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Three countries formed Indochina: Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. In 1863, the Franco-Khmer treaty established a protectorate over Cambodia. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Vietnam

  • Government/History 354
  • Campbell University

  • Vietnam is surrounded by China to the north
    Laos, Cambodia and the Gulf of Siam to the west
    and the Gulf of Tonkin, and South China Sea to
    the east.

  • Vietnam is slightly larger than New Mexico in
    land area (128,066 sq miles).
  • Most land is mountainous or hilly. Only 20 is
  • The climate is hot and humid, subject to the
  • Its population is 84 million. 86.2Viet (Kinh)
    with significant Chinese and Montagnard
  • 80.8 express no religious preference, 9. are
    Buddhist 6.7 Catholic.

After Effects of War
  • Following the end of the war in 1975, Vietnam
    engaged in reeducation and collectivization,
    Soviet style.
  • From 1975 into the 1990s, refugees fled Vietnam,
    many as boat people. They were accepted
  • United States 823,000
  • Australia Canada 137,00 each.
  • France 96,000.
  • Germany U.K. 19, 000 each
  • The Philippines, Thailand and Hong Kong were
    temporary refuges.

Vietnamese child in Thailand, 1980
  • Up to the time of its fall, the Soviet Union was
    Vietnams principal supporter.
  • In 1986, Doi Moi (Renovation) was instituted. The
    GNP is now growing at the rate of 8.4 annually.
  • Per capita income rose from 220 per person to
    638 per person in 2005.
  • The U.S. is its primary export partner (22.2)

Nguyen Tan Dung was elected P.M. in 2006 at the
age of 56.
China is Vietnams primary import partner.
Recent Foreign Relations
  • Invaded Cambodia in 1978. Was punished by a
    Chinese military campaign in 1979.
  • Withdrew from Cambodia in 1989.
  • Normalized relations with U.S. in 1995.
  • Is a member of ASEAN AFTA and is seeking
    membership in the WTO.

Ho Chi Min City in the rain. Tourism has become a
significant source of income. Vietnams beaches
are among the most beautiful in the world.
Early History
  • The Hung Dynasty (2879-258 B.C.) was established
    by Hung Vuong, son of the Lac Dragon Lord, and Au
    Co, a Chinese immortal. The kingdom was called
    Van Lang.
  • In the 6th Century B.C., established wet rice
    culture and tidal irrigation under feudal Lac
    Field Lords.

Upper Red River delta looking toward Yunnan
Province, China.
Formation of Nam Viet
  • An Duong Vuong conquered Van Lang in the 3rd
    B.C. and united it with Thuc to form Au Lac.
  • Following the fall of the Qin Dynasty, Trieu Da
    established Nam Viet in 207 B.C. It included Au
    Lac and extended from Canton to Hue.
  • In 111B.C., Nam Viet became a province of Han
    China and remained so to until 939A.D.

Hue City Gate
The Trung Sisters
  • Han Chinese rule became increasingly oppressive.
    Increased taxes and cultural conformity were
    demanded, including a patriarchal family
  • In 39 A.D., the Trung sisters lead a revolt in
    Tongkin and ruled jointly for two years, then
    committed suicide in the face of massive Chinese

A celebration of the Trung sisters revolt.
  • Kiu-lien revolted against China in 192 A.D. to
    establish the independent Champa (Lin- Yi) with
    its capital at Indrapura.
  • The Chams were an Indianized Malay people who
    were involved in the spice trade and vied for
    territory with the Khmers of Funan/Chenla.

Cham towers between Hue and Danang
  • Q1. Which country accepted most of the refugees
    from Vietnam?
  • A1. The USA. The number was 823,000.
  • Q2. What was Doi Moi?
  • A2. It means renovation. The Communist
    government opened the economy to private
  • Q3. Why did China attack Vietnam in 1979?
  • A3. To support its client state, Cambodia.

More Questions
  • Q4. During which years was Vietnam first a
    province of China?
  • A4. 111 BC to 939 AD.
  • Q5. Who were the Lac Lords?
  • A5. Native Vietnamese feudal chieftains who
    controlled irrigation and owned large rice land
  • Q5. Who were the Trung sisters?
  • A5. They led a revolt against the Chinese in 39
    AD and ruled jointly for two years before
    committing suicide.

