70 centimeters wide
  • 30 centimeters deep
  • Very heavy

52
What is the Rosetta Stone?
  • A stone with writing in 2 languages- Egyptian and
    Greek
  • 3 scripts of Egypt used- hieroglyphic, demotic,
    Greek
  • Written in 3 scripts so that priests, government
    officials, and rulers could understand what it
    said

53
Discovery
  • Carved in 196 B.C
  • Found in 1799 by French soldiers who were
    rebuilding Egypt
  • Found in small village near the Delta- Rosetta

54
Translation
  • Written by priests to honor Pharaoh
  • Lists all things pharaoh has done that are good
    for Egypt
  • Before the Rosetta Stone no one could uncover the
    mystries hieroglyphics held
  • Helped to decipher hieroglyphics
  • Francois Champollion translated hieroglyphics in
    1822
  • Champollion figured out what the 7 demitic signs
    were and by looking at hoe these signs were used
    he could uncover what they stood for

55
Works Cited
  • Andrew Oakley. The Rosetta Stone. Kids
    Konnnect. 2000 lthttp//.kidskonnect.com/AntientEgy
    pt/RosettaStone.htmlgt (September 30, 2003)
  • The Rosetta Stone ltfile//c\windows\TEMP\9AOKY8
    H3.htmgt
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