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The Iroquois

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You learned history when the elders told stories at the festivals and during the ... Strawberry Festival- (late may or early June) celebrated the return of the first ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Iroquois


1
The Iroquois
  • The People of the Longhouse

2
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3
Where Would You Live?
  • Village surrounded by oval shaped stockade (20
    ft. tall fence)
  • Farm fields surrounds village
  • Inside stockade, rows of buildings-LONGHOUSES

4
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5
THE LONGHOUSE
  • Made of logs- covered with elm bark
  • Curved roof made of saplings
  • No windows
  • Fire holes in roof to let out smoke from cooking
    fires
  • 15 - 20 feet tall, 20 feet wide and
    50 150 feet long

6
Inside the Longhouse
  • Center aisle from one end to the other
  • Near doors- food storage barrels and stacks of
    firewood
  • On the sides of the aisle, compartments 13
    feet by 16 feet (half of your classroom)
  • Wooden platforms for sleeping and storage
  • Fire shared with family across the aisle
  • Each family has their own clothing, blankets,
    tools and cooking utensils

7
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8
Who is in your family?
  • Fireside Family your parents, brothers and
    sisters
  • Longhouse Family
  • oldest woman in the longhouse is the head of
    family and everyone in the longhouse is related
    to her
  • You always belong to your mothers longhouse
    family
  • Clan Family
  • two or more longhouse families make up a clan
  • You belong to your mothers clan
  • Clans named after animals (wolf, bear, turtle)
  • Head of clan was the oldest most respected woman

9
  • Bear taught us gentleness and strength. It
    takes more strength not to raise your hand to
    strike someone than it does to strike them.
  • Turtle taught us patience, never to give up.
    Seen as strength and solidarity, old and wise,
    and well respected.
  • Wolf taught us to use our ears and be
    watchful.Strong sense of family.

10
What would you eat?
  • Lots of vegetables, fruit, nuts and different
    kinds of meat and fish
  • Women grew corn, beans and squash (The Three
    Sisters) in fields surrounding village
  • Hunters brought home deer, bear, beaver, rabbit,
    and wild turkey
  • Iroquois men and boys are skilled fishermen
  • Youd eat breakfast together with your family,
    but other meals on your own-mother would have a
    pot cooking all day

11
The Three Sisters
12
What would you wear?
  • Deerskins that the women tanned, cut and sewed by
    hand
  • Women long skirts decorated with beads,
    porcupine quills dyed red, blue or yellow
    (sometimes leggings under their skirts), vest or
    blouse on top
  • Men kilt-like skirts over leggings and vests or
    blouses made of decorated deerskins
  • Everyone wore moccasins-made of one piece of
    deerskin sewn together with a deer-bone needle
    and using sinew from the deer for thread

13
Corn Husk Dolls
14
Clothing
15
What about work?
  • Work was a part of everyday life
  • Every job was respected
  • Work depended on the season
  • Spring peel bark for longhouses and canoes, tap
    trees for syrup,pick strawberries, and fish
  • When the ground was ready, you would plant seeds
    for all the vegetables
  • Late summer and fall harvest crops and prepare
    them for storage
  • Fall begin hunting
  • Winter make and repair clothing,
    tools,bowls,baskets and instruments

16
Who did which jobs?
  • Men
  • made tools for hunting, sports equipment and
    musical instruments
  • Made wampum and carved bowls,cups, pipes
  • Cleared farmland
  • Hunted for animals
  • Women
  • Made clay pots, baskets, cradleboards, clothing
    and moccasins
  • Farmed the fields
  • Cooked the food

17
Woven baskets
18
Would you go to school?
  • You would not go any formal school
  • You learned by watching adults do their jobs
  • You learned history when the elders told stories
    at the festivals and during the long winter
    months
  • You also learned from your own experiences

19
Would you play sports and games?
  • Everyone loved sports and games
  • Games were played at festivals and celebrations
  • Sometimes one village or clan challenged another
  • Lacrosse (called the ball game) was the most
    popular
  • Running was also an important sport
  • Snow-snake was popular in the winter

20
Lacrosse
21
Would you play games of chance?
  • The Iroquois loved games of chance
  • They would often bet on the outcome of a contest
  • In one game, they would toss beans and try to get
    them the same color
  • Another game was played with peach pits that were
    black on one side shaken in a bowl

