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Theories of Learning: Cognitive Theories

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Theories of Learning: Cognitive Theories Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos 15 May 2009 Learning Definition: Relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge as the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Theories of Learning: Cognitive Theories


1
Theories of LearningCognitive Theories
  • Dr. K. A. Korb
  • University of Jos
  • 15 May 2009

2
Learning
  • Definition Relatively permanent change in
    behavior or knowledge as the result of
    experience.
  • Relatively permanent Knowledge or behavior must
    persist for some time
  • Change Alteration of previous behavior or
    knowledge
  • Behavior or Knowledge New knowledge does not
    always affect behavior immediately
  • Result of Experience Experience with the
    environment or rational analysiS

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
3
Sensory Memory
  • Sensory Memory Briefly holds stimuli from the
    environment until it can be processed
  • Attention Consciously focusing on a stimulus
  • Automaticity Perform a task with little mental
    attention

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
4
Perception
  • Perception Attaching meaning to a stimulus
  • Gestalt Organize stimuli to coherent pattern
  • Bottom-Up Notice separate defining features and
    assemble them into a recognizable pattern
  • Top-down Perceive based on the context and the
    patterns you expect to occur in the situation

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
5
Working Memory
  • Working Memory Store that holds information as a
    person processes it
  • Working Memory consists of
  • Phonological Loop Stores auditory information
  • Visiospatial Sketchpad Stores visual information
  • Central Executive Monitor attention and
    resources
  • Properties
  • Short Span 15 to 30 seconds
  • Limited Space 7 2
  • Chunking Mentally combining separate items into
    larger, more meaningful units

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
6
Working Memory Functions
  • Retain
  • Rehearsal Keeping information in Working Memory
  • Maintenance rehearsal Repeating information in
    your mind
  • Elaborative rehearsal Connecting information
    with something already known

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
7
Working Memory Functions
  • Encode Connecting new information to previously
    learned information
  • Transfers information to Long Term Memory
  • Relevant Factors
  • Organization Logical network of ideas in memory
  • Context Physical or emotional backdrop
    associated with an event

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
8
Working Memory Functions
  • Forget
  • Interference New information supersedes
    information in Working Memory
  • Decay Information is forgotten due to lack of
    attention
  • Failure to Encode Information is not transferred
    to Long Term Memory
  • Failure to Retrieve Inability to access
    information in Long Term Memory

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
9
Working Memory
  • Overcoming Limitations of Working Memory
  • Off-load the burden
  • Automatize information
  • Long term memory Permanent information store

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
10
Working vs. Long Term Memory
  • Working Memory
  • Long Term Memory
  • Easy for information to enter
  • Limited capacity
  • Information forgotten
  • Takes considerable effort for information to
    enter
  • Virtually unlimited capacity
  • Information remains relatively permanently

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
11
Long Term Memory
  • Types of knowledge in Long Term Memory
  • Declarative knowledge Knowledge of facts,
    definitions, procedures, and rules
  • Stored in schemata
  • Schemata Organized network of information
  • Script Schema representation for events
  • Procedural knowledge Knowledge of how to perform
    tasks
  • Conditional knowledge Knowledge of when and how
    to apply declarative and procedural knowledge

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
12
Long Term Memory
  • How do we retrieve knowledge in memory?
  • Priming Activating a concept in memory
  • Activation Spreading Retrieve information based
    on relatedness to another concept
  • Retrieval Process of searching for information
    in long term memory
  • Reconstruction Recreate how you learned the
    information

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
13
Metacognition
  • Metacognition Awareness of and control over own
    cognitive processes
  • Consists of
  • Planning
  • Monitoring
  • Evaluation
  • Metacognitive strategies consist of plans for
    accomplishing specific learning goals

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
14
Metacognition
  • Types of Regulatory Behavior
  • Knowing what is known and unknown
  • Strategically planning ahead for study time
  • Making efficient use of study time
  • Monitoring progress while studying

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
15
Classroom Application
  • Help students make connections between new
    information and what they already know
  • Provide for repetition and review of information,
    emphasizing new contexts
  • Present material (instruction) in a clear,
    organized, way
  • Focus on meaning, not memorization, of
    information
  • Provide opportunities for students to elaborate
    on new information

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
16
Study Tips(Based on Driscoll, 2005)
  • Actively listen (Attention)
  • Break down complex information to smaller parts
    (Chunking)
  • Elaborate on new information with original,
    meaningful examples (Encoding)
  • Actively read by elaborating with applications to
    your life (Encoding)
  • Write notes in your own words (Encoding)
  • Overlearn by studying even when you know the
    material (Automaticity)
  • Review class notes the same day that you take
    them (Rehearsal)

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
17
Revision
  • Explain each of the six major components of the
    information processing model of learning.
  • Explain the three theories of perception.
  • Explain the three components of working memory.
  • Explain the three types of memory in long term
    memory.
  • Explain how knowledge can be retrieved from long
    term memory.
  • Describe metacognition and its use for learning.

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
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