Engine Lubricants and Lubricating Systems - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Engine Lubricants and Lubricating Systems PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 4246c2-Mjk0N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Engine Lubricants and Lubricating Systems

Description:

... Important Sensor Lubrication Links on the Web Motor oils and more Motor Oil Functions & Properties Selecting motor oils API Starburst and Donut Motor Oil ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:679
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 46
Provided by: sandesh1170
Learn more at: http://www.wcsautomotives.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Engine Lubricants and Lubricating Systems


1
Engine Lubricants and Lubricating Systems
  • Home Page http//baen.tamu.edu/users/lepori/
  • AGSM 201 Slides Page
  • lthttp//baen.tamu.edu/users/lepori/agsm_power_poin
    t_slides.htmgt

2
Functions of Engine Oils
  1. Reduce wear
  2. Reduce friction
  3. Seal Compression
  4. Reduce noise
  5. Cool engine parts
  6. Reduce rust
  7. Keep parts clean

3
Organizations Providing Uniform Standards for Oil
  • S.A.E.
  • Society of Automotive Engineers
  • A.P.I.
  • American Petroleum Institute
  • A.S.T.M.
  • American Society of Testing Materials
  • American Automobile Manufacturers Association
  • Engine Manufacturers Association
  • I.S.O.
  • International Standards Organizations

4
Properties of Motor Oils
  • Viscosity
  • Viscosity Index (VI)
  • Flash Point
  • Pour Point
  • Per cent sulfated ash
  • Per cent zinc.

5
Properties of Motor Oils
  • Viscosity
  • Viscosity Index (VI)
  • Flash Point
  • Pour Point
  • Per cent sulfated ash
  • Per cent zinc.

6
Viscosity
  • Measure of the "flowability
  • Kinematic
  • Dynamic
  • Property
  • Resistance to flow
  • Shearing stress
  • High viscosity - thick oils
  • Too high viscosity may not reach all parts
  • Low viscosity thin oil
  • Too low viscosity may not provide enough strength
    to keep parts from wearing

7
Dynamic Kinematic Viscosity
8
Kinematic Viscosity Measurement
Saybolt Viscometer
Glass capillary viscometers
9
Dynamic Viscosity Measurement
Typical Brookfield Viscometer
10
Weight of oils
  • Common term identifying viscosity for oils
  • Numbers assigned by the S.A.E.
  • correspond to "real" viscosity, as measured by
    accepted techniques.
  • These measurements are taken at specific
    temperatures.
  • Oils that fall into a certain range are
    designated 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 by the S.A.E.
  • The W means the oil meets specifications for
    viscosity at 0 F and is therefore suitable for
    Winter use.

11
__________________________________________________
_____________
SAE
Gear Viscosity Number
__________________________________________________
______ 75W 80W 85W 90
140 __________________
________________________________
SAE Crank Case Viscosity Number
____________________________
10 20 30 40
50
______________________
_______________________________________
_______________________ 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42
viscosity cSt _at_ 100 degrees C
12
(No Transcript)
13
Properties of Motor Oils
  • Viscosity
  • Viscosity Index (VI)
  • Flash Point
  • Pour Point
  • Per cent sulfated ash
  • Per cent zinc.

14
Viscosity index
  • The measure of an oil's ability to resist changes
    in viscosity when subjected to changes in
    temperature.
  • As temperature increases
  • viscosity decreases.
  • Low temperatures
  • High viscosity
  • High temperature
  • Low viscosity

15
Multi-viscosity/Multi-grade Oil
  • Oil meeting SAE requirements for both
    low-temperature requirements of light oil and
    high-temperature requirements. Also know as
    multiweight oil.
  • Oil that meets certain low-temperature and
    high-temperature requirements simultaneously
  • (e.g., SAE l0W-40).

16
Properties of Motor Oils
  • Viscosity
  • Viscosity Index (VI)
  • Flash Point
  • Minimum sample temperature at which vapor is
    produced at a sufficient rate to yield a
    combustible mixture.
  • Pour Point
  • The lowest temperature at which oil will pour.
  • Per cent sulfated ash
  • Per cent zinc.

17
Properties of Motor Oils
  • Viscosity
  • Viscosity Index (VI)
  • Flash Point
  • Pour Point
  • Percent sulfated ash
  • how much solid material is left when the oil
    burns.
  • A high ash content will tend to form more sludge
    and deposits in the engine.
  • Low ash content also seems to promote long valve
    life. Look for oils with a low ash content.
  • Per cent zinc.

