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Differentiated Instruction

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How are all four animals the same? Young frogs do not look like adult. Frogs. ... Level 1: Draw a cartoon representing a conversation in the story. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Differentiated Instruction


1
Differentiated Instruction
For Reading Instruction
2
Part One
Vocabulary Instruction that Makes a Difference!
3
Of Limited Value…
Lists alone Context alone Definitions
alone Dictionaries and Glossaries
alone Teacher-selected words alone
Of Durable Value…
Words in clusters Multiple exposures in various
contexts Chances to speak, hear, write the
words Manipulation of forms of words Classify and
categorize word lists Word games Student-selected
words (differentiation)
4
Multiple Exposures
  • Connections to other subjects
  • Morphology chart How does the word morph into
    other forms?
  • Cumulative use

5
Richness
  • Use both verbal and non-verbal modes
  • Make connections to related words

6
Selecting a Target Word
  • Will be frequently used
  • Links to known words
  • Can be key to multiple related words

7
Concept First
  • Describe the meaning of the wordconcept) to allow
    students to connect new knowledge (the word) to
    existing knowledge (the concept)
  • Did you ever…?
  • Well, theres a name for that. Its called…

8
Find the word that means…
  • Middle of page 14 Find the word that means
  • mocking, in a cruel way
  • Bottom of page 16 Find the word that means
    violation of a rule
  • Top of page 17 Find the phrase that means
    became prepared to face hardship

9
Why have students select their own words to learn
from the text?
The Student
10
Different levels of familiarity with words
Never heard of it, but Im interested in it.
Never heard of it not likely to use it if I
knew it
Might know what it means never used it
Heard of it dont know what it means, not
interested
The Student
Have used it, but not in this context
Never heard of it, but it will be soon be
used a lot around me
Heard of it, dont know what it means, but am
interested
11
Tier II Words
Tier III Words
Tier I Words
Domain-specific terminology Glossary words
Language of academics, business,
government Vocab List words
Basic conversational words
Ask Dead Name Find out figure out Answer Rain Use
Sharp Get Take apart and put together balance
Photosynthesis Cytoplasm Metamorphosis Asymmetrica
l Bathysphere Rhetoric Deoxyribonucleic
acid Artifact Habeas corpus Diaspora Polysyndeton
Adjective
Interrogate Deceased Designate designation
identify, identification Ascertain
determine Precipitate, precipitation Utilize
employ Acute Acquire Analyze synthesize equilibri
um
Code-switching
12
Everyday English
Science English
I
  • Which feature best distinguishes one
  • form of electromagnetic energy from
  • another?
  • Color
  • Wavelength
  • Surface temperature
  • Distance traveled
  • How can we tell the difference between
  • one form of electromagnetic energy from
  • another?
  • 1. color
  • 2. wavelength
  • 3. Temperature at the surface
  • 4. How far it has traveled

1. What do all four animals have in common?
  • How are all four animals the same?
  • Young frogs do not look like adult
  • Frogs. What name do we give to this
  • Kind of change?

13
Three-Step Demystification Process
  • Reword the questions into Tier I to understand
  • the meaning.
  • 2. Go back to the original language (Tier II)
  • now that you understand it.
  • Answer the questions.
  • 3. Create your own questions, using Tier II and
    III.

14
Semantic Maps and Charts
  • Visual representations that create associations,
    deepen, and extend
  • word understandings

15
Target Word A word to be used as bait for
other words
The Fishing Model
16
The Quadrant Model
Complete sentence of at least 12 words Use an
action verb Include a visual
Breakdown Prefix (or combining form)
Root Suffix
Synonym___________ Antonym___________
Target Word
My guess
Dictionary or glossary definition
Noun form The___________ Verb form
To____________ Adjective/Adverb form
very________ very________
Visual
17
The Tree Model
Geographical Features
Water
Land
Navigable
Unnavigable
Arable
Not Arable
Rivers
Lakes
Seas
Streams
Creeks
Tributaries
Estuaries
18
Frayer Model
  • word or phrase definition

