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European National Parks:

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In general, then, Poland, Czech Republic and Hungry should be doing fairly well ... Czech Republic claims to be western European anyway ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: European National Parks:


1
European National Parks
  • Being focused in largest part on
  • The United Kingdom
  • and
  • The Czech Republic

2
Review of some things about England
  • Legal disputes settled by reference to common
    procedures or practiced--the common law.
  • Common law can be overridden by statute
  • King owns the land, all of it, from whom all
    private land ownership derives and to whom all
    land returns.
  • King can operate land for his own pleasure or
    for the public good.
  • King owns the wildlife and is not accountable for
    its actions.
  • Sovereign, the highest Lord in the land is a
    commoner. The commons have the right to appeal
    to the sovereign for equity and application of
    the common law.

3
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4
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5
Space in the United Kingdom
  • The UK and its component parts, Scotland, and
    England with Wales
  • are small places
  • and awfully crowded
  • Open space is at a premium

6
Important termsthat will be developed over the
next several daysmake certain you know them
  • Forest-area under the forest law, with or without
    trees
  • Park-walled area for the keeping of deer
  • Chase-a hunting area reserved by a member of the
    aristocracy.
  • Open Field System-a field owned in distinct units
    by several people and farmed by custom as a
    single unit
  • Common Fields-a field owned in its totality by
    several people for a purpose determined by custom

  • Enclosure-termination of customary use of common
    or open fields and concentration of their
    ownership into the hands of the one or more
    owners.

7
Two kinds of English Parks
  • Chases tended to become parks. Some chases and
    some parks have been owned by the King,
    particularly between Windsor and London.
    Remained the personal property of the king even
    after he stopped using them to produce deer but
    tended to be used as space.
  • Hence royal parks, for example, Hyde Park,
    Regents Park.
  • Enclosure of open fields was easy but enclosure
    of common fields was difficult. Many survived and
    are owned as open space by villages to this
    day--as commons parks. Examples Hampstead Heath
    or Trent Park, High Barnet

8
The Saga of the Epping Forest
9
Administration of the Forests
  • William I designated 69 forests reserved to
    himself.
  • Generate their own laws and rules (Forest Law)
    and its own bureaucracy.
  • Forest Law had its own judiciary and court
    system.
  • Three levels
  • Dealt mostly with civil cases (for example breach
    of contract)
  • notoriously slow
  • might get away with all kinds of evil doing since
    witness and judges were likely to die before
    anyone got around to sentencing Except
  • In the case of criminal cases, namely poaching
    the Kings critters
  • In which case, justice was swift, certain and
    final
  • Just ask Robin Hood what happens when you kill
    the Kings Deer

10
  • However, different Kings treated their forests
    differently
  • Some were adamantly serious about the things
  • Others, sometime for a century or more, seemed
    unaware that there were other forests.
  • Or portions might be given away. Typically
  • To a mistress whose presence at court had started
    to get on the Queens nerves.
  • To an offended husband.
  • To the Church as a way of buying time out of
    Purgatory
  • Or for peculiarly important service to the king
    by a commoner or an aristocrat
  • Among commoners, giving offices in the forest
    bureaucracy, was the usual reward which often
    elevated the family to the minor aristocracy.

11
Some Strange Terms
  • Preambulation-bunch of folks get together every
    century or so and walk the boundaries to make
    sure it has moved.
  • Purlieu-a place where preambulators find the
    forest, as trees, once was but is no more.
    Important, as the Common Law, not the Forest Law
    now applies but the King can hunt still as if the
    purlieu were forest.
  • Ranger-a guy who guards to kings interests in a
    purlieu.
  • Note we start getting something like are modern
    terms for these things from the English

12
Family Names
  • Since many forest offices were purchased and
    there after inherited, many of the offices become
    English family names
  • Steward or Warden-highest administrator of a
    forest
  • Verderers-elected freemen who protect Kings
    interests in the forest (curious arrangement and
    not a family name since the post is elected not
    inherited).
  • Foresters-practical work in forest, lowest
    nobility work a walk or bailiwick (make a living
    extorting money from travellers).
  • Woodwards-protect the trees for the King or its
    owner.
  • Reeves-police the cattle grazing and administer
    the branding.