18
Properties of Motor Oils
  • Viscosity
  • Viscosity Index (VI)
  • Flash Point
  • Pour Point
  • Per cent sulfated ash
  • Percent zinc
  • the amount of zinc used as an extreme pressure,
    anti-wear additive.
  • The zinc is only used when there is actual metal
    to metal contact in the engine. Hopefully the oil
    will do its job and this will rarely occur, but
    if it does, the zinc compounds react with the
    metal to prevent scuffing and wear.
  • A level of 0.11 is enough to protect an
    automobile engine for the extended oil drain
    interval, under normal use.

19
Common motor oil additives
  • Viscosity index improvers
  • used to enhance the base qualities of the oil,
    and to keep the oil from thinning too much as
    heat increases.
  • Pour-point depressants
  • prevent crystals from forming in extreme cold
    conditions, and consequently lower the oil's pour
    point (temperature at which it pours).

20
Common motor oil additives
  • Oxidation inhibitors
  • help prevent the oil from oxidizing (in other
    words, burning). When oil oxidizes, it loses its
    ability to protect the engine. It also produces
    sludge deposits and traps corrosive acids.
  • Rust-corrosion inhibitors
  • help prevent and neutralize water and oxygen from
    acid-etching the metals in the engine and forming
    rust particles. If this corrosion were to happen,
    some complex acids would form and other sludge
    problems would occur.

21
Common motor oil additives
  • Dispersants
  • help the oil to absorb and retain contaminants
    such as dirt or tiny metal particles (from engine
    wear) until the oil passes through the oil
    filter, where the contaminants are trapped.
  • Detergents
  • help to remove contaminants from the engine
    components and hold them in the oil until it
    reaches a filter, or until it is changed the next
    time. They don't only clean up a dirty engine.

22
Common motor oil additives
  • Friction modifiers/wear inhibitors
  • "stick" to engine surfaces better, reducing
    friction and improving fuel economy. Oils with
    the "energy conserving" labels contain friction
    modifiers.
  • Foam inhibitors (Antifoamants)
  • prevent the oil from being whipped into many tiny
    air bubbles. Air bubbles don't lubricate. This
    also helps prevent sludge formation when the
    emulsion process is a possible threat in an
    engine.

23
Types of Motor Oils
  • Petroleum Based
  • Refined from crude oil
  • Supplemented with additives
  • Synthetic
  • Lubricants chemically engineered from pure
    chemicals rather than refined from crude oil.
  • Can provide significant advantages over refined
    oils.
  • Longer oil change intervals
  • Longer engine life
  • Increase gas mileage
  • More expensive

24
What the h___ is he talking about?
  • Items that tell us about selecting an oil!

25
What the h___ is he talking about?
  • How to select an oil for different purposes.
  • What to look for on an oil container.

26
What Oil Should You Use
27
API Donut
28
Gasoline Service Classification
29
Diesel Engine Classification
30
Lubrication Systems
  • Splash
  • Dipper
  • Slinger
  • Force Feed Splash
  • Full Force Feed

31
Splash Lubrication
32
Force Feed and Splash
33
Full Force Feed
34
Oil Pump
35
Oil pump intake screen
36
Engine Oil Degradation and Contamination
  • Oil thickening
  • Oxidation
  • Vaporization of lighter components
  • Fuel
  • Hydrocarbon compounds
  • Combustion Products
  • Carbon
  • Water
  • Sulphur Oxides
  • Fuel chemical additives
  • Dust and Dirt
  • Metal from wear of components

37
Oil Filtration Systems
  • By-Pass
  • Full Flow
  • Shunt

38
(No Transcript)
39
Engine Lubrication System with both by-pass and
full-flow filtration
40
Two filters provide ability to filter smaller
particles
41
Filter elements
  • Surface
  • Pleated paper
  • Metal screen
  • Depth
  • Cotton waste

42
Changing oil and filters renews engine protection
  • Dirty oil reduces life of an engine.
  • Reduce maintenance and increase engine life by
    changing engine oil and filters on a regularly
    scheduled basis.
  • Interval between changes depends on operating
    conditions.
  • Oil analysis provides management of oil change
    intervals
  • Recommend for fleet operations.

43
Oil Pressure Important Sensor
Low pressure light indicator
44
(No Transcript)
45
Lubrication Links on the Web
  • Motor oils and more
  • Motor Oil Functions Properties
  • Selecting motor oils
  • API Starburst and Donut
  • Motor Oil Additives
  • Lubrication Systems
  • Filtration Systems
  • Sources of oil contaminants
  • Filters filter media
  • Synthetic oil base stocks
  • Synthetic oil history
  • Oil Analysis
  • Example 1
  • Example 2
About PowerShow.com