Still More Questions
  • Q6. Who were the Chams?
  • A6. An Indianized Malay people who lived in the
    southern part of Vietnam and became independent
    of China in 192AD.
  • Q7. Who was Trieu Da?
  • A7. The Chinese general (war lord) who founded
    Nam Viet in 207 BC, after the fall of the Qin

Dai Viet Independence
  • Chinese suzerainty over Vietnam was destabilized
  • The Thai kingdom of Nan Chao briefly seizing
    control of the country in 862.
  • The collapse of the Tang Dynasty in 907.
  • In 939, Ngo Quyen, a Vietnamese general, pushed
    Chinese forces out of the country.
  • In 968, Dinh Bo Linh, a local chieftain, united
    the country and established a peasant
    mobilization system capable of producing a
    100,000 man militia, called the Ten Circuit Army.

March South
  • Binh Bo Linh died in 979. Le Hoan, his military
    commander, seized the throne, repulsed a Song
    Chinese attempt to regain control of Vietnam and
    began the March South in 982 by sacking
  • By 1079, the Chams were forced to cede three
    northern provinces. Vietnamese peasants quickly
    occupied the land and converted it to rice
    production, delta by delta along the narrow
    coastal plain.

Ly Dynasty
  • Le Hoan was succeeded in 1009 by Ly Cong Uan,
    commander of the palace guard. He took the reign
    name of Ly Thai To and established his capital at
    Dai La (Hanoi). The dynasty lasted until 1225.
  • The Ly kings established a stable and prosperous
  • Buddhism became the state religion.
  • Copied the Chinese civil service model with
    examinations and a nine-grade rank structure.

Tran Dynasty
  • Tran Thai Tong founds the Tran dynasty thru
    marriage to a Ly princess in 1225. The Tran had
    served as regents to the Ly Dynasty for many
  • Under the Tran dynasty (1225-1400), the country
    prospered and flourished. The Tran retained
    continuity of rule thru ritual and ideology, made
    extensive land reforms, introduced standardized
    dike construction, improved public administration
    thru bureaucratic forms, and encouraged the study
    of Chinese literature.

The Mongols
  • Between 1257 and 1287, the Mongols attempted
    three invasions of Vietnam. The first two were
    defeated thru strategic withdrawal. The third
    involved destruction of a force of a ½ million
    troops and a 400 ships by General Tran Hung Dao.
  • The Chams defeated the Mongols thru equally
    heroic guerrilla warfare.

Kublai Khan
Le Dynasty
  • Dynastic decline led the Ming Dynasty to
    intervene in Vietnam in 1407. A 20 year period of
    harsh and exploitive rule followed.
  • In 1418, Le Loi led the Lam Son Uprising which
    resulted in the defeat the Chinese army after 10
    years of guerrilla warfare and established the Le
    Dynasty (1426-1788), a cultural highpoint.
  • In 1471, Le Thanh Ton conquers Champa. Only the
    area around Nha Trang remained under Cham
    control. At the same time, Laos became a vassal

Early Christian Contact
  • In 1615, the Jesuits open a mission in Hoi An
    (Fai Fo), south of Danang. Alexander de Rhodes
    devises a system for Romanizing Vietnamese called
    quoc ngu, which he used to write a catechism.
  • Converted 6,000 Vietnamese before being forced to
    leave the country in 1630.

Alexander de Rhodes
Vietnam Partitioned
  • The Trinh-Nguyen Wars (1627-73) resulted from
    General Mac Dang Dungs attempt to seize the Le
    throne in 1527. The Trinh and the Nguyen entered
    the civil war. Each claimed to be defending the
  • The Chinese recognized the claims of each Trinh
    in the north and Nguyen in the south.
  • In 1631, the Nguyen built an 18 foot-high wall
    11.5 miles long with fortifications from the
    Annam Mts. to the sea near Dong Hoi (close to the
    17th parallel) to defend against Trinh attacks.

