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Title:

The End of Empire

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Gandhi and Nehru want complete independence from Britain after the war ... Hindu extremist assassinated Gandhi (he had agreed to form Pakistan) Indian Nationalism ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The End of Empire


1
The End of Empire
  • Decolonization
  • Source Merrimans A History of Modern Europe

2
The End Of Colonization
  • 2 world wars expensive
  • Economic recovery
  • Colonization is no longer appropriate
  • Self determination
  • Nationalism
  • Among the colonized peoples

3
The British Empire
  • African Independence
  • Ghana
  • Nigeria
  • Kenya
  • South Africa
  • Established apartheid (minimal human rights for
    black South Africans)

4
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5
India
  • Largest colony in the world, extremely diverse
  • Hindus and Muslims (northern)
  • Gandhi and Nehru want complete independence from
    Britain after the war
  • PM Clement Atlee (Churchill was gone) said yes

6
Transitioning to Independence
  • Its all on you
  • The Indians needed to transition to an
    independent nation no help from the British
  • Your thoughts?

7
Indian Independence
  • Muslim League
  • Want an independent Muslim nation
  • Hindus
  • No
  • Lets Discuss

8
The End Result
  • India
  • Mostly Hindu nation
  • Pakistan
  • Muslim nation

9
(No Transcript)
10
Indian and Pakistan
  • Hindus and Muslims bitter fighting
  • Muslims starved to death in India (same in
    Pakistan)
  • Hindu extremist assassinated Gandhi (he had
    agreed to form Pakistan)

11
Indian Nationalism
  • Mohatma Gandhi
  • Passive resistance
  • Sent to jail
  • Symbol of resistance, independence, nationalism

12
Indias Independence
  • Worlds Largest Democracy
  • Poverty and High birth rate
  • Religious rivalries
  • 1971 no more Pakistan division and Bangladesh is
    born

13
More independence
  • Ceylon (Sri Lanka) 1948
  • Burma (Myanmar) 1948
  • Singapore 1965

14
The Middle East
  • United Nations 1947
  • Create land for new Arab state and Israel
  • Arab state land went to Jordan and Egypt and
    Israel

15
The Middle East
  • May 1948 Egyptian, Syrian, Lebanese and Jordanian
    attacked Israel but were defeated
  • Arabs expelled from their lands by Israel
  • 700,000 Palestinians fled to Jordan

16
The Suez Canal Crisis
  • 2/3 of oil from Middle East transported through
    Suez Canal
  • Canal was owned by British and French interests

17
Suez Canal Crisis
  • Nasser (head of Egypt)
  • Pan Arab
  • Wanted the West out of Egypt
  • 1957 Suez under Egyptian control
  • British influence in the Middle East - DONE

18
The British Empire
  • So what is left by the 1980s?
  • Falkland Islands
  • Hong Kong
  • Midnight, June 30, 1997 returned to China

19
Belgium
  • 1959 nationalist rebellions in Congo
  • Belgians withdraw
  • Disaster
  • Why?

20
French Decolonization
  • North and West Africa
  • Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam
  • Syria and Lebanon
  • Madagascar

21
French Middle East
  • Syria and Lebanon independent 1946
  • Madagascar 1960

22
The French Empire
  • Indochina
  • 1946 to 1954 fought the Vietnamese to maintain
    possession
  • Hopeless against Ho Chi Minh
  • 1955 France withdraws
  • Geneva Convention divided Vietnam at the 17th
    parallel

23
The French Empire
  • Algeria
  • French Algerians wanted to maintain their rule
  • DeGaulle promotes their self-determination
  • 1962 independent

24
The Third World
  • Problems?
  • Poor underdeveloped nations
  • Economic instability
  • Cold War Issues
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