13
Some English Forest Terms that Dont Mean What
You Think They Do
  • Disafforest or Deforest-to remove an area from
    the Forest Law. The term has nothing to do with
    the presence or absence of trees.
  • Reforest or Reafforest-to put a place that was
    under the forest law and was disafforested back
    under the Forest Law.
  • Therefore, by the way, a forest is a place under
    the jurisdiction of the forest law. The term,
    per se, has nothing to do with trees.

14
Rights of Commoners in the Forest
  • The right to graze livestock except for geese and
    goats. Why where these excepted. Note Pannage
    is specifically what pigs graze on.
  • The right of gleaning. In this case the right to
    take dead or fallen wood for your own use, a
    right which in general you still have.
  • The right of lopping pollards and that done long
    enough will give you a staghorn like the Fairlop
    Oak.
  • Lopping, pollards? So what is that all about.

15
Now with that as background, lets turn to the
Epping Forest
  • But it is to the Essex (45) we wish to turn.
  • Essex, the land of the East Saxons, is the entire
    area immediately to the northeast of London
  • Early in its history the forest of Essex was
    divided into several units, each with its own
    history, one of which is the (or was) the Forest
    of Waltham.
  • In its turn, the Forest of Waltham had four
    subdivisions
  • Wintry
  • Hainault
  • Havering
  • Epping--7000 acres extending on a moraine north
    to south and just northeast of London

16
  • 1812--Long Wellesley (as he was then), later Lord
    Mornington becomes the Warden of Waltham and sets
    about to enclose the forest.
  • 1851--Only Epping is left (why would this be).
  • 1860s--process of enclosing Epping begins.
  • Nov. 11, 1868--Thomas Willingale, commoner, began
    lopping the trees of Epping, and it is to jail
    with him (a sobering experience)

17
  • Enter, our heroes, the Commons Preservation
    Society (a group of intellectuals--today called
    an NGO).
  • W. R. Fisher--Cambridge Historian--demonstrates
    that
  • Lopping right extend throughout the forest,
    rather than just the manor or perish of
    residence. Probably not too relevant to the run
    of the mill commoner, but Fish found two very
    interesting commoners,
  • Queen Victoria
  • Corporation of London.

18
  • Queen--generally favored industry and thereby
    enclosure but when it came to her own hunting
    cabin in Epping, that is a different matter.
  • Coorporation of London--starting to get nervous
    about open space.
  • 1878 Epping Forest Act
  • placed Epping under Coporation of London which
    was instructed to purchase lopping rights but
    keep grazing
  • maintain conditions as in 1878 (impossible)
  • Reason for the recreation and enjoyment of the
    Commoner.

19
The National Trust
  • Commons Preservation Society reorganizes itself
    as the National Trust in 1895. Still an NGO
  • National Trust Act of 1907-
  • National Trust Becomes a charter organization of
    Parliament
  • Its lands can only be taken from it by Parliament
    (Police Power of State dont apply)
  • Holdings
  • 550,000 buildings on national register (compared
    with 38,000 in USA)
  • 51 villages
  • 140,000 acres of ecological land
  • Other function Oversight of Countryside
    Commission and other government organizations.

20
National Trust, cont
  • Exported to other countries
  • National Trust for Scotland (the conservation
    organization for Scotland)
  • National Trust for Barbados
  • Nature Conservancy (for USA)
  • Royal Oak Society (directly represents the
    interests of the National Trust for England in
    the USA)
  • Scottish Heritage USA (directly represents the
    interests of the National Trust for Scotland in
    the USA)
  • Forms an international scholarly branch which
    becomes known as the Ecological Union.
  • Applied branch of the Ecological Union evolves
    into the IUCN.

21
Englands National Parks
22
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23
Englands National ParksA Few Generalizations
  • They are in upland, cold, deforested areas
  • They are anthropogenic landscapes that took much
    of their present form during the Iron Age.
  • Therefore much of the landscape appearance was
    established prior to Roman settlement
  • Very emotional landscapes, preserving a glimpse
    of rock-solid traditional England and its values.

  • Lake District-William Wordsworth called for its
    preservation in 1812.

24
Creation of the Parks
  • WWII England suffered tremendous bomb damage
  • Reconstruction led to fears of an Americanized
    landscape
  • Realization that the England, a fortress and a
    world power, was a thing of the past.
  • Certain landscapes, those that were to become
    national parks, embraced a nostalgia for the
    England of Victoria and Edward
  • Hence we might conclude that a political
    objective was the most important goal for the
    national parks.