Tayson Rebellion (1771-1802)
  • The Tayson rebellion ended the rule of the Trinh,
    Nguyen and puppet Le dynasty. The rebellion was a
    reaction to uncontrolled inflation, famine and
    confiscatory taxes. The goal was to eliminate the
    Nguyen dynasty and redistribute the property of
    the rich.
  • The rebellion was led by three brothers from the
    village of Tayson in the South who took the
    Nguyen sir name.
  • The Taysons deserve credit for the first Tet
    Offensive in 1789. On January 25, in a five-day
    campaign Nguyen Hue (reign name Quang Trung)
    defeated a Chinese force of 200,000 that had
    invaded the North to support the Le dynasty.

Emperor Gia Long
  • Nguyen Anh was the last of the Nguyen royal line.
    He took refuge in Thailand from the Tayson
    rebels, but returned in 1788 to captured Saigon,
    then Hue in 1801 and Hanoi in 1802.
  • His successful restoration of unity to the
    country was partially based on support from the
    French. A French missionary, Bishop Pegneau de
    Behaine, took up his cause, traveled to France in
    1787 and arranged a treaty with Louis XVI that
    provided military assistance. That was just a
    year before the French revolution.

Gia Long (Contd)
  • The Franco-Vietnamese treaty granted the French a
    monopoly on Vietnamese external trade, an island,
    the port of DaNang and allowed missionary
    activity in exchange for military aid.
  • Nguyen Anh took the reign name of Gia Long a
    contraction of Gia Dinh (Saigon area) and Than
    Long (Hanoi area) when he proclaimed himself
    emperor of Nam Viet.
  • He took Hue as his capital and built the Purple
    Forbidden City.

Gia Long
  • Q1. What was the Ten Circuit Army? Who organized
  • A1. A peasant militia capable of producing a
    100,000 man force. It was designed to defend 10
    geographic districts (circuits), each composed of
    10 armies of 10 brigades each, ten companies
    strong. Founded by Binh Bo Linh in 968.
  • Q2. What and where was Indrapura?
  • A2. It was the capital of Champa, located between
    Hue and Danang.

More Questions
  • Q3. How did General Tran Hung Dao destroy the
    Mongol fleet of 400 ships in 1287?
  • A3. He drove steel tipped spikes into the bed of
    the Bac Dang River, then lured the fleet into the
    river at high tide.
  • Q4. When and why was Vietnam first partitioned?
  • A4. It was partitioned during the Trinh-Nguyen
    Wars (1627-1673), when the Nguyen built a wall
    from the mountains to the sea near Dong Hoi in

Still More Questions
  • Q5. What factors led to the Tayson Rebellion?
  • A5. Taxation, inflation, famine and dislike of
    the Nguyen dynasty.
  • Q6. When was the first Tet Offensive?
  • A6. In 1789, against Chinese forces stationed
    around Hanoi. Led by Nguyen Hue, one to the
    Tayson brothers.
  • Q7. What is quoc ngu? Who invented it?
  • A7. A system for writing Vietnamese using
    Romanized script. It was invented by Alexander de
    Rhodes, a Jesuit missionary.
  • Q8. The Lam Son Uprising led to the establishment
    of what dynasty?
  • A8. Le Loi led the uprising to establish the Le

And Still More Questions
  • Q9. What were the conditions of the
    Franco-Vietnamese Treaty of 1787?
  • A9. In return for military assistance, the
    Vietnamese granted the French a monopoly on
    external trade, an island, the port of Danang and
    the right to proselytize.
  • Q10. What was Nguyen Anhs reign name? What did
    it symbolize?
  • A10. Giah Long. It symbolized unity of the north
    and south. Gia came from Giah Dinh(Saigon area)
    Long from Than Long (Hanoi area).

