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Benjamin Franklin

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Benjamin Franklin s World 1702-1763 The British colonies come of age and the seeds of future development are sown. Essay 1 The British colonies were so ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Benjamin Franklin


1
Benjamin Franklins World 1702-1763
  • The British colonies come of age and the seeds of
    future development are sown.

2
Essay 1
  • The British colonies were so antagonistic to
    each other that they were unable to unite to face
    the attack of common enemies.
  • Assess the validity of this statement.

3
Essay 2
  • How did economic, geographic, and social factors
    encourage the growth of slavery as an important
    part of the economy of southern colonies between
    1607 and 1775?

4
The Colonies 1700
  • Colonial Government
  • Regionalism Develops
  • Domestic Manufacturing
  • Religious Revival and The Great Awakening
  • Population Growth
  • Slavery Expands
  • French and Indian War
  • Similarities of Colonies

5
Colonial Government
  • Colonies had large degree of Autonomy 1600-1750
  • Salutary Neglect Lax enforcement of laws, loose
    control
  • Royal Governor represented the Kings Government
    (could veto colonial legislatures)
  • Could dissolve assemblies
  • Judges were appointed by Governors
  • Were appointed by the Kings government
  • Elected representative bodies- Bicameral (Two
    house legislatures)
  • (White male, land owners- 50 acres of land
    minimum, Self Government)
  • House of Burgesses (Virginia) and Assemblies
  • Provided Governor's Salary
  • Make laws for the colonies

6
The Colonies
  • Mostly English
  • Self-government (though not all democratic)
  • Religious toleration (to at least some degree in
    each colony)
  • Educational opportunity
  • Provided unusual opportunities for economic and
    social self-development
  • Differences among the three colonial regions.
  • -- New England Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode
    Island, New Hampshire
  • Puritan dominated in many areas, less religiously
    tolerant, more restrictions on civic
    participation, more industry, less available farm
    land
  • Middle Colonies New York, New Jersey,
    Pennsylvania, Delaware
  • Ethnically diverse, religiously tolerant,
    democratic, Quakers contributed to human freedom,
    farming, lumbering, ship building, shipping,
    trade, fur trapping
  • Southern Colonies Maryland, Virginia, North
    Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
  • Plantation economy, aristocratic, slavery, cash
    crops, scattered population, expansionary, some
    religious toleration (Church of England dominant)

7
Regionalism Develops
  • North develops distinct culture of religious
    ideals, trade, industry and no slavery
  • The South develops into large agriculture
    enterprises, slavery is important and cheap (no
    taxes) import economy is desired

8
Who is the subject?
  • Few of their children in the country learn
    English... The signs in our streets have
    inscriptions in both languages ... Unless the
    stream of their importation could be turned they
    will soon so outnumber us that all the advantages
    we have will not be able to preserve our
    language, and even our government will become
    precarious.

9
Population Growth by 1750s
  • Immigration (See Map Page 120)
  • Population Growth
  • Healthy Colonists- Married young,
  • Immigration-
  • Criminals, Huguenots, Some Jews, Scots,
    Scotch-Irish 200,000,
  • German 125,000 Pennsylvania (Language issue
    Franklin)
  • Some Irish Catholics
  • New England the least ethnically mixed
    predominantly Puritan

10
Population Growth by 1750s
  • Push Factors
  • Religious Oppression
  • Economic Misfortune
  • War
  • Pull Factors
  • Economic Opportunity
  • Religious Freedom
  • Land and Liberty

11
Population Growth
  • 1700 300,000 people
  • 1775 2,500,000 by 1775 (20 black)
  • 1790 4,000,000
  • Largest colonies were Virginia, Mass., Penn., NC,
    and Maryland
  • Only four major cities Philadelphia, NY, Boston,
    Charleston
  •  90 lived in rural areas.

12
Cities
  • Population growth supports the growth of cities
  • Philadelphia Largest city (1770s) 22,000
  • Boston (1760) 15,000
  • New York (1700) 5000 to 21,000 (1770s)
  • Charleston

13
Slavery Expands
  • Late 1600s and 1700s Large population of African
    Slaves begin to arrive
  • Earlier Slaves from West Indies, Caribbean-
    excess Slaves from Sugar Plantations
  • Chattel Slavery- ownership, hereditary,
    perpetual, racially defined
  • South held 90 of slaves
  • Slavery becomes a fundamental part of southern
    Colonial society
  • 1740, 40 of all Virginians were slaves
  • 1720, African slaves outnumbered whites in South
    Carolina 2-1.