Examples
Non-Examples
19
The Multiple Meaning Model
Meaning (for this class)
word
conversational meaning
Sentence (for this class)
Visual
conversational sentence
20
Examples function, property, reaction,
origin, tangent, variable, solve, mean,
graphic, base, extreme, factor, fact, imaginary,
rational, Irrational, determine power, prime,
product, multiple, operation, radical,
remainder, range, regular, proof, difference,
cell, value, area, cube, root, plot, complementary
, common, depression, digit, operation, frequency,
graph, median, mode, equation, equal, similar,
balance
The Multiple Meaning Model
math/science meaning
word
conversational meaning
math/science sentence
Visual
conversational sentence
21
The Spider Model
Opposites
Images
Target Word
Descriptors
Actions
22
Morphology Chart
23
Morphology Kit
Adverb-making suffix -ly
24
Word Components Level 1 (usually known in
elementary grades)
  • Prefixes
  • ex-
  • pre-
  • re-
  • un-
  • dis-
  • non-
  • im-
  • mis-
  • mini-
  • maxi-

25
Word Components Level 2 (usually known in
intermediate grades)
  • Prefixes
  • co- con- com-
  • syn- sym-
  • in- en- (into)
  • sub- sup-
  • e-
  • a- ab-
  • inter-
  • intra-
  • mono-
  • uni-
  • bi- tri- quad-, etc.

cent- milli- mega- poly- multi- omni- trans- se
mi- bio- geo- eco-
26
Word Components Level 3 (usually known in high
school)
  • Prefixes
  • pseudo-
  • demi-
  • endo- ecto-
  • pro-
  • per-
  • peri-
  • hemi-
  • ob-
  • bene-
  • mal-

photo- nom- ig- muni- contra- philo-
27
Common Word Roots for Academic Subjects
Basic -ject (to throw) -port (to
carry) -scrip, scribe (to write) -vert, vers (to
turn) -pos, pon (to place) -tract (to draw) -pel,
pul (to drive) -struct (to build) -grad, gress
(to step) -plic, plex (to fold) -flic, flex (to
bend) -fic, fac (to make) -miss, mit (to
send) -sid, sed (to sit) -spec (to see) -voc (to
call) -dict (to say) -rupt (to break)
Often combine with sub- re-
pro- ex- ob- per- de-
a- ab- co- con- e- trans-
ex-
Often end with -ive -ation sion -ate -able
ible -or
28
Common Word Roots for Academic Subjects
Advanced -cad, -cas,-cid (to fall) -dyna
(force power) -magn (great large) -quir, -quis
(to seek) -gen (race, kind origin) -cham, -cam
(vault) -cen (to judge) -doc, -dox (to
think) -greg (to flock) -cau (to burn) -ess,
-sent (to exist) -close, -clud, -clus (to
close) -mand, -mend (to order) -junct (to
join) -jur, -jus (to swear) -lith (stone)
Often combine with sub- re-
pro- ex- ob- per- de-
a- ab- ne- con- e- trans-
ex-
Often end with -ive -ation sion -ate -able
ible -or -ize -ence, ance -ary
29
Academic Flash Phrases
  • Phrases that should become immediately
  • recognizable and meaningful in the subject
  • area context

30
I love
Paris in the
the springtime
The brain operates for economy of effort (filling
in gaps, making assumptions)
31
Flash phrases for social studies
32
Flash phrases for life science
33
Flash phrases for math
34
Generic Academic Flash Phrases Concept Causes
and Effects
35
Differentiation for the flash phrases
  • Create and play word games to reinforce the
  • visual cues (www.quia.com puzzlemaker.com)
  • Create flash cards
  • Create classroom visuals mobiles, book covers,
    folders, etc.

36
Part Two Elements of DI
What are some of the key structures of DI? What
do I already do and use?
37
What we already do
38
Content…. Process….. Product
(Assessment)
39
What does DI look like?
Content differentiation
40
What does DI look like?
  • Process Differentiation

41
What does DI look like?
Product or Assessment Differentiation
42
Differentiating Content
  • Begin with concepts and competencies
    (understandings and abilities)
  • Decide on acceptable evidence of learning
  • Decide on specific content

43
Why Differentiate Content?
44
Differentiating Process
  • Begin with concepts and competencies
  • Decide on acceptable evidence of learning
  • Offer different but appropriate modes of learning

45
Ways to Differentiate Process
Learning Style Choices Visual, Auditory,
Kinesthetic, Social
Left Brain/ Right Brain preferences
Choices based on temperament Work alone, work
in a group, work holistically, work
step-by-step, etc.
46
DI for Assessment Showing Knowing
  • Begin with concepts and competencies
  • Decide on content
  • Decide on acceptable
  • different ways of evidencing learning