The Christian Wedge
  • In 1820 1833, reinstitution of repressive taxes
    and cultural Sinification led to rebellions in
    Giah Dinh.
  • By 1841, there were 450,000 Christians in
    southern Vietnam.
  • Emperor Minh Mang attempted to suppress
    Christianity by banning missionaries and closing
    ports to Europeans.
  • In 1846, the French blockaded and then bombarded
    Tourane killing thousands to free a condemned

Cochin China
  • In 1858, the death of a French and a Spanish
    priest led to joint expeditionary force capturing
  • In 1859, the French captured Gia Dinh (Saigon)
    and the surrounding provinces in 1862.
  • Emperor Tu Duc signed the Treaty of Saigon in
    1862 ceding three provinces in the Gia Dinh
    region, opening three ports to international
    trade, granting the right to navigate the Mekong
    and agreeing to pay a P 4 million indemnity.
  • Tu Duc redirected his forces to Bac Bo to
    suppress a large Christian supported rebellion in

Exploring the Back Door
  • In 1866, Francis Garnier and Doudart de Lagree
    charted the Mekong in search of a navigable route
    into South China. None was found.
  • They did find that extensive trade passed through
  • After de Lagree died, Garnier continued the
    mission all the way to Shanghai by joining the
    Yangtze River. He covered 5,392 miles

Stamp issued in 1943 honoring Francis Garnier. He
received the Victoria medal for his exploration
of the Mekong.
The Red River Alternative
  • In 1868, Jean Dupuis (a trader), among many,
    discussed opening a Red River route to China with
    Garnier and others.
  • In 1873, Garnier was asked to mediate a dispute
    over shipping on the Red River involving Dupuis.
    He unilaterally declared the river open to
    international trade and seized Haiphong. He was
    later killed in a battle with Black Flag pirates.
  • Based on Garniers initiative, a treaty was
    signed in 1873 confirming the open status of the
    Red River and opening three ports in Tonking.

French Indochina
  • Three countries formed Indochina Vietnam,
    Cambodia and Laos.
  • In 1863, the Franco-Khmer treaty established a
    protectorate over Cambodia.
  • The Thais then confronted the French with a
    secret Thai-Khmer treaty. In 1867, Thais gained
    sovereignty over Battambang and Siem Reap in
    return for giving up claims of suzerainty over

French Indochina (Contd)
  • In 1882, Henri Riviere attempted to clear the Red
    River of pirates, only to be defeated by the
    Black Flag. The French claimed mandarin
    obstruction in violation of the 1873 treaty.
  • The Vietnamese are forced to agree to a French
    protectorate over the entire country in 1883-4.
  • In 1885, the Vietnamese seek Chinese assistance.
    The French naval forces easily best the Chinese
    leading to the Treaty of Tientsin. The Chinese
    recognized the French protectorate and granted
    the right to build a RR from Hanoi to Kunming.

Indochinese Union
  • In 1887, the French formally established the
    Indochinese Union composed of Tonking, Annam,
    Cochin, Cambodia and Laos (added as a
    protectorate in 1893). Each was administered as a
    separate province.
  • The Vietnamese emperor was stripped of all
    authority. A Resident Superior governed in his
  • In 1898, the French took over tax collection and
    the payment of officials.

  • Q1. How many Christians were in southern Vietnam
    by 1841?
  • A1. 450,000.
  • Q2. Why were the Vietnamese monarchs opposed to
  • A2. It was heterodox and considered subversive?
  • Q3. What were the provisions of the 1862 Treaty
    of Saigon?
  • A3. The Emperor ceded three provinces in the Gia
    Dinh region, opened three ports, granted the
    right to navigate the Mekong and agreed to pay a
    P 4 million indemnity.

More Questions
  • Q4. Why did Emperor Tu Duc sign the Treaty of
    Saigon rather than fight?
  • A4. He had little real support among the people,
    overestimated the strength of French forces and
    had to cope with a Christian supported rebellion
    in Bac Bo.
  • Q5. For what was Francis Garnier awarded the
    Victoria medal?
  • A5. His exploration of the Mekong River from
    Saigon to Shanghai.

Still More Questions
  • Q6. What was the allure of opening the Red River?
  • A6. It provided a backdoor into China.
  • Q7. Who were the Black Flag pirates?
  • A7. Composed of largely of Chinese soldiers who
    fled south after the Taiping rebellion. They were
    frequently in the service of the mandarin.
  • Q8. How did the French acquire a protectorate
    over Cambodia?
  • A8. The Franco-Khmer Treaty of 1863. The treaty
    was welcomed by the Cambodians.

The Rise of Nationalism
  • 1885-1913 - Can Vuong (Aid the King).
  • Phan Boi Chau.
  • 1902 Published Ryukyus Bitter Tears.
  • 1904 Founded Duy Tan Hoi (Reformation Society).
  • 1905 Published History of the Loss of Vietnam.
  • 1906-07 founded the Viet Nam Cong Hien Hoi
    (Vietnam Public Offering Society) in Japan.
  • 1912 - Founded the Viet Nam Quang Phuc Hoi
    (Vietnam Restoration Society).

Phan Boi Chau was arrested in 1925.
Rise of Nationalism (Contd)
  • Ho Chih Minh
  • 1919 Tried to petition Woodrow Wilson in Paris.
  • 1920 Was a founding member of the French
    Communist Party.
  • 1925 - Founded the Revolutionary Youth League
  • 1926 - Wrote The Revolutionary Path.
  • 1930 Founded Indochina Communist Party (ICP).
  • 1941 Established the Viet Minh.

Ho Chi Minh
Rise of Nationalism (Contd)
  • Nguyen Thai Hoc
  • 1927 Founded the Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang (VNQDD)
    or Vietnamese Nationalist Party on the KMT model.
  • 1930-31 Ordered the Yen Bay mutiny as part of a
    general uprising. It is suppressed and VNQDD
  • 1936 - The ICP organized a Democratic National
  • Bao Dai returned from France in 1932 to head
    reformed monarchy. Ngo Dinh Diem was Minister of
    Interior and head of the reform commission. Diem
    resigned in frustration at French intransigence.

World War II
  • The French Vichy government opened Vietnam to the
  • Ho Chih Minh set up headquarters in a cave in Bac
    Bo in 1941. Vo Nguyen Giap was appointed to lead
    Viet Minh military forces.
  • Hos resistance campaign against the Japanese and
    Vichy French was supported by the U.S. Office of
    Strategic Services.

Vo Nguyen Giap 1911
The August Revolution
  • The Viet Minh occupied Hanoi in August and
    proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
    (DRV) on September 2, 1945. No other state
    recognized it.
  • The British occupied Cochin on behalf of the
    French on September 12.
  • The Nationalist Chinese occupied Hanoi and the
    north with 180,000 troops on September 16 and
    forced the DRV to negotiate with the VNQDD.
  • Ho agreed to the French replacing the Chinese in
    Hanoi in exchange for recognition of the DRV.

First Indochina War
  • In 1946, 150,000 French troops replaced the
    Chinese in Tonking.
  • French - Viet Minh clashes led to the French
    cruiser Suffren bombarding Haiphong.
  • In 1947, the French occupied Viet Bac in the
    north and formed alliances with Hoa Hao and Cao
    Dai in the south.
  • In 1949, the French announced the formation of
    the Republic of Vietnam as an associate state.
    The U.K. and U.S. recognized it. The USSR
    China recognized the DRV.

Dien Bien Phu
  • Would you have believed that these two men could
    have defeated the French army?
  • Neither did General Henri Navarre. He conceived
    of Dien Bien Phu as forward base, to be supplied
    by air, from which to disrupt Viet Minh
    operations in the north and interdict movement in
    and out of Laos. He had been a NATO commander and
    knew little about the Vietnam.

Giap Ho Chi MInh
Dien Bien Phu (Contd)
  • On November 20, 1954, French paratroopers
    occupied Dien Bien Phu. 16,000 troops were
    eventually amassed, 3,600 of which were
    Vietnamese Tai.
  • Giap deployed a force 50,000 and 200 artillery
    plus 37 mm 50 cal. antiaircraft guns over 3
  • The battle lasted 56 days and cost the Vietnamese
    8-10,000 killed. The casualties forced a change
    in tactics from assault to trenching and mining.

