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English Teaching Methodology

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English Teaching Methodology What you should know about English teaching? * * Reference Books Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching, Diane Larsen-Freeman ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: English Teaching Methodology


1
English Teaching Methodology
  • What you should know about English teaching?

2
Reference Books
  • Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching,
    Diane Larsen-Freeman, Oxford University Press.
  • Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, H.
    Douglas Brown, Prentice Hall Regents.
  • Teaching by Principles, H. Douglas Brown,
    Prentice Hall Regents.
  • Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, Jack
    C. Richards Theordore S. Rodgers, Cambridge
    University Press.
  • An introduction to Second Language Acquisition
    Research. Diane Larsen-Freeman Michael H. Long.
  • The Practice of English Language Teaching, Jeremy
    Harmer, Longman, Ltd.
  • Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language.
  • Celce-Murcia, M. HH
  • Second Language Teaching Learning. David Nunan.
    (1995). H H.

3
I. A Framework of TESOL
  • English language teaching and learning language,
    education, psychology
  • Theoretical Underpinning First language
    education, second language acquisition
  • Research methodology
  • Linguistics

4
II. English as a global language cultural
imperialism or intermixing?
  • the place of English as a lingua franca
  • the number of English speakers 600-700 million
    speak English in Asia alone, 100 million
    children are learning English.
  • How English got there a colonial history,
    economics (globalization), travel, information
    exchange (academic discourse the Internet),
    popular culture (music, movies)
  • Varieties of English inner circle, outer circle,
    and expanding circle for specific or general
    purposes

5
III. Reasons of learning a 2nd/foreign language
and what goals of it
  • Academic to pursue degrees or certificates (
    only a small portion in fact)
  • Non-academic
  • (a) to survive in Target Language community e.g.
    talking to neighbors, helping children at school,
    or carrying out daily functions effectively
  • (b) English for specific purpose (ESP) to
    learning the lg as to apply in work
  • (c) Culture to know about the target community
  • Miscellaneous to learn for pleasure, for
    integrating into a culture or to be forced to
  • To understand students need and motivation
    of learning a language is crucial for successful
    learning and teaching.

6
IV. Research findings on SLA
  • (a) Adults and adolescents can acquire a L2
  • (b) The learners creates a systematic IL with the
    same systematic
  • errors as the child learning the L1
  • (c) There are predictable sequences in
    acquisition
  • (d) Practice doesnt make perfect
  • (e) Knowing a linguistic rule doesnt mean
    knowing how to use it
  • (f) Isolated explicit error correction is usually
    ineffective
  • (g) More adult learners fossilize
  • (h) One cannot achieve nativelike command of a L2
  • in one hour a day
  • (i) The learners task is enormous since language
    is complex
  • A meaningful context is paramount.

7
Advantages children benefit from in learning a
foreign language
  • Childrens greater potential for developing
    accurate pronunciation, accent and fluency before
    puberty
  • Childrens favorable attitude towards a language
    and its culture, either their mother tongue or a
    second language.
  • Childrens less mental barriers of learning than
    adults
  • Childrens learning two languages simultaneously
    without suffering from inter-lingual interference
  • Listening along with speaking, a preliminary and
    preferable role in the natural order of language
    acquisition for children

8
  • But learners of different ages have different
    characteristics is more preferable than the
    critical hypothesis. Besides, accurate
    pronunciation is not the most important goal of
    language learning but a necessary or desirable
    goal. There are also other factors that determine
    the effectiveness of ones language learning such
    as teachers language competence, the learning
    environment and so on.

9
IV. What is a good English learner/teacher?
  • A Good learner of English is
  • Willing to experiment
  • Willing to listen
  • Willing to ask questions
  • Willing to think about how to learn
  • Independent/responsible

10
What is a good English teacher?
  • According to Brown (2001), a good language
    teacher is characterized by
  • i) technical knowledgeunderstanding
    linguistics grasping basic principles of
    language learning and teaching language
    proficiencies in speaking, reading, writing and
    listening knowledge about language learning
    process through ones own experience
    understanding the relationship between culture
    and language and knowledge of latest development
    of language teaching and learning.

11
  • ii) Pedagogical skills---well-informed language
    teaching approaches teaching techniques ability
    in lesson plan design and other classroom
    behavior management skills.
  • iii) Interpersonal skills.
  • iv) Personal qualities.

12
VI. Important terms in TESOL
  • TESOL, TEFL, TESL
  • TESOLan acronym for teaching English to speakers
    of other languages, used, particularly in the
    USA, to describe the teaching of English in
    situations where it is either a second language
    or a foreign language.
  • TEFLan acronym for teaching English as a foreign
    language, used to describe the teaching of
    English in situations where it is a foreign
    language.
  • TESLan acronym for teaching English as a second
    language, used either to describe the teaching of
    English in situations where it is a second
    language or to refer to any situation where
    English is taught to speakers of other languages.

13
  • ESL EFL
  • ESