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Physical Geography and Plate Tectonics

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Physical Geography and Plate Tectonics Human Impacts Convergent Boundary Formations: Divergent Boundary Formations: Transform Boundary Formations: On your notes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Physical Geography and Plate Tectonics


1
Physical Geography and Plate Tectonics
2
Physical Geography
The study of the natural processes that shape the
surface of the Earth and life on it.
3
humanities.ucsd.edu/.../ kuchtahum4/pix/earth.jpg
The Earth is approximately 4.6 billion yrs. old.
4
  • II. Composition of the Earth
  • The Earth is made up of FOUR Parts

INNER CORE
OUTER CORE
CRUST
MANTLE
www.spacedaily.com/ news/carbon-00e.html
5

III. Internal Forces
250 million yrs. ago the continents were
one giant landmass called PANGAEA
Continental Drift over time plates drifted
away or collided
wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/docs/ parks/pltec/pangea.html
6
bhc.edu/.../study/ Images/platetectonics.gif
Tectonic Plates form the crust layer
(Continents are on these plates) are
constantly moving and cause changes to the
earths surface when they make contact
7
Type One Divergent Boundaries
8

Boundary
Divergent
Plates spread or move apart
9
Formations Created by Divergent Boundaries
  • Rift Valleys 2. Mid-Ocean Ridge
  • (on land) (under sea)

10
  • Where a divergent boundary crosses the land,
    rift valleys form, which are typically 30 to 50
    kilometers wide.

11
  • Great Rift Valley in Africa
  • Varies in width from 30 100 km
  • Runs north to south for 5000 km

.aucegypt.edu/faculty/ hamroush/images/Geol...
12
dataxinfo.com/hormuz/sinai.htm
Red Sea which is between Africa Southwest Asia
13
  • A mid-ocean ridge is created by plates moving
    away from one another allowing magma to escape
    the Earths core and create a long and narrow
    mountain range underwater.
  • These ridges are created as magma cools quickly
    once it hits the water and builds upward.

M I D O C E A N R I D G E
14
  • Where a divergent boundary crosses the ocean
    floor, the oceanic ridge is much narrower, only a
    kilometer or less across.

Oceanic ridges form a global network tens of
thousands of miles long.
15
  • Plate separation is a slow process.
  • For example, divergence along the Mid-Atlantic
    Ridge causes the Atlantic Ocean to widen at only
    about 2 centimeters per year.

16
Type Two
CONVERGENT
BOUNDARIES
Note some convergent plates contain land and
other convergent plates contain water
17
CONVERGENT BOUNDARIES
Convergent plate movement occurs when two plates
are headed for each other.
18
Convergent Boundary Formations
  • 1. mountains (continental continental
    convergence)
  • 2. trenches (oceanic oceanic convergence)
  • volcanoes (oceanic continental convergence)
  • (add 3 to your notes worksheet)

19
Continental-Continental Convergence
20
Continental-Continental
Himalayas Mountain Range
21
Oceanic Oceanic Plate Convergence
22
Mariana Trench
  • The deepest part of the worlds oceans
  • Forms the boundary of two oceanic plates (Pacific
    Plate and Mariana Plate
  • 6.78 miles deep

23
Continental Plate Converging with an Oceanic
Plate When there are different kinds of plate
interaction
  • the oceanic plate tends to sink below the
    continental. It then melts into magma in the
    mantle.
  • This process is SUBDUCTION
  • volcanoes can form.

24
Andes Mountains
Add this example to your worksheet
25
http//volcano.und.edu/vwdocs/volc_images/southeas
t_asia/indonesia/krakatau.html
Mount St. Helens Washington, USA
Krakatoa, Indonesia
26
Convergent Plate Simulation
You can simulate convergent plate motion by
placing your hands together in front of you with
your palms down. Now gently slide your bottom
hand downward and your top hand upward, while
keeping them in contact.
27
Type Three
  • TRANSFORM

BOUNDARIES
28
Transform
Boundaries
  • At transform plate boundaries plates grind past
    each other side by side.

29
Transform
Boundaries Example
  • This type of boundary separates the North
    American Plate from the Pacific Plate along the
    San Andreas Fault, a famous transform plate
    boundary that is responsible for many of
    Californias earthquakes.

30
How do transform boundaries impact the areas
where they are located?
Japan 2011
31
Kobe Japan 1995
32
Oakland, California 1989
33
Try It!
  • You can simulate transformational plate motion
    by placing your hands together in front of you
    with your palms down. Now slide your left hand
    away from you and your right hand toward you.

34
Human Impacts
On your notes worksheet, explain how the follow
the following plate boundaries formations impact
humans AND the environment
  • Convergent Boundary Formations
  • Divergent Boundary Formations
  • Transform Boundary Formations
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