Dien Bien Phu (Contd)
  • French success depended on maintaining an air
    bridge from Haiphong to Dien Bien Phu.
  • Vietnamese anti aircraft fire effectively closed
    the airfield and made daylight airdrops
  • CAT provided C-119 and A-26 air support.
  • French resistance ended on May 7. There were
    11,721 French prisoners 4, 436 were wounded. In
    all, 3, 290 lived..

French and U.S. Air Support
Douglas A-26 Intruder
Fairchild C-119 Boxcar
Douglas C-47 Dakota
Geneva Accords (1954)
  • Peace talks began the day after Dien Bien Phu
    fell on May 8. A cease-fire and a final
    declaration resulted.
  • The 17th parallel was established as a
    provisional line of demarcation with a DMZ. All
    French and DRV forces were to withdraw to their
    side of the line. Civilians were free to move
    between zones for 300 days.
  • The final declaration called for elections in
    July 1956. The state of (South) Vietnam and the
    U.S. refused to agree to the elections and stated
    their reservations.
  • The DRV compromised due to Russian and Chinese
    pressure and fear of U.S. involvement.

  • John Foster Dulles created the Southeast Asia
    Treaty Organization (SEATO) in 1954 to defend
    South Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos as protocol
  • The U.S. feared the domino effect, i.e., if
    Vietnam fell to Communism, all of Southeast Asia
    would fall eventually.
  • The member nations were Pakistan, Thailand, the
    Philippines, the U.S., the U.K., France.
    Australia and New Zealand.

  • Q1. Who was Phan Boi Chau?
  • A1. He was a classically educated scholar who led
    an anti French resistance movement in the early
  • Q2. Who was Ho Chih Minh?
  • A2. Founder of the of Indochinese Communist
    Party (ICP) and leader of DRV.
  • Q3. Who was Prince Bao Dai?
  • A3. He was the last Emperor of Vietnam. He was
    brought back from exile in France to lead a
    reformed monarchy. His interior minister was Ngo
    Dinh Diem.

More Questions
  • Q4. What was the purpose of the August Revolution
    in 1945?
  • A4. To establish a (Communist )Vietnamese
    government in Hanoi and preempt the return of the
  • Q5. When did the First Indochinese War begin?
  • A5. Most people consider the bombardment of
    Haiphong in 1946 as the beginning.
  • Q6. Why did the French choose to establish a base
    at Dien Bien Phu?
  • A6. To disrupt Viet Minh operations in the area,
    protect Laos, disrupt the flow of supplies from
    China and force a fixed-piece battle.

Still More Question
  • Q7. Why was SEATO formed?
  • A7. To protect South Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos
    from Communist aggression.
  • Q8. On what date was the Geneva Conference on
    Indochina scheduled to convene?
  • A8. May 8, 1954
  • Q9. On what day was the French surrender forced
    at Dien Bien Phu?
  • A9. May 7, 1954

After the Accords
  • In the South, Bao Dai installed Ngo Dinh Diem as
    his prime minister, but remained in Paris.
  • Diem handled the resettlement of almost a million
    Catholic refugees from the North.
  • 90,000 Communist moved north, but 10,000 Viet
    Minh fighters quietly remained in the South.
  • Bao Dai was ousted as head of government by a
    (rigged) referendum in 1955.

Bao Dai in Paris
Ngo Dinh Diem
  • Diem cracked down on Binh Xuyen criminal elements
    and controlled Cao Dai and Hoa Hao.
  • Shipments of U.S. aid to SVN began as Ho Chih
    Minh launched radical land reforms in the North
  • Diem refused to participate in the 1956 national
    unification elections.

Pres. Dwight Eisenhower, Sec. of State John
Foster Dulles and Pres. Ngo Dinh Diem.
The Beginning of Conflict
  • 1957 The Viet Minh stepped up terrorists
    activities in the South assassinated hundreds of
    government officials. Diem counters with the
    arrest of 65,000 suspected Communists and
    established a quasi-police state.
  • 1957-62 The strategic hamlet program was
    implemented. 8,000 hamlets were established
    1,500 were viable. Many were infiltrated.
  • A weak land reform program was instituted.
    Acreage in excess of 247 was redistributed,
    benefiting about 10 of the tenant farmers.

