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Matter: Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes

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Title: Matter: Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes


1
Table of Contents
Chapter Matter and Its Changes
Section 1 Physical Properties and Changes
2
Physical properties of an object color,
shape Length, mass, volume, density
State of matter solid,
liquid, gas Melting and Boiling Points
Metallic properties
magnetic, malleability, and ductility
3
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Using Your Senses
  • Observing involves seeing, hearing, tasting,
    touching, and smelling.
  • Any characteristic of a material that can be
    observed or measured without changing the
    identity of the material is a physical property.

4
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Physical Properties Color and Shape
  • The detergent bottles shown are made plastic
    regardless of the differences in the physical
    properties of color or shape.

5
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Length and Mass
  • One useful and measurable physical property is
    length.
  • Length is measured using a ruler, meterstick, or
    tape measure.
  • Objects can be classified by their length.

6
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Length and Mass
  • Mass is a physical property that describes the
    amount of material in an object.
  • For example, two boxes of the same detergent may
    have different masses. One box may be heavier
    than the other but the formula of the detergent
    in each box is the same.

7
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Volume and Density
  • Volume measures the amount of space an object
    takes up.
  • Liquids usually are measured by volume.

8
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Physical Properties Color and Shape
  • Matter is anything that has mass and takes up
    space.

In a physical change, the physical properties of
a substance change, but not what it is (the
identity) A piece of clay weather red or blue is
still clay
9
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Volume and Density
  • Another measurable physical property related to
    mass and volume is densitythe amount of mass a
    material has in a given volume.
  • Density is found by dividing the mass of an
    object by its volume.
  • density mass/volume, or D m/V

10
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Same Volume, Different Mass
  • These balls take up about the same space, but the
    bowling ball has more mass than the other ball.
  • Therefore, the bowling ball is more dense.

11
Related to state of matter of a material
energy
solid
gas
liquid
Density
12
Heat energy
Things need more space as they get more energy
13
Does a substance have more space between its
molecules because it has more energy Or does
it have more energy because it has more space
between its molecules
14
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Same Volume, Different Mass
  • The density of a material stays the same as long
    as pressure and temperature stay the same.
  • Water at room temperature has a density of 1.00
    g/cm3. When you do change the temperature or
    pressure, the density of a material can change.

15
Physical Properties and Changes
1
States of Matter
  • The four states of matter are solid, liquid, gas
    and plasma (PLAZ muh).
  • The state of matter of a substance depends on its
    temperature and pressure.

Click image to view movie.
16
Physical Properties and Changes
1
States of Matter
  • The state of matter of a material is a physical
    property.

17
Physical Properties and Changes
1
States of Matter
  • The plasma state occurs at very high temperatures
    and is found in fluorescent (floo RE sunt)
    lightbulbs, the atmosphere, and in lightning
    strikes.
  • The state of matter of a material is another
    physical property.

18
Objective Chemical Reactions
19
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20
Objective Understanding States of Matter
21
  • Physical Properties and Changes
  • The material stays the same
  • 1. color and shape
  • making a ball of clay into a cube of clay
  • Painting a chair red

22
  • Physical Properties and Changes
  • The material stays the same
  • 1. color and shape
  • making a ball of clay into a log of clay
  • Painting a chair red
  • 2. Length and mass
  • a. if cut or decreased in size only a physical
    change still is the same material
  • cutting a carrot ino smaller chunks

23
  • Physical Properties and Changes
  • The material stays the same
  • 1. color and shape
  • making a ball of clay into a log of clay
  • Painting a chair red
  • 2. Length and mass
  • a. if cut or decreased in size only a physical
    change still is the same material
  • cutting a carrot ino smaller chunks
  • 3. Density a physical quality involving mass
    and volume is a characteristic to identify a
    material
  • A materials density can change by changing
    room temp or pressure but it remains the same
    material