14
Brutality of Slavery
  • African Slaves not accustomed to English work
    hours and ethics are brutalized
  • Horrors of the Middle Passage
  • Two months on board ship
  • Cramped, 10-20 slaves died
  • Slaves resisted by running away
  • Northern colonies also used some slave labor
  • Both Northern and Southern colonies created slave
    codes to regulate the slave behavior and actions
    (land ownership)
  • During the entire time of the Atlantic Slave
    trade about 11 million Africans were transported
    to the Americas

15
Industry and Trade Expand
  • Triangular Trade one example of the trade
    relationship between colonies and other
    countries. Map
  • Slave trade considerations

16
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17
Founding of Georgia
  • Why

18
The Great Awakening 1730s-1740s
  • The Great Awakening of the 1700s came in response
    to a decline in religious piety
  • During the Great Awakening, or Awakening to
    religion
  • Stated man is not helpless in achieving
    regeneration his will can be an effective force
    in his being saved
  • Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758)             a.
    Credited with starting the Great Awakening (c.
    1734) in Northampton in 1734                 --
    Most influential theological writer and thinker
    of the movement.             b. Blasted the idea
    of salvation through good works and dependence on
    God's grace is paramount
  • George Whitefield (1714-1770)             a.
    Brilliant English orator made 7 trips to the
    American colonies and traveled extensively
                b. His basic appeal was to the Bible
                c. Most influential figure of the
    Great Awakening founded Methodism

19
Results of The Great Awakening
  • Brought religion to many who had lost touch with
    it             c. Undermined the older clergy
  • Brought a number of religious groups to
    popularity i.e., Baptists- which spread
    throughout the middle and southern colonies
  • Led to general acceptance of religious differences

20
Domestic Manufactures
21
French and Indian War 1754-1763AKA Seven Years
War
  • The British and French rivalry and antagonism
    manifest itself in the American colonies.
  • A Series of limited wars
  • Precursor of King Williams War 1689-1697
  • Queen Annes War 1701-1713
  • King Georges War 1744-48
  • The Ohio Company of Virginia gain charter to
    settle land and causes French to assert claims
    and build forts. Map

22
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23
French and Indian War1754-1763
  • The Ohio Company of Virginia send troops to build
    fort and are expelled by French
  • French build Fort Duquesne
  • Washington-commanded a small force, attacks and
    must retreat to Ft. Necessity and later
    surrenders.
  • Full scale war erupts and British send troops but
    want colonial cooperation
  • At first colonials dont support the war until
    the British promise to reimburse colonies for
    efforts.

24
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25
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26
Albany Plan of UnionBenjamin Franklin, Cartoon
in the Pennsylvania Gazette, May 9, 1754
  • This cartoon shows a snake cut into eight
    pieces, each labeled with the name of one of the
    colonies. The position of each colony in the
    snake corresponds to the geographic position of
    the colonies along the American coast, with the
    snake's tail pointing south and the head pointing
    north.
  • The colonies, from tail to head (south to north),
    are South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia,
    Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and
    New England (New England refered to the colonies
    of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and
    New Hampshire). The caption reads, "JOIN, or DIE."

The cartoon appeared along with Franklin's
editorial about the "disunited state" of the
colonies, and helped make his point about the
importance of colonial unity. At the time, there
was a superstition that a snake which had been
cut into pieces would come back to life if the
pieces were put together before sunset.
27
French and Indian War1754-1763
  • French were allied with most Indian tribes except
    Iroquois
  • British invade under Braddock and are beaten back
  • Later the British, under new leadership, are able
    to gradually divide the French powers and end up
    invading Canada, taking Quebec and Montreal.
  • Peace of Paris, 1763 effectively remove French
    presence in Canada and East of the Mississippi
    including New Orleans (Was ceded to Spain).

28
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29
Effects of the French and Indian War
  • British now control most of North America
  • British change their policy and relationship with
    the Colonies
  • More taxes will be charged in order to pay for
    war expenses
  • No more movement West for colonists, Proclamation
    line of 1763 Speculator, buy land and sell it to
    immigrants for profit.
  • These changes will mark an end to Salutary
    Neglect and bring a more direct control of
    colonies by England and lead to the Revolution.
  • Colonists begin to develop a sense of common
    identity, proud to be part of the British family,
    but perceiving clear distinctions.
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