The Beginning of Conflict (Contd)
  • In 1957, the Soviet Union proposed a permanent
    division of Vietnam into two separate countries.
    The U.S. rejected the proposal.
  • In 1959, North Vietnam established the Central
    Office of South Vietnam (COSVN) to oversee the
    war in the South.
  • COSVN began construction of the 1500 mile-long Ho
    Chih Minh Trail. By 1968, transit time was only
    six weeks.

Interdiction of the Trail
The AC-130 was developed to interdict the Ho Chih
Minh Trail
The Beginning of Conflict (Contd)
  • On February 27, 1962, the presidential palace in
    Saigon is bombed by two renegade pilots.
  • July 1962, the U.S. signed the declaration of
    Laotian neutrality. It prohibits the invasion of
    Laos to interdict the Ho Chih Minh trail.

North American Aviation P-51 Mustang
Buddhist Protest
  • May 1963 - Archbishop Ngo Dinh Thuc (Diems
    brother) forbad the display of the Buddhist
    flags in Hue to celebrate Buddhas birthday.
    Buddhist riots followed.
  • June 1963 Thich Quang Duc is the first of 7
    monks and one American to commit self immolation.
  • Madame Nhu calls the immolations BBQs.

Thich Quang Duc Self Immolation Saigon,1963
Diems Assassination
  • At Washingtons direction, Ambassador Henry Cabot
    Lodge encouraged Diem during the summer to reform
    his government.
  • Failing that, he was instructed not to
    interfere should an attempt be planned. General
    Duong Van Big Minh emerges as the leader of a
    coup. Lodge assured him that U.S. support would
    continue, if Diem was removed from office.
  • President Diem and brother Nhu were assassinated
    on November 1, 1963.

Gulf of Tongking Resolution
  • Official estimates revealed that the South
    Vietnamese government controlled only 34 of the
    country the NLF controlled 42. The rest was
  • The USS Maddox and USS Turner Joy were attacked
    by North Vietnamese PT boats on August 2 3,
    1964 while supporting covert South Vietnamese
    raids on the North Vietnamese coast.
  • On August 7, congress passed the Gulf of Tongking

Rolling Thunder
  • The Viet Cong attack on the U.S. Air Base at
    Pleiku served as provocation to launch Operation
    Rolling Thunder in 1965.
  • Rolling Thunder was a bombing campaign against
    North Vietnam that last without a break until the
    1968 Tet Offensive. It continued until 1972 and
    Linebacker I II.

Republic F-105 Thunderchief Wild Weasel
864, 000 tons of bombs were dropped on NVN during
Rolling Thunder.
The Tet Offensive
  • In 1965, Gen. William C. Westmoreland predicted
    the fall of Vietnam in a year without U.S.
    forces. By 1967, U.S. force levels reached
  • The Tet Offensive was launched on January 31,
    1968. While a political victory, it was a
    military disaster for NVN. NVN losses were
    estimated at 25,000 to 45, 000.

Tet Victory or Defeat
  • The objective reality of Viet Cong defeat was
    overshadowed by the offensives psychological and
    propaganda value. It was the turning point of U.S
  • The NVN expected a spontaneous uprising in the
    South in response to the offensive. They did not
    anticipate the magnitude of its impact on the
    U.S. public.

Saigon Police Chief executes Viet Cong Captain
  • Q1. How many Catholics took refuge in the South
    after the 1954 Geneva Accords were signed?
  • A1. About one million.
  • Q2. Why did the Diem regime and the U.S. refuse
    to participate in the unification elections of
  • A2. They did not agree to them at the time of the
    accords and feared their outcome.
  • Q3. How many strategic hamlets were actually
    established between 1957 and 1962? How many were
  • A3. 8,000 were established and 1500 were viable.