24
States of Matter Energy Levels
Energy Level Increasing
Highest Middle Lowest
Gas Liquid Solid
Increasing heat will cause lead to increased
kinetic energy. Increasing heat causes decreased
density, increases volume but keeping the
amount of mass the same. Higher energy causes
greater motion of the molecules and so they
spread apart
25
Physical properties of States of Matter
Definite volume Definite shape of container
Solid Yes Yes
26
Physical properties of States of Matter
Definite volume Definite shape of container
Solid Yes Yes
Liquid Yes No
27
Physical Properties of States of Matter
Definite volume Definite shape of container
Solid Yes Yes
Liquid Yes No
Gas No will take volume of container it is in no
28
Melting and Boiling Points
Melting point a solid becomes a liquid Boiling
point a liquid becomes a gas
Melting and boiling points are physical
properties used to identify (classify)
materials Every pure material has a boiling and
melting point of its own
Material Melt Boil
water 32 F ( 0 C) 212 F (100 C)
nitrogen -195.8 C
Lead 327.5 C
29
Properties of Metals
Luster- the shiny nature of the material Such as a new penny or coin
Malleability to be shaped by hammering Shaping a sword by hammering on an anvil
Ductility ability to be pulled into a wire
Magnetic ability to be attracted to a magnet
30
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31
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Moving Particles
  • Matter is made up of moving particles.
  • The particles of a solid vibrate in a fixed
    position.
  • They remain close together and give the solid a
    definite shape and volume.

32
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Moving Particles
  • The particles of a liquid are moving much faster
    and have enough energy to slide past on another.
  • This allows a liquid to take the shape of its
    container.

33
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Moving Particles
  • Gas particles of a are moving so quickly that
    they have enough energy to move freely away from
    other particles and will spread out to fill any
    container.

34
Which direction, why?
Hot air
cold air
35
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Changes of State
  • You witness a change of state when you place ice
    cubes in a cup and they melt.
  • You still have water but in another form.
  • The opposite physical change happens when you put
    liquid water in ice-cube trays and pop them in
    your freezer.

36
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Melting and Boiling Points
  • The temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid
    is its melting point.
  • The melting point of a pure substance does not
    change with the amount of the substance.

37
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Melting and Boiling Points
  • When a substance melts, it changes from a solid
    to a liquid.
  • This is a physical change, and the melting point
    is a physical property.

38
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Melting and Boiling Points
  • The boiling point is the temperature at which a
    liquid becomes a gas.

39
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Melting and Boiling Points
  • Each pure substance has a unique boiling point.
  • The boiling point of water is 100C

40
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Melting and Boiling Points
  • The boiling and melting point can help to
    identify a substance.
  • If you know the boiling points and melting points
    of substances, you can classify substances based
    on those properties.

41
A B
A1 heated Same mass
B Room temp
A2 heated more Same mass
B Room temp Same mass
42
A
A
A1
A2
If their state of matter wasnt changed, what
happened?
43
A
A
A1
A2
If their state of matter was changed, name them
44
As you heat a material and compare it to the
same unheated material the density of the heated
material will decrease as the molecules spread
and the volume increases.
45
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Metallic Properties
You can classify things as solids, liquids or
gases or according to color, shape, length,
mass, volume or density.
What properties do metals have?
46
Physical Properties and Changes
1
How do metals look?
  • Metals - a shiny appearance.
  • This shine is called luster.
  • Words to describe the appearance of nonmetallic
    objects are pearly, milky, or dull.

47
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Uses of Metals
  • This property of metals is called malleability
  • Many metals can be hammered, pressed or rolled
    into thin sheets.

48
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Uses of Metals
  • Many metals can be drawn into wires ductility

49
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Uses of Metals
  • Some metals respond to magnets.
  • Some metals have groups of atoms that can be
    affected by the force of a magnet, and they are
    attracted to the magnet because of that force.