47
Depth and Complexity
Degrees of detail
Numbers of variables, aspects, factors
Amount of steps in a procedure
Summarize a story
Evaluate a story.
Analyze a story
48
Depth and Complexity
Degree of abstraction
Amount of prior knowledge and prior skill required
Amount of independence expected
Give several examples of two visual motifs in a
film Romeo and Juliet (1996)
Explain why there is a fire motif in R J
49
Ideas for Differentiating Process Assessment
For visual learners
50
Ideas for Differenting Process Assessment
For auditory learners
51
Ideas for Differenting Process Assessment
For tactile-kinesthetic learners
52
Ideas for Differenting Process Assessment
For social learners
53
Ideas for Differenting Process Assessment
For technology-oriented learners
54
Planning for Differentiation
Concepts Content
Process, Product Competencies

One or more ways for students of varying
abilities and interests to access knowledge or
skill and to demonstrate knowledge or skill
This is the enduring understanding
and/or academic skill that you want all students
to have.
What students will be reading, seeing, or doing
to learn new Information or skills
is not differentiated
may be differentiated
may be differentiated
55
What is appropriate content? What is acceptable
evidence of learning? How can/ why should I
create a tri-leveled task?
I.
Gr. 8
EU Some information is indirectly communicated.
Content Any story
Work with a partner
Level 1 Draw a cartoon representing a
conversation in the story. Use thought bubbles
to express what the characters are thinking but
not saying out loud.
Level 2 Identify a conversation in the story in
which information is indirectly communicated and
explain why this information is not directly
communicated.
Level 3 Act out a conversation which could
happen at any point in the story in which
information is indirectly stated.
56
What is appropriate content? What is acceptable
evidence of learning? How can/ why should I
create a tri-leveled task? II.
EU Summary beg, mid, end expressed concisely
Content
Level 1 Identify characters/ setting Write one
sent that is derived from each of the 3 parts
Level 2
Select any character. Explain how this character
changes from the beg, to the mid, to the end.
(three well-developed sentences)
Level 3
57
Example Favorite Subject Groups
Concepts Acceptable Evidence
Content Competencies
of Learning

The Odyssey
Great literature can be connected to other
fields of learning.
Students form groups based on their favorite
subjects in school. Groups discuss how The
Odyssey relates their favorite
subject. Present to class.
The Odyssey
58
Differentiating Writing Tasks
More complexity
Less complexity
Evaluate Compare Contrast Recommend Persuade Dra
w conclusions Make generalizations
List Define Describe Identify Put in order Create
categories
Apply Illustrate Give examples of Summarize,
paraphrase, restate Analyze (take apart put
together)
59
An Online Resource
  • www.filimentality.com repository for Webquests
    and hotlists (free of charge)
  • www.quia.com collection of, and means to create,
    word games (subscription charge)
  • www.puzzlemaker.com means to create word games
    and word puzzles (free of charge)

60
Fishbowl Story Talk
  • Purposes
  • To discover
  • universal themes in
  • books of choice
  • To converse about literature
  • To listen attentively to peers

61
What Students Do Now
  • Read on their own
  • Complete a generic study guide
  • Take a generic reading-check test

62
Story-Talks Inner Circle/ Outer Circle Set-Up
  • Arrange desks in a circle or U
  • Set up an island for the inner circle
  • Each student has tent card with name of story
    he/she read and
  • a visual

63
How the Fishbowl Works
  • Students take turns going into the inner circle
  • Inner circle should be a mixed group,
    representing various stories
  • Outer circle also participates

64
Fishbowl Topics
  • Setting Where did the story take place? Help us
    see it.
  • Narration Who is telling us the
  • story? Help us know this person.
  • Plot What is the story about?
  • Language What were the most
  • important words in the story? What
  • new words did you learn?

