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Changing Indian STI Landscape

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Title: Changing Indian STI Landscape


1
Changing Indian STI Landscape
Opportunities for Stronger ST Bilateral
Relationships Dr. T. Ramasami Secretary,
Department of Science and Technology Government
of India
2
Context Defines the Content for Indian STI sector
  • Indian economy registers robust growth 8.50.5
    for significantly long periods
  • Developmental choices to people are on the
    increase
  • 400 million enjoy good purchasing power
  • Inclusiveness of growth in a rapidly growing
    economy is a challenge
  • Faster and Inclusive growth remains the stated
    policy paradigm. It is a challenge
  • India mainstreams STI sector into the
    developmental strategy
  • STI sector needs to respond to the call of people

3
Research and Development In Nation Building
Leadership in usable knowledge
Innovation
Competition driven
Knowledge Seekers
Creation of jobs
Creation of knowledge
Scholarship driven
National prosperity
Market driven
Gainful and useful knowledge
Advanced knowledge
Science
Technology
Creation of value
4
Decade of Innovations 2010-20 Stated Plan
  • The Government has committed through a
    presidential address declared that 2010-20 period
    as a Decade of Innovations.
  • Designing and developing a National Innovation
    Ecosystem accorded highest priority
  • Policy instruments to stimulate the engagement of
    the private sector into R D in public and social
    good areas including clean energy
  • International ST cooperation is a part of the
    National strategy of the plan for Decade of
    Innovations

5
Changing Contexts of Social Challenges of India
  • Between 1950-90 era
  • Economic realities Food shortage Wide spread
    poverty Social inequities Low rates of
    employment Weak export trade and lack of
    technology culture Weak industrial enterprise
  • Science delivered solutions for food and milk
    shortages, technology denials and enabled self
    reliance
  • Between 1990-2030 era
  • Energy-, Environment-, water- and inland-
    security, affordable human health care, climate
    change are social challenges seeking science
    derived solutions
  • Competitive and world economy and trade impact
    the fundamentals of scientific solutions
  • Flow of Solution science is global and wide
    reaching

6
Current Focus of Indian Science, Technology and
Innovation
  • Preparing for an India of 2030
  • With reduced disparities of per-capita income
  • Challenge for Indian Science, Technology and
    Innovation system
  • to balance between the discovery science through
    competitive excellence and solution science
    through collaborative excellence
  • International ST cooperation is a tool being
    more actively explored than earlier
  • Reciprocity and parity form the adopted principle
  • Public Private Partnership for RD and Clean
    Energy is a stated policy direction
  • New relationship model is being examined

7
Current Status of Eight-part Indian STI System
  • Mission mode Agencies Focused on self reliance,
    under transition in the era of techno-globalism
  • Government Agencies Focused on the balancing in
    the art of funding and developmental roles in
    scholarship focused science, market driven
    technology and competition linked innovation
    system
  • Academic sector Challenged by need to expand
    many fold without dilutions of excellence and
    loss of focus on research
  • Socio economic ministries seeking solutions from
    science Challenged by mis-matched rates of
    scientific development and societal absorption of
    global solutions

8
Anatomy of Indian Science, Technology and
Innovation system
Some what thinly spread but rooted in all
dimensions of STI system
9
Current Status of Eight-part Indian STI System
  • Mission mode RD in non strategic sector
    Transition from command economy models to dynamic
    global competition in a weak technology demand
    status
  • Industrial RD systems Lower levels of private
    sector investment into RD and challenges of
    enhancing value addition to raw materials through
    innovation driven manufacturing
  • RD by MNCs Taking advantage of low expertise
    costs for IP generation for global use
  • RD by NGOs Sustaining high manpower costs and
    RD infrastructure in a largely public funded RD
    landscape

10
Some Key Steps in Education Sector since 2004
  • Establishment of large number of new institutions
    of excellence 8 new IITs, 5 IISERs (equivalents
    IISc), 14 new national universities.
  • Allocation of 19.8 of Gross Budgetary Support to
    Education and providing a 9 fold increase of
    funds for tertiary education
  • Expanding the educational infrastructure at all
    levels for increasing the Gross Enrollment Ratio
  • Enunciation of Right to Education Bill and many
    more

11
Some key Steps in RD sector since 2004
  • Mounting of a program for attraction of talent to
    science Innovation in Science Pursuit for
    Inspired Research (INSPIRE)
  • Strengthening doctoral research programs and
    steps for rejuvenation of research in
    universities
  • Increasing of Gross Budgetary Support to RD by
    30 over the previous 5-year plan
  • Stepping up International ST cooperation on the
    principle of reciprocity and parity with matched
    investments by India for bilateral programs

12
Change initiated
Some Initial Indications for Evidence gathering
13
Doubling Public Investments into RD
Annual Growth of about 20-25 has been maintained
over 11th plan period
14
Some Tools of Change designed and implemented
since 2006
  • Talent Supply Chain management
  • Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired
    Research (INSPIRE) JC Bose (top-up provisions),
    Ramanujan, Ramalingaswamy, Ramanna, Wellcome-DBT
    Fellowships, revitalizing women component and
    young scientists programmes, CSIR initiatives
    etc. PPP programmes are planned.
  • Rejuvenation of University Research
  • Promotion of University Research and Scientific
    Excellence (PURSE), Consolidation of University
    Research, Innovation and Excellence (CURIE) for
    women-only universities, Special packages for
    some states, Revising of parameters for Fund for
    Infrastructure Strengthening (FIST)

15
Indian Growth Trends Publications and Patents
2006-09 growth rate 12 p.a.
Ranking of India in publications moves from 15th
in 2003 to 9th in 2010
Growth Trends of SCI publications 1998- 2007
Global Research Report Oct, 2009
16
Investment into Demographic Dividend
Several initiatives are being proposed Indian
enrolment into Higher education ramping up with
high demand for faculty positions
19.8 of Gross Budgetary Support to
Education 20-25 CAGR in public expend into RD
since 2004
Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired
Research
Science and Innovation Scholarship to more than
Million people
17
INSPIRE Program At a Glance
INSPIRE Awards 200,000 per Year Rs. 5,000 per
award Cover every high school in India 0.52
million awards released
INSPIRE Internships 50,000 per year Top 1 in
class X criterion 75000 participated
10,000 Scholarships Rs 80,000/yr for 5 years
15,000 students enrolled so far
1,000 Fellowships
1,000 Faculty positions
Assured Career Opportunity in Research
18
Evidence based policy building for RD funding
Performance growth of university sector in
h-indices over 1996-2006 to 1998-2008
14 universities had qualified for an award in
2008. Now 44 have qualified Share of publications
increased from 15 to 31
19
Some Milestones of value
  • Establishment of Science and Engineering Research
    Board through an act of Parliament as a body
    similar to National Science Foundation
  • Science Express mounted as a joint initiative of
    India with Germany for promoting awakening of
    youth in science has been visited by 6.7 million
    people
  • Australia-India Strategic Research Fund at AUS
    100 million is the single largest bilateral
    engagement for both countries mutually
  • 30 million US Indo-US Endowment fund and US 100
    million for clean Energy Research and
    Development are indicators of global ST
    engagement of India

20
Addressing the call for Decade of Innovations
Work in Progress
  • World is pursuing the Innovation Agenda. Is
    there a unique opportunity for an Indian model
    for Designing an innovation landscape?

21
Comparisons and Contrasts of Innovation systems
  • Most developed countries invest about 2 of GDP
    into RD with a share of 0.71.3 from public and
    private sector, respectively. In such economies,
    competition among the private sector drives the
    innovation for gaining leadership in the market
    space. Therefore the process of innovation is the
    focus of the design in their innovation system
    for Quality Innovations for global
    competitiveness
  • In India, investments into RD are at about 0.95
    of GDP with shares of 0.7 0.25 from public and
    private sector, respectively. Under such
    conditions, public and social goods priorities
    could drive the purpose of innovations and focus
    on Affordable Innovations for inclusive growth
    agenda of the country.

22
Designing Science, Technology and Innovation
ecosystem
  • To meet the challenges of faster and more
    inclusive growth by balancing between Open Source
    and Competitive innovations

23
Four part Approach to Innovations
  • New Millennium Indian Technology Leadership
    Initiative PPP model for global referencing
  • Venture fund support system Technology
    Development Board equity participation model
  • Grass Root Innovation National Innovation
    Foundation involving 2,50,000 grass root
    innovators
  • National Innovation Council For global bench
    marking and alliances

Cotton Stripper from grass root innovation
Health care products from formal innovation system
24
Some recent and good examples from Indian
innovation system
Jaipur foot Affordable prosthetics _at_ US 28
  • Nano Car 2500 US car
  • from Tatas for providing
  • an opportunity for middle
  • income families

Hepatitis Vaccines 40 cents a dose product
giving health care access to large number of
people with low purchasing power
25
Jaipur Foot A case of disruptive affordable
innovation from India
Available, Affordable, Accessible Innovation
26
Current priorities of Indian STI system
  • Inclusion of Innovation in national ST policy
  • Attraction of talent for careers with research
  • Right sizing of Science, Technology and
    Innovation system
  • Optimally designed national Innovation eco system
    with risk capital for the industry
  • Alignment of RD systems to address global
    competitiveness and solution science to solve
    socially relevant problems
  • Building national and international alliances in
    RD and innovation-led development

27
Seeking Solutions from Science A New Indian Trend
  • Supreme Court of India orders that Secretary
    Science and Technology will solve the water
    problem of India through RD solutions and the
    Government will make available all resources
    needed.
  • This is in some sense an expression of trust in
    RD-led solutions for water problems
  • A Technology Mission on Winning, Augmentation and
    Renovation (WAR) for water is mounted and ongoing
    for demonstrating convergent technology solutions
    for 26 different types of water challenges in
    different locations in the country

28
Mission Implementation Strategy
29
Affordable Innovations for Public and Social good
under PPP
  • Agriculture for food and nutrition security
  • Water and land saving agriculture Avoiding food
    wastes
  • Affordable human health care
  • Extremely low cost solutions to human health care
    challenges Diseases suffered by people with low
    purchasing power
  • Technologies for clean energy
  • Renewable energy systems Enhancing energy
    efficiency in use high focus on solar energy
  • Innovations for sustainable environment
  • Zero emission in industrial production Atom and
    Energy efficient manufacture
  • Innovative deployment of technologies for water
    security
  • Technology agnostic approaches for sustainable
    solutions

30
Strategic Alliances and Partnerships In
Innovation Agenda
  • Global Technology and Innovation Alliance (GITA)
    is the planned step forward for building
    strategic alliances and partnerships where
    Indias strength in cost optimization while
    partners strength in quality of innovations could
    provide a win-win formula
  • PAN India initiative based on Pubic-Private-People
    -Partnership (PPPP) model involving carefully
    developed strategic alliances for affordable
    quality innovations under ST partnerships

31
Favorable Contexts for STI Collaboration between
two nations
  • Science, Technology and Innovation sector has
    gained entry into the main stream national
    developmental agendas in some what similar time
    space
  • Both Governments seem to want to invest into
    shared priorities for RD engagements

32
Per-capita Research output advantages
  • Australia enjoys advantage of high output per FTE
  • India enjoys advantage of high return on SCI
    publications per dollar invested into RD
  • 2.5 times higher than China
  • 3.5 times higher than USA

33
Australia-India similarities
  • Our economy sizes are similar but with (somewhat)
    dis-similar population sizes!
  • Australian and Indian science sectors with
    respect to publications have remained somewhat
    similar
  • Australia enjoys high per-capita outputs from
    RD second in the world
  • India enjoys advantage of RD output/

34
Indo-Australian Similarities in publication world
Chemistry
35
Indo Australian complementarities in STI
  • Similarities
  • Size of RD outputs, especially in discovery
    science
  • Similarities of challenges for solution science
  • Agricultural economy, water, energy needs,
    environmental considerations, health care
    requirements, transportation, etc
  • Dis-similarities
  • Per-capita availability of natural resources in
    favor of Australia
  • Market sizes for technology-led manufactured
    products in favor of India

36
Advantage of collaborative excellence in STI
sector
  • World faces threat of climate change and focus on
    adaptation and mitigation call for new
    technologies and life style adjustments
  • Global bad can not be fought by countries through
    competitive excellence models alone.
    Collaboration for global good is without choice.
  • With weather extremes and natural disasters
    challenging the world, new tools and forewarning
    systems with global collaboration seem necessary
  • Earth and atmosphere being common, science for
    global health monitoring and natural disaster
    mitigation call for collaborative excellence
  • Affordable human health care is a global priority
  • Not-Reaching the un-reached is not an option
    for human health care. STI has to deliver values
    for affordable health care

37
Some lead recent Bilateral RD Initiatives
  • Indo US Joint Centers for Clean Energy Research
    and Development
  • Four way Partnership DoE/ US, MoST/India, US
    Industry, Indian Industry
  • Indo-UK partnerships for Solar Energy, Fuel
    Cells, Next generation telecom networks etc
  • EPSRC with various arms of the Indian Government
    is engaged in a partnership with an investment of
    80 million UK pounds each
  • Indo-EU engagement in STI
  • 5 million Euro/ year on computational materials
    science, solar energy and water technologies
  • Australia-India Strategic Research Fund
  • An ongoing engagement with large enthusiasm

38
Bilateral ties in STI For cogeneration of Values
  • India offers
  • Advantages of social mind set for cost and input
    optimization, lower Expertise costs, high return
    on dollar invested and some residual idealism
    among youth for leveraging them in creation of
    affordable innovations
  • Australia offers
  • Advantages of a social mind set for maximizing
    outputs, developed STI infrastructure, high per
    capita outputs in RD and global competitiveness
    in quality of innovations
  • Could the bilateral STI cooperation leverage the
    advantages of input and cost optimization of
    India with Australian strength globally
    competitive quality of innovations and create new
    values for the world?

39
Summary
  • Ladies and Gentlemen, I tried to communicate
    some aspects of changing Indian STI landscape
    which opens up new opportunities for stepped up
    RD cooperation between our two countries with
    shared objectives and preparedness for
    co-investments into STI sector. I foresee
    opportunities for co-generation of values for
    both countries. The challenge ahead is in
    identification of such areas where our shared
    goals and collaboration could benefit the people
    of both countries. Let me end with a hope that
    our shared paths will yield most desired outcomes
    and benefits for all.

40
Challenge Aheadmotivating scientists to discover
solutions
Solution priority of people
Solution priority of people and states
High Solution Low Discovery
High Solution High Discovery
Thank you
Low Solution Low Discovery
Low Solution High Discovery
Discovery priority of scientists
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