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Research Methodology: Basic Knowledge of Research

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Research Methodology: Basic Knowledge of Research Dr. Srirath Pakdeeronachit What would you do if you want to search for knowledge/answer? Four Ways of Knowing 1. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Research Methodology: Basic Knowledge of Research


1
Research Methodology Basic Knowledge of Research
  • Dr. Srirath Pakdeeronachit

2
What would you do if you want to search for
knowledge/answer?
3
Four Ways of Knowing
  • 1. Methods of Tenacity/Tradition/Customs/Superstit
    ion/ Magic/Mystery
  • Truth is true because one believes it even in
    front of contradicting evidence.
  • 2. Method of Authority Religion
  • Truth is true because an authority says so.
  • 3. Method of Intuition Philosophy
  • Truth is true because it is logical. It derives
    from reasoning but does not bear empirical
    support.
  • 4. Method of Science
  • Science is a method of seeking truth. This
    method only accounts for solvable problems that
    have empirical solutions based on observable
    events.

4
What is Research Methodology?
  • Re (again) Search
  • defined as a highly intellectual human activity
    used in the investigation of nature and matter
    and deals specifically with the manner in which
    data is collected, analyzed and interpreted

5
Characteristics of Research
  • Research originates with a question or a problem.
  • Research requires a clear articulation of a goal.
  • Research follow a specific plan of procedure.
  • Research usually divides the principal problem
    into more manageable sub-problems.
  • Research is guided by the specific research
    problem, question, or hypothesis
  • Research accepts certain critical assumptions.
    These assumptions are underlying theories or
    ideas about how the world works.
  • Research requires the collection and
    interpretation of data in attempting to resolve
    the problem that initiated the research
  • Research is circular which originates and
    summarizes from research
  • (Paul Leedy, Practical research Planning and
    design)

6
Misconception about Research
Statistics
Complexity
Calculations
Theoretical Inquiry
Difficulty
Academic exercise
Take time
Out of my life
Pay more
Useless
(Sakesan Tongkhambanchong, )
7
Objectives of Research
  • To test and develop new theory
  • To describe the human life in society by given
    the reliable information and news

8
Types of Research
  • Classified from 3 perspectives
  • 1.Application of research studies (pure or
    applied research)
  • 2.Objectives in undertaking the research
    (descriptive, correlational, explanatory or
    exploratory research)
  • 3.Inquiry mode employed (qualitative or
    quantitative research)

Ranjit Kumar, Research methodology a
step-by-step guide for beginners 2010
9
Types of Research
From the viewpoint of
Application
Inquiry mode
Objectives
Pure research
Descriptive research
Exploratory research
Quantitative research
Correlational research
Explanatory research
Applied research
Qualitative research
10
Pure or Basic or fFundamental Research
  • Pure or basic or fundamental research
  • research carried out to increase understanding of
    fundamental principles
  • the end results have no direct or immediate
    commercial benefits basic research can be
    thought of as arising out of curiosity. However,
    in the long term it is the basis for many
    commercial products and applied research.

11
Applied Research
  • research that is applied, accessing and using
    some part of the research communities' (the
    academy's) accumulated theories, knowledge,
    methods, and techniques, for a specific, often
    state, commercial, or client driven purpose.

12
Types of Research
From the viewpoint of
Application
Inquiry mode
Objectives
Pure research
Descriptive research
Exploratory research
Quantitative research
Correlational research
Explanatory research
Applied research
Qualitative research
13
Descriptive Research
  • Attempt to describe systematically a situation,
    problem, phenomenon, service or program, or
    provide information about, say, the living
    conditions of a community, or describes attitude
    towards anissues

14
Examples Aim Main Theme Type of Research
Socioeconomic characteristics of residents of a community To describe what is prevalent regarding A group of people A community A phenomeon A situation A program An outcome To describe what is prevalent Descriptive research
Attitudes of students towards quality of teaching To describe what is prevalent regarding A group of people A community A phenomeon A situation A program An outcome To describe what is prevalent Descriptive research
Types of service provided by an agency To describe what is prevalent regarding A group of people A community A phenomeon A situation A program An outcome To describe what is prevalent Descriptive research
Needs of community To describe what is prevalent regarding A group of people A community A phenomeon A situation A program An outcome To describe what is prevalent Descriptive research
Sales of a product To describe what is prevalent regarding A group of people A community A phenomeon A situation A program An outcome To describe what is prevalent Descriptive research
Attitudes of nurses towards death and dying To describe what is prevalent regarding A group of people A community A phenomeon A situation A program An outcome To describe what is prevalent Descriptive research
Attitudes of workers towards management To describe what is prevalent regarding A group of people A community A phenomeon A situation A program An outcome To describe what is prevalent Descriptive research
Number of people living in a community To describe what is prevalent regarding A group of people A community A phenomeon A situation A program An outcome To describe what is prevalent Descriptive research
Problems faced by new immigrants To describe what is prevalent regarding A group of people A community A phenomeon A situation A program An outcome To describe what is prevalent Descriptive research
Extent of occupational mobility among immirants To describe what is prevalent regarding A group of people A community A phenomeon A situation A program An outcome To describe what is prevalent Descriptive research
Consumers likes and dislikes with regrard to a product To describe what is prevalent regarding A group of people A community A phenomeon A situation A program An outcome To describe what is prevalent Descriptive research
Effects of living in a house with domestic violoence To describe what is prevalent regarding A group of people A community A phenomeon A situation A program An outcome To describe what is prevalent Descriptive research
Strategies put in place by a company to increase productivity of workers To describe what is prevalent regarding A group of people A community A phenomeon A situation A program An outcome To describe what is prevalent Descriptive research
15
Correlational Research
  • To discover or establish the existence of a
    relationship/association/interdependence between
    2 or more aspects of situation

16
Examples Aim Main Theme Type of Research
Impact of a program To establish or explore A relationship An association An interdependence To ascertain if there is a relationship Correlational research
Relationship between stressful living and incidence of heart attacks To establish or explore A relationship An association An interdependence To ascertain if there is a relationship Correlational research
Impact of technology on employment To establish or explore A relationship An association An interdependence To ascertain if there is a relationship Correlational research
Impact of material and child health services on infant mortality To establish or explore A relationship An association An interdependence To ascertain if there is a relationship Correlational research
Effectiveness of marriage counselling service on extent of marital problem To establish or explore A relationship An association An interdependence To ascertain if there is a relationship Correlational research
Impact of an advertising campaign on sale of a product To establish or explore A relationship An association An interdependence To ascertain if there is a relationship Correlational research
Impact of incentives on productivities of workers To establish or explore A relationship An association An interdependence To ascertain if there is a relationship Correlational research
Effectiveness of an immunisation program in controlling infectious disease To establish or explore A relationship An association An interdependence To ascertain if there is a relationship Correlational research
17
Explanatory Research
  • To clarify why and how there is a relationship
    between 2 aspects of situation or phenomenon

18
Examples Aim Main Theme Type of Research
Why does stressful living result in heart attacks? To explain why a relationship, association or interdependence exists why a particular event occurs To explain why the relationship is formed Explanatory research
How does technology create unemployment/employment? To explain why a relationship, association or interdependence exists why a particular event occurs To explain why the relationship is formed Explanatory research
How do maternal and child health services affect infant mortality? To explain why a relationship, association or interdependence exists why a particular event occurs To explain why the relationship is formed Explanatory research
Why do some people have a positive attitude towards an issue while others do not? To explain why a relationship, association or interdependence exists why a particular event occurs To explain why the relationship is formed Explanatory research
Why does a particular intervention work for some people and not for others? To explain why a relationship, association or interdependence exists why a particular event occurs To explain why the relationship is formed Explanatory research
Why do some people use a product while others do not? To explain why a relationship, association or interdependence exists why a particular event occurs To explain why the relationship is formed Explanatory research
Why do some people migrate to another country while others do not To explain why a relationship, association or interdependence exists why a particular event occurs To explain why the relationship is formed Explanatory research
Why do some people adopt a program while others do not? To explain why a relationship, association or interdependence exists why a particular event occurs To explain why the relationship is formed Explanatory research
19
Exploratory Research
  • To explore an area where little is known
  • To investigate the possibilities of undertaking a
    particular research study

20
Types of Research
From the viewpoint of
Application
Inquiry mode
Objectives
Pure research
Descriptive research
Exploratory research
Quantitative research
Correlational research
Explanatory research
Applied research
Qualitative research
21
Qualitative Quantitative Research
  • Qualitative Research Research Methodology that
    emphasize on depth of understanding and the
    deeper meanings of human experience, and that aim
    to generate theoretically richer observations.
  • Methods Participant Observation, Direct
    Observation, Unstructured or Intensive
    Interviewing (In-dept Interview), Focus Groups.
  • Quantitative Research Research Methodology that
    emphasize on precise, objectivity, and
    Generalizability .
  • Methods Measurement Design, Sampling Design and
    Statistical Analysis Design

(Sakesan Tongkhambanchong,)
22
Types of Research
  • Classified from other perspectives such as

Interpretive Research Naturalistic Research Field
Research Participant Research Cross-sectional
Research
Functional Research Experimental
Research Laboratory Research Nonparticipant
Research Longitudinal Research
23
The applications of Research
From the viewpoint of
consumer
professional
service provider
administrator, manager and/or planner
  • To answer the question such as
  • Am I, as a consumer, getting value for money?
  • How good are the service providers?
  • What are the long-term effects of the product I
    am using? Where is the evidence?
  • To answer the question such as
  • How many people are using the service or the
    product?
  • Why do some people use the service/product while
    others do not?
  • How effective is the service/product?
  • How can the service/product be improved?
  • Which type of people use or do not use the
    service/product?
  • How satisfied or dissatisfied are the consumers
    of the service/product?
  • What are the problems with the service/product?
  • To answer the question such as
  • What are the needs of the community?
  • What type of service/product are needed by the
    community?
  • How many service providers are needed?
  • What are the training needs of the staffs?
  • How many cases can a worker handle in a day?
  • How can the effectiveness of each worker be
    evaluated?
  • How can the service/product be made more popular?
  • To answer the question such as
  • What is the relationship between X and Y?
  • How valid is a particular theory in the present
    conditions?
  • What is the best way of measuring attitudes?
  • What is the process through which people decide
    to adopt a program?

24
Definition of Research Design
  • A plan , structure, and strategy of investigation
    to obtain answers to research questions or
    problems

25
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26
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