25
  • Action comes in 1945 with the John Dower Report
  • John Dower was then director of the Countryside
    Commission
  • Report calls for parks
  • preserve characteristic landscape beauty
  • amply provide for public open-air access and
    enjoyment
  • protect wildlife, buildings and places of
    architectural and historic interest
  • effectively maintain established farming (ok, so
    how is this to be done)
  • National Parks and Access Act of 1949 (parks
    established in England between 1951 and 1957)
  • Welsh National Park Act established parks in
    Wales between 1965 and 1973
  • Oh notice that stuff about access. We need to
    talk about that a little.

26
Governing the Things
  • Peak District and Lake District are governed by a
    autonomous planning commission.
  • The rest by a combined board drawn from the
    County Commission and the Secretary of State (bad
    arrangement).
  • Actual operation by the Countryside Commission
  • With oversight by the National Trust

27
But they do have a few problems
  • No more than 5 of the land in any park under
    national or trust control
  • Parks are protected largely by zoning land use
  • and as with a lot of zoning folks can get by with
    a lot
  • park administrators spending most of their time
    trying to get along with the local folks
  • Budgets
  • Tax support about .25/person to operate about
    10 of the country
  • Arts council, 10X
  • Urban Parks Open Space, 30X
  • Sports and Recreation, 55X
  • Heavy, heavy, heavy use
  • few places in the USA experience these kinds of
    use rates.
  • Govt policies that that to erode zoning and
    regulatory policy--reservoir construction and
    forest planting

28
And more problems
  • Regulation of established farming is in fact not
    so easy.
  • Continuance of military training--
  • 91 of military training operations are in parks
  • 9 in Scotland (which Scotland says is 9 too
    much)
  • Different policies in different parks. Well, ok,
    that is listed as a problem but I dont see it.

  • Given their problems their future is by no means
    assured
  • but
  • To their advantage, the Brits loveem
  • and
  • They provide something of a futuristic role model
    for both American and African parks

29
Some Little Notes on Scotland
  • So far Scotland has utterly rejected creation of
    national parks (though there are proposals for
    two).
  • So far 100 of conservation in the hands of the
    National Trust for Scotland
  • Conservation is aimed mostly at buildings and
    monuments

30
Some Reasons for this Approach
  • Strong national dislike of forests.
  • Naturally a forested land but deforested during
    Roman times.
  • Scots have come to see heather and moorlands as
    natural
  • forests are row crop of exotics to supply England
    with pulp and timber
  • heather, however, produce grouse and hunting
    rights to grouse go for as much as
    3000/acre/week. Timber seen as poor land use
    compared to heather
  • National parks to not allow hunting (it isnt the
    Scots that are doing the hunting or keeping the
    bounty).
  • National Parks seen as a English land grab
  • Everything north of the Lothian Plain, with a
    smaller population than in 1600, seen as a
    national park in the sense of playground anyway.

31
And
  • Building preservation seen as the major problem
    anyway
  • Scotland is full of castles family homes.
  • Dont think everyone in Scotland lived in a
    castles
  • Lord or chief occupied castle which became a
    defensive site and surrounding territory occupied
    by the rest of the clan that lived in various
    states of prosperity, poverty and depravity
  • Today, there is nobody that can afford to keep
    these thing up.

32
Except Foreigners
  • Operational budget of the National Trust for
    Scotland is 2X the total budget for English
    National Parks.
  • Fully a third raised directly from foreign
    sources--memberships, subscriptions, donations,
    legacies, admissions and profits of the trading
    company
  • does not include indirect donations most of
    which come from USA, Canada, Australia and New
    Zealand.
  • Crathes Castle and Forest of Drum
  • An Example

33
Crathes Castle and the Forest of Drum
  • Along the north bank of the Dee River
  • Cattle breeding area and the family involved has
    a history of dealing in and breeding cattle.
  • Family emerges in Bedford, England prior to
    1066.
  • Hence they are Anglo-Saxon
  • By 1200 they are in the service of the Norman
    kings in the Scottish Border counties. Service
    probably means they were stealing cattle.
  • 1323 awarded the Forest of Drum for service to
    Robert the Bruce at the the Battle of Bannockburn
    in 1309.
  • Services were in the area of logistics--hence
    commerce
  • Drum elevated the family to the minor
    aristocrary
  • Drum permitted the family to a minor pilfering to
    cattle dealing

34
  • Work begun in 1525 on Crathes Castle--will become
    the last and best example of Scottish domestic
    military architecture.
  • During the Reformation, one Alexander marries
    Janet Hamilton, bastard daughter of the
    Archbishop of Aberdeen who bring to the marriage
    about half the church lands of eastern Scotland.
    Upon death of the Archbishop, Alexander and Janet
    wise become Presbyterians literally at the side
    of dads deathbed.
  • By 1635, chief sons are deported to the New
    World. Virginia (business factors), Barbados
    (sugar planters),New York (clergyman), and Nova
    Scotia (clergyman). Virginia and Barbados line
    brings in poorer members of the family as
    indentured servants.
  • By 1750s, enclosure and many of the poorer end of
    family deported in chains to Australia.