More Questions
  • Q4. When did COSVN start construction of the Ho
    Chih Minh Trail?
  • A4. In 1959.
  • Q5. What solution did the Soviet Union propose to
    the Vietnam question in 1957.?
  • A5. Establishing two separate countries.
  • Q6. Who was Thich Quang Duc?
  • A6. He was a Buddhist monk who immolated himself
    in Saigon in 1963.
  • Q7. Who was Norman Morrison?
  • A7. He was a Quaker who immolated himself in

Still More Questions
  • Q8. To what extent was the U.S. involved in the
    assassination of Diem?
  • A8. The U.S. tacitly encouraged it.
  • Q9. What was the Gulf of Tongking resolution of
  • A9. It was essentially a declaration of war based
    on our ships being attacked?
  • Q10. What were the objectives of Rolling Thunder?
  • A10. To destroy the NVN will to fight, destroy
    their industrial base and anti aircraft
    capability and restrict the flow of men and
    material on the Trail.

Disengagement with Honor
  • In 1968, following the TET Offensive Pres. Lyndon
    Johnson announced that the U.S would seek a
    political settlement with Hanoi.
  • In 1969, four party peace talks began in Paris.
    The participants are U.S., NVN, SVN, and the NLF.
  • Later in 1969, Pres. Richard Nixon announced the
    Nixon Doctrine and Vietnamization of the war.
  • U.S. forces reduced by 115,000 by years end.
  • In 1972, Pres. Nixon visits Beijing, China, a
    major realignment of the Cold War adversaries.

Easter Offensive
  • Encouraged by the drop U.S. force levels
    to156,800, ARVNs poor performance and U.S. anti
    war sentiment, Giap launches the Easter Offensive
    in March 1972.
  • NVN forces number 200,000. It is an all out
    offensive to conquer the South focused on Quang
    Tri Province just below the DMZ, at Kontum in the
    mid section of SVN and An Loc in the south..

Linebacker I
  • In response to the Easter Offensive,Pres. Nixon
    ordered a major bombing campaign in the South and
    North in May 1972, including the mining of
    Haiphong harbor.
  • Use of B-52 carpet bombing became a key to
    success in defense of the South. It also impeded
    the ability of the North to support the

Boeing B-52 Stratofortress Wingspan 185 feet
Snatching Defeat from Victory
  • The Easter Offensive was another serious military
    defeat for the North. NVN casualties reached
    100,000. Additionally, the North lost half of its
    armor and artillery.
  • Giap was quietly replaced General Van Tien Dung.
  • The U.S. image of the war was captured by a photo
    of napalmed children.

South Vietnamese aircraft napalm the wrong target
The Christmas Bombing
  • The Paris Peace negotiations collapsed in
    December 1972 over demands by SVN Pres. Nguyen
    Van Thieu.
  • Nixon ordered Linebacker II, a maximum force
    bombing of military targets in Hanoi and Haiphong
    to force a return to negotiations.
  • On January 8, 1973, negotiations resumed.
  • The Peace Accords were signed on January 27,
    1973. The conditions are withdrawal of U.S.
    forces, return of POWs and a cease fire in place.
    SVN was considered to have two governments.

Final Conquest of the South
  • Emboldened by the Watergate Scandal, the North
    launched a final offensive on March 10, 1975.
    ARVN forces in the highlands are routed.
  • Saigon falls on April 30, 1975.

Vietnamese escape Saigon as it falls.
  • Q1. Why did the media portray the Tet Offensive
    as a NVN victory?
  • A1. The NVN ability to amass forces and organize
    a major offensive was a shock.
  • Q2. What was the Nixon Doctrine?
  • A2. The U.S. would not commit ground forces in
    regional or local wars in the future. It was the
    rationale for Vietnamization.
  • Q3. What was the impact of Nixons visit to
  • A3. It turned the Cold War on its head.

More Questions
  • Q4. How did the U.S. respond to the Easter
    Offensive of 1972?
  • A4. Linebacker I, a major bombing of Communist
    forces in the North and South.
  • Q5. What was the purpose of the 1972 Christmas
  • A5. To force the NVN back to the bargaining table
    in Paris.
  • Q6. What were the conditions of the Paris Peace
    Accord of 1973?
  • A6. The withdrawal of U.S. combat forces, return
    of POWs and a cease fire in place.

Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho won Nobel Prize in
Ho Chih Minh died in 1969. Giap is still alive.
Jane Fonda said shes sorry for supporting the
enemy on her 1972 trip to Hanoi.
The End