50
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Using Physical Properties
  • Physical propertiessuch as
  • appearance, state, shape, length, mass, volume,
    ability to attract a magnet, density, melting
    point, boiling point, malleability, and ductility
  • can be used to help you identify, separate, and
    classify substances.

51
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Sorting and Separating
  • When you do laundry, you sort according to
    physical properties. Perhaps you sort by color.

What are some things you may sort? Think of trick
or treat
52
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Sorting and Separating
  • Scientists who work with animals use physical
    properties or characteristics to determine the
    identity of a specimen.
  • They do this by using a tool called a dichotomous
    key.

53
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Sorting and Separating
  • To begin the identification of you unknown
    animal, you are given two choices.
  • Your animal will match only one of the choices.
  • Based on your answer, you are either directed to
    another set of choices or given the name of the
    specimen you are identifying.

54
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Sorting and Separating
All things
Is it alive
yes
no
Car, button, chalk
Human, mouse, grasshopper, etc
Can it talk
yes
no
55
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Sorting and Separating
All things
Is it alive
yes
no
Car, button, chalk
Human, mouse, grasshopper, etc
Can it talk
yes
no
56
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Narrowing the Options
  • Often, determining the identity of something that
    is unknown is easiest by using the process of
    elimination.
  • Scientists use similar methods to determine the
    identities of living and nonliving things.

57
Label and describe the energy of the particles In
each state of matter
58
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59
Table of Contents
Chapter Matter and Its Changes
Section 2 Chemical Properties and Changes
60
  • Chemical properties
  • Ability to burn
  • wood catches fire
  • React with oxygen or sulfur
  • iron forms rust, silver tarnishes
  • React with heat or light
  • fading of ink, fabric
  • Break down by electricity
  • water becomes hydrogen and oxygen

61
Signs of chemical change 1. new material
formed 2. bubbles 3. production of
heat, light, smoke 4. change in color such
as fading 5. production of sound
62

Chemical property Chemical change
The ability to do something What happened
flammability Word burned
React with oxygen Nail rusted
React with light Curtain faded
React to electric current Water breaks down to oxygen and hydrogen
63
Watch the demo in the bottle Draw and
label picture 1. before
2. after (during) What do you
see? What is this a sign of?
64
Examine the brush (car) What do you notice? Name
the product? How did it happen? What is the
property? What kind of change is this?
65
Chemical Properties and Changes
  • Flammability (burns)
  • producing new materials

2. Reacts with other chemicals producing
new materials
3. Changes when exposed to heat or light
producing new materials
4. Changes when electricity goes thru it
producing new materials
66
Chemical Properties and Changes
Signs of a Chemical Change
  • Bubbles are a sign that a chemical change has
    taken place.
  • Other signs of a chemical change include
  • the production of a new material
    (a
    solid (powder), liquid, or gas),,
    smoke,
  • light,
  • heat,
  • change in
    color,
  • or
    sound.


67
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Ability to Change
  • Some properties do indicate a change of identity
    for the substances involved.
  • A chemical property is a characteristic that
    gives a substance the ability to undergo a
    change. (Flammability is a chemical property)
  • It results in a new substance.

68
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Common Chemical Properties
  • A chemical change is a change in the identity of
    a substance. A change has occurred in the
    chemical properties of that substance. (paper
    burns to ashes it is no longer paper, its
    properties have changed)
  • A new substance or substances are formed as a
    result of such a change.

69
Chemical Properties and Changes
The Law of Conservation of Mass
  • The law of conservation of mass states that the
    mass of what you end with is always the same as
    the mass of what you start with.

Mass is not created or destroyed
When something is burned the ashes remain
but the rest of the mass is
changed to gases and smoke
Oxygen Log other gases ashes smoke
MASS before MASS after
70
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Classify According to Chemical Properties
  • Physical properties of a substance are easily
    observed, but the chemical properties cant be
    observed without changing the substance.

71
Chemical Properties and Changes
Classifying by to Chemical Properties
Properties
72
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Ability to Change
  • Chemical property a characteristic that gives a
    substance the ability to change and results in a
    new substance.