35
  • 1926-12th Baron dies. In WWI Sir Thomas was one
    of four British officers to survive four years of
    trench warfare. Came out of it not exactly sane
    and devoted the rest of his life to the gardens
    at Crathes. Bankrupts the estate.
  • 1959-14th Baron dies. A drunken Australian sheep
    farmer, this is the end of the baronage line.
  • Crathes and the Forest of Drum taken over by
    National Trust.
  • Lord C. A. (Jamie) Burnett of Leys is a school
    teacher at the family village of Banchory and has
    a life estate for ritual purposes in one room in
    Crathes
  • House of Burnett, USA, and House of Burnett,
    Australia, provide 4 horticultural gardens
    scholarships/year and are negotiating to assume
    full financial management of the house which
    would, however, remain a part of the National
    Trust Estate.

36
Characteristic of Crathes and Drum
  • Crathes
  • last and finest example of Scottish domestic
    military architecture
  • 595 acres
  • 6 marked trails from . 25 miles to 6.25 miles
  • famous for its gardens
  • habitat for several rare and endangered species
  • green woodpecker
  • great spotted woodpecker
  • several kinds of fungi
  • Drum
  • 117 acres
  • rookery for the rook

37
Two Other Important Places in Scotland
  • Glenco
  • 14,190 acres (largest unit in National Trust for
    Scotland and the nearest thing to a national
    park).
  • On A82 between Glasgow and Ft. Williams
  • Site of 1692 massacre of McDonalds by the
    Campbells
  • eagle, ptarmigan, grouse, red deer, fox,
    wildcat,l ferral mink
  • Culloudan Field
  • 1754, last battle between the British and
    highland clans
  • clans defeated, utterly. British mutilate
    bodies.
  • Enclosure and massive deportation mostly to North
    Carolina
  • Get their revenge at Kings Mountain and Cow
    Pens.

38
The Czech Republic
  • Communism Reformed

39
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40
Czech Republic--some observations
  • Two basins surrounded by mountains
  • Bohemia
  • containing the Labe and Vlatav rivers joining at
    Prague
  • Continues as Labe into Germany where it is known
    as the Elba
  • Moravia
  • Morava River which flows into the Danube
  • Some minor differences in language and culture
    between the two basins
  • Headwaters area, very important to conservation.
    The Switzerland of Central Europe.
  • Homeland of the Celtic
  • But abandoned by the time the Czech start moving
    in
  • About 900 A.D., Western Slavs occupy Prague and
    begin to spread into the Bohemian and Moravian
    Basins.
  • Compete with Germans who tend to mountains and
    forests

41
Czech Republic, cont
  • Strongly tribal people
  • But small group quickly absorbed into larger,
    generally German speaking, groups.
  • By 1800s Czech Nationalism begins to develop
  • romanticism
  • language defined and stabilized
  • 1914-Czechs an unwilling part of the
    Austro-Hungarian Empire and less than
    enthusiastic about WWI
  • 1918-combined with Slovaks (also more or less
    Czech speakers) to become independent and
    democratic Czechoslovakia
  • 1938-Nazi Germany takes German speaking portions
    of Czechland
  • 1939-Rest made a protectorate of Nazi Germany.
    Slovaks elect Nazi government.

42
Czech Republic, Cont
  • May 9-12, 1945. Czechs liberated by Russians
  • Liberal democracy re-established
  • 1949-by a coup, communists take power. Establish
    the most Stalinist government in the eastern
    block.
  • 1966-Prague Spring. While Russia isnt looking,
    Czech attempt to establish a liberal democratic
    communist government. Ends with Warsaw Pact
    (Russia and Poland) invasion.
  • Nov 17, 1989-Dec 29, 1989. Velvet Revolution
    in which the communists are thrown out
    (literally).
  • January 1, 1993-Czechs and Slovaks split.