22
Games of Chance
23
What happened if you got sick?
  • Iroquois believed that you could get sick from
    bad food or water or air or by catching someone
    elses disease
  • They also believed that you could become sick
    because of witchcraft of bad people or by the
    work of evil spirits
  • There were different kinds of healers to treat
    you depending on your illness

24
False Face Masks
25
What happened if you got sick?
  • A medicine society like the False Face Society
    would try to heal you by performing special
    rituals.
  • You never paid the healers. You just gave them
    sacred tobacco or kinds of food they liked
  • If you were cured, you became a member of the
    society and helped to treat others
  • If you broke an arm or leg, then you were treated
    by a surgeon.
  • The Iroquois were excellent surgeons who not only
    set broken bones, but also understood the
    importance of cleanliness
  • If you had a cold or snakebite, you were probably
    treated by an herbalist who would use plants to
    heal you

26
What were the traditional religious beliefs?
  • The Iroquois believed the Creator, or Great
    Spirit made the world
  • Almost all natural things were under the care of
    spirits (there were spirits of the wind, rain,
    trees)
  • Keepers of the Faith were in charge of religious
    festivals (these were ordinary people with
    special responsibilities- they would organize the
    festivals and perform some of the rituals)
  • Religious ceremonies could last for hours and
    some festivals lasted for days.

27
Were there special festivals?
  • At all ceremonies, sacred tobacco was burned.
    There were day-long ceremonies of speeches,
    prayer, music, dances, games and always a feast.
  • Six main festivals held throughout the year
  • Maple Festival-(early spring) gave thanks for the
    return of spring and to the maple tree for its
    sweet waters There would be maple syrup and
    candies
  • Planting Festival- (later in spring) gave thanks
    for the return of the planting season and ask for
    blessings on the seeds
  • Strawberry Festival- (late may or early June)
    celebrated the return of the first fruits of the
    earth. After the long winter, it was a sweet
    beginning to a new year.

28
Were there special festivals?
  • Festivals continued
  • Green Corn Festival- usually held in
    August(lasted four days) gave thanks to the
    spirits of the Three Sisters when the corn, beans
    and squash were ready to eat. Children born since
    the Midwinter festival would be given names
  • Harvest Festival-(early October) crops are all
    picked, cooked and stored for winter eating
    (lasted four days)
  • Midwinter or New Years Festival (early February)
    The longest festival (seven days) Two elders
    visited every house to announce the new year.
    Children born since the Green Corn festival would
    be given names. The Thanksgiving address lasted
    for hours.

29
League of Five Nations
  • Before the League existed the Five nations were
    always at war with one another.
  • Village fought village
  • Nation fought nation
  • It was called the time of great sorrow and
    terror
  • Deganawidah (the Peacemaker) brought the message
    that by ending war among themselves, the nations
    would be strong and the people would be safe.
  • The story tells that the people uprooted the
    tallest pine tree and threw all their weapons of
    war into the hole and then replanted this Great
    Tree of Peace
  • Now the Five Nations live in a Great Longhouse,
    keeping its own fire, but living in peace under
    one roof

30
League of Five Nations
  • The longhouse and the Great Pine Tree are the
    symbols of the Iroquois League
  • The Peacemaker took one arrow from each tribe and
    tied them together. You can break one arrow, but
    the bundle of five is too strong to destroy, he
    said.
  • The Iroquois League is one of the worlds longest
    lasting unions

31
League of Five Nations
  • Seneca
  • Cayuga
  • Onondaga
  • Oneida
  • Mohawk

32
The Great Law of Peace
  • The unwritten Iroquois Constitution
  • Some ideas of the Great Law
  • All Iroquois land was open to members of Five
    nations. It was safe to travel and hunt that land
  • Women as well as men participated in government.
    Women appointed the chiefs and removed them if
    necessary
  • Freedom of religion was guaranteed to all
  • No such thing as slavery- if you were taken
    prisoner by the Iroquois your were either killed
    or adopted an if adopted, you had all the
    freedoms as everyone else.

33
HAUDENOSAUNEE FLAG
34
The Iroquois Government
  • Each nation had its own government
  • Each nation sent chiefs to League council
    meetings (chiefs could not be warriors)
  • Council met once a year to discuss anything that
    concerned all the nations
  • Everyone had to agree to all decisions (votes
    must be unanimous)
  • If they did all agree then the chief conducting
    the meeting cloud say the League could now speak
    with one voice If someone disagreed, they would
    discuss it again until they came to an agreement

35
  • Naho
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