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MUSIC IN THE CATHEDRAL

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The le de la Cit (an island in the middle of the Seine River) and the close of ... after Christmas when the lower (and generally younger) clergy took over the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MUSIC IN THE CATHEDRAL


1
CHAPTER 9
  • MUSIC IN THE CATHEDRAL
  • CLOSE AND UNIVERSITY
  • CONDUCTUS AND MOTET

2
  • The thirteenth century witnessed the advent of
    polyphony not tied exclusively to the church. At
    Paris polyphony spread from the confines of the
    cathedral and the liturgy to the close (a
    residential precinct next to the church), the
    fledgling university, and ultimately to purely
    worldly environments.

3
Île de la Cité
  • The Île de la Cité (an island in the middle of
    the Seine River) and the close of Notre Dame of
    Paris as they appear in the earliest map of
    Paris. The area of the close is to the north
    (left) of the cathedral.

4
The Latin Quarter
  • In the twelfth century the various schools
    located in the close and elsewhere near the
    cathedral of Notre Dame began to move across the
    Seine River to the Left Bank (south bank).
    Because the one language known universally by the
    students was Latin, the area came to be called
    the Latin Quarter.
  • In 1215 the pope gave formal recognition to a new
    Universitas in Parisa unified collection of all
    the schools and colleges under a single
    administrative head called the chancellor.

5
Phillip the Chancellor
  • The most famous chancellor in the thirteenth
    century was Philip of Nemours, called Philip the
    Chancellor (c1160-1236). Some seventy musical
    settings with religious or moralistic texts are
    attributed to Philip. Most of these belong to
    the genre of medieval music called conductus.

6
CONDUCTUS
  • The term conductus derives from the Latin
    infinitive ducere, to lead.
  • As the name suggests, the conductus was sung as
    the clergy moved from place to place or was
    engaged in some other type of kinetic activity,
    such as dance.
  • Conducti appear as processional pieces, as
    insertions into liturgical dramas, as
    accompaniments to dances, and as songs to
    celebrate Easter and Christmas, much as Christmas
    carols do today.
  • Conducti for one, two, three, or occasionally
    even four voices survive. Unlike organum and the
    later motet, all voices of a conductus are newly
    composed, even the tenor.

7
Orientis partibus
  • Orientis partibus is a semi-humorous conductus
    associated with the Feast of Fools, a day coming
    soon after Christmas when the lower (and
    generally younger) clergy took over the service
    of the church.
  • The ass in Orientis partibus is the humble beast
    that carried Mary and the Christ child to
    Bethlehem, and a legacy of this melody (the
    lowest voice) and text survives today in the
    Christmas carol The Friendly Beast.

8
Orientis partibus
9
Dic, Christi veritas
  • Philip the Chancellors conductus Dic, Christi
    veritas (Speak Christian Truth) is longer, more
    serious, and even vindictive in tone.
  • In it Philip delivers a blistering sermon railing
    against those, including the pope, who seek to
    curtail his authority at the University.
  • His is a highly learned text that makes frequent
    illusion to ancient and biblical history.
  • The music is periodically punctuated by caudae,
    passages of florid, melismatic singing.

10
Motet
  • The motet first appeared in Paris around 1200.
  • Originally the term (diminutive of the French mot
    meaning word) signaled a discant clausula to
    which sacred and eventually vernacular words had
    been added. (By the fifteenth century the motet
    had come to connote almost any vocal work setting
    a sacred Latin text.)
  • The purpose of the added words (mots) was to
    expand upon the religious theme presented in the
    tenor voice (a Gregorian chant).
  • Sometimes the vernacular texts of the upper
    voices were very worldly, but even the most
    profane text could be interpreted as a spiritual
    message by means of an allegorical reading.

11
  • Examples 9-2A, 9-2B and 9-2C demonstrate how
    first Latin and then French texts were added
    successively to the upper voices of what was
    originally a two-voice discant clausula.

12
(No Transcript)
13
Parisian Motet
  • Eventually the motet spread beyond the cathedral,
    close, and university to the streets of Paris.
    Even the sacred tenor, which up to now had been a
    portion of a Gregorian chant, might be replaced
    by a secular tune. The three voice motet On
    parole de batre/A Paris/Frese nouvele extols the
    pleasures of urban living in medieval Paris.
    Here the tenor is a street cry of the sort a
    fruit vendor used to advertise his produce.
  • The late thirteenth-century Parisian motet On
    parole de batre/A Paris/Frese nouvele in which
    all voices are in French.
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