43
And so, what is communism anyway?
  • The madness of idealism

44
  • In theory anyway, communism is an economic
    system
  • whereby the means of production are taken over by
    the works
  • who establish a form of democracy called a class
    dictatorship
  • and run production for their class benefit on the
    dictum from each according to his ability to
    each according to his needs (a way of doing
    things that is un-American).
  • Tended to be a highly centralized, planned
    economy, very dictatorial and obsessed with
    theory.

45
  • Worst term a communist can call you is
  • Bourgeois
  • (which is exactly what you are)
  • Bourgeois is middle class, small-time
    capitalists, pretentious, given to appearances,
    possessions
  • And here is the kick on it
  • Nature is Bourgeois
  • and
  • Biology is a Bourgeois Science
  • The Darwinist idea of the survival of the fittest
    explains why the capitalist middle class has
    things and the poor working class hasnt

46
  • According to communists
  • nature just has to learn to do things our way
  • doctrine known as humanistic materialism
  • humans are the center of creation and material
    world must conform to human expectations
  • Communists
  • reject Darwinism
  • accept Lamarkian Biology (the inheritance of
    acquired characteristics)
  • worked as a policy--corn can learn to be raised
    in Siberia
  • results in one environmental disaster after
    another

47
  • Communists have been an urban, industrial people
  • little or no experience with nature
  • Marx never writes about nature or farming
  • Communists dont understand farming
  • Farming is innately bourgeois (farmers invest
    labor in the land and expect a return and that is
    capitalism)
  • Russians seek to treat food production as simply
    another industrial, factory operation
  • collective or state farm
  • Communists are very poor cost accountants
  • Real cost of things not known
  • No attempt to internalize environmental costs
  • In West, environmental costs tend to be passed on
    to the consumer so that in the end clean
    producers are more profitable

48
  • Results of the approach to nature were food
    shortages and environmental disaster
  • Environmental calamity is the single major factor
    leading to the fall of communism
  • Communists so indifferent to the environment that
    they believed it incredible that environmental
    problems would bring down governments--but they
    did.

49
  • Fall of communism has been accompanied by
  • Social demoralization high death rates,
    shortened life span, increased alcoholism,
    increased abortion, increased suicide
  • exception to this pattern is Czech Republic
  • Increase in prices as commodities find their
    proper level
  • 1st 5 years, 10 of Czech, 226 for Russians
  • Drop in GDP and Industrial Production
  • Czech Republic stable
  • Environmental situation tended to improve simply
    because these circumstances drove the worst
    polluters out of business.

50
So how are the former commies doing?
  • In general, the more western a former communist
    country was and the faster is leapt into the
    capitalist economy, the better off it is.
  • In general, then, Poland, Czech Republic and
    Hungry should be doing fairly well just because
    they are the western most of the former communist
    block.
  • Czech Republic claims to be western European
    anyway
  • Czech Republic had all the former already printed
    for breaking up state monopolies and did it about
    over night, a frightful shock, but one that has
    paid off.

51
Conservation in Czech Republic
  • Many areas of primitive forests set aside on
    family estates.
  • For example Boubin, a small forest area in Sumava
    NP, officially conserved in 1850 but an
    argument can be made that it has been under
    conservation management since 1580
  • 1992, after fall of communism, Protected
    Territories Law was reformed.
  • 6 classes
  • Large scale are National Parks, and protected
    landscape areas.
  • 3 national parks and 24 protected total 11,534
    km2 (14.6 of country)
  • other 1623 areas674.3 km2. These are known as
    small scale areas
  • total is 1650 acres.

52
Some important reserves
  • National parks
  • Sumava
  • in southern Bohemia
  • former soviet tank base
  • Areas within areas, typical of the European
    patter. For example, Sumava National Park, a
    UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, is within the Sumava
    Landscape Area, and both contain small scale
    areas. For example Boubin is within the Sumava
    Landscape Area but not the national park
  • Krkonose
  • contains winter sports areas and former labor
    resort areas, much damaged by acid rain
  • Podyji
  • contains memorialized part of Iron Curtain.

53
And some more reserves
  • Trebonsko Protected Landscape
  • totally manmade landscape described as having
    achieved secondary balance
  • vast area of fishponds (for carp of all things)
    completed in 1500. Well an inland Catholic
    population had to get fish from somewhere.
  • Krivoklatsko Protected Landscape.
  • Intended to protect last stands of European mixed
    riverine forests
  • the end
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