73
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Common Chemical Properties
  • A chemical change is a change in the identity of
    a substance because of the due to the chemical
    properties of the new substance.
  • It causes a new substance or substances to form
    as a result of the change.
  • Burn wood you get charcoal
  • Expose an apple or banana to air
  • the dark material is a new
    substance

74
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Common Chemical Properties
  • Wood can burn.
  • This chemical property is called flammability.

What results from burning wood?
75
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Common Chemical Properties
  • Flammability the ability to burn.
  • Reacting with other chemicals
  • a. iron reacts with oxygen rust forms
    (corrosion)
  • iron oxide
  • b. copper reacts with oxygen turn green
  • c. silver turns black it reacts sulfur
    in air or sweat

76
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Common Reactions
  • An unpainted iron gate will rust in time.
  • The rust is a result of oxygen in the air
    reacting with the iron and causing corrosion.
  • rust is a new substance called iron oxide,

77
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Common Reactions
  • Tarnish develops on silver when it reacts with
    sulfur in the air.
  • The ability to react with different chemicals is
    a chemical property.

Iron to oxygen Copper to oxygen Silver
to sulfur
78
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Heat and Light
  • Many vitamins will change when exposed to light,
    curtains when exposed to the sun
  • This is a chemical property.
  • They are protected in colored bottles from
    undergoing a chemical change with light.

79
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Heat and Light
  • Some substances are sensitive to heat or cooling.
    They will undergo a chemical change only when
    heated or cooled.
  • One example is limestone.

If limestone is heated, it goes through a
chemical change and produces carbon dioxide and
lime.
80
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Heat and Light
  • Another chemical property is the ability to
    change with electrical contact.
  • Electricity can cause a change in some substances
    and decompose (break down) some compounds.
  • Water is one compound that can be broken down
    with electricity. It forms hydrogen and oxygen

81
Chemical Properties and Changes
4. Change when electricity is put thru it
  • Ability to change with electrical contact.
  • Electricity can cause a change in some substances
    and decompose ( break down to components it is
    made of) some compounds.
  • Water is one compound that can be broken down
    with electricity.

82
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Something New
  • The important differences in a chemical change in
    that a new substance is formed.
  • If eggs, sugar, flour, and other ingredients
    didnt change chemically through baking, you
    couldnt enjoy birthday cake.
  • Cake begins as liquid and ends as solid. The
    baked cake clearly has different physical and
    chemical properties.

83
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Signs of Change
  • Bubbles are a sign that a chemical change has
    taken place.
  • Other signs of a chemical change include the
    production of heat, light, smoke, change in
    color, and sound.


84
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Is it reversible?
  • Chemical changes cant be reversed using physical
    means.
  • For example, the ashes in a fireplace cannot be
    put back together to make the logs that you had
    to start with.

85
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Classify According to Chemical Properties
  • The physical properties of a substance are easily
    observed, but the chemical properties cant be
    observed without changing the substance.

86
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Classify According to Chemical Properties
87
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Classify According to Chemical Properties
  • For example, if you try to burn what looks like a
    piece of wood but find that it wont burn, you
    can rule out that it is wood

All matter
Can it burn
May be wood
Not wood
88
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
The Law of Conservation of Mass
  • The law of conservation of mass states that the
    mass of what you end with is always the same as
    the mass of what you start with.
  • He determined that a fire does not make mass
    disappear or truly get rid of anything.

89
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Where did the mass go?
  • When flammable materials burn, they combine with
    oxygen. Ash, smoke, and gases are produced.
  • The smoke and gases escape into the air.

90
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Where did the mass go?
  • If you could measure the mass of the oxygen and
    all of the original firewood that was burned and
    compare it to the remaining mass of the ash,
    smoke, and gas, they would be equal.
  • Mass is not destroyed or created during any
    chemical change.
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