65
The Fishbowl Book Talk Looks Like This
Roll of Thunder
The Pearl
The Giver
Uncle Toms Cabin
Number the Stars
Charlottes Web
Charlottes Web
Woman Warrior
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
The Wind in the Willows
Holes
The Wizard Of Oz
The Hobbit
Roll of Thunder
The Wind in the Willows
The Giver
66
Literature Circles Look Like This
Symbolism Finder
Illustrator
Illustrator
Symbolism Finder
Note- taker
Vocabulary Expert
Note- taker
Vocabulary Expert
Character Explainer
Character Explainer
Illustrator
Vocabulary Expert
Character Explainer
Symbolism Finder
Same book, different roles
Note- taker
67
Tic-Tac-Toe (aka Choice Boards) ELA
68
Tic-Tac-Toe (aka Choice Boards) Social Studies
69
Tic-Tac-Toe (aka Choice Boards)
70
Choice Board
71
Where do I need help?
72
Provide graphic organizers Provide list of
suggested words/phrases Provide key sentences and
structures Provide an outline or partial outline
Assessment Implications Students give up a
certain number of points in exchange for
support ? Students allowed decreasing levels of
support as the year progresses ?
Extended time Work with a partner Use of
notebook Use textbook or other resources Student-c
reated study cards
Scaffolding Providing necessary support
73
(No Transcript)
74
Informational text
Literary Text
Language
Organization
Content
Textual Features (appearance)
75
Cornell Notes (aka 3 column notes)
Learn to create meaning from text
Let time elapse.
76
Reading Material
  • Most Effective
  • Authentic texts
  • Classroom libraries
  • Suggestions for extended reading
  • School-to-home connections
  • Audiotapes
  • Least Effective
  • Texts with controlled
  • vocabulary
  • Worksheets with
  • recall level questions
  • Abridgements

77
Scope of Reading Material
  • Most Effective
  • Multicultural perspectives
  • Quality non-fiction as
  • well as fiction
  • Wide range of genres
  • Likely to engage and
  • interest students
  • Least Effective
  • Bland
  • Inauthentic (watered down reworded expurgated)

78
Groupings of Students
  • Most Effective
  • Whole class
  • Changeable groups
  • Independent, individual
  • Groups by interest and choice
  • Least Effective
  • Fixed ability groups
  • Pull out instruction

79
Instructional Approaches
  • Most Effective
  • Student-generated topics and questions
  • Free choice reading
  • Scaffolding toward independence
  • Strategies and skill lessons connected to
    immediate need
  • Least Effective
  • Scripted
  • Strategies and skill
  • lessons that connect
  • to inauthentic text (exercises)

80
Comprehension Builders
  • Most Effective
  • Student-generated questions
  • Thematic questions
  • Approach to reading as process (before, during,
    after)
  • Development of
  • metacognition
  • Least Effective
  • Responses to external questions
  • Recall questions

81
Vocabulary Development
  • Most Effective
  • Clusters
  • Spelling as a window to word connections
  • Meaningful use varied contexts
  • Domain-specific and vernacular meanings
  • Least Effective
  • Lists of unrelated words
  • Lack of connectedness from subject to subject
  • Fill-in-the-blanks

82
Student Role
  • Most Effective
  • Choice of reading selections
  • Choice of assessment forms
  • Constructed response
  • Social interaction around literacy
  • Risk-taking
  • Least Effective
  • Do assigned reading, answer shallow questions

83
SSR (Sustained Silent Reading)
  • 20 minute sessions
  • Twice- three times weekly
  • More than one year
  • Student choice
  • No formal accountability
  • Wide choice of reading materials

84
Spelling Board
85
TEACHER BEHAVIORS
THE STRATEGIC TEACHER
86
Intermediate and Secondary School Reading
  • How reading expectations change
  • after fourth grade

87
The Read-O-Meter
Pre 20C Text Technical Language Polysyllabic
words Long sentences Small print Unfamiliar
subject Abstract ideas No, few, or complex
graphics
Apply Reading Strategies Adjust pace Adjust
environment
Highly Demanding
Slightly Demanding
88
Readability Assessment
  • Read one page of textbook, timing yourself
    (reading slowly)
  • Compose 5 basic comprehension questions

89
Readability of Your Major Text
  • 1. Have students read the page, timing themselves
    carefully.
  • 2. Students answer the 5 questions.
  • 3. Following the timed reading and the 5
    questions, students write words from the text
    that they didnt understand.

90
Assessing Readability
Read at your pace, or slightly slower One or two
comprehension errors Fewer than five unknown
words
Read at your pace or faster No comprehension
\ errors One or two unknown words
Read significantly slower than you do More
than two comprehension errors Five or more
unknown words
91
Reading Supports/Enrichments
Enrichment recommended
Support Needed
92
Supports
  • Provide more visuals
  • Provide pre-reading expectations (overview)

93
Supports
  • Provide guiding questions

94
Supports
  • Establish a purpose for reading

95
Supports
  • Pronounce unfamiliar words

96
Online Reading Lab
http//vclass.mtsac.edu/amla-51/Skills20Exercises
/homework.htm
Another Online Reading Lab
http//wps.ablongman.com/long_henry_sr_1/0,7967,80
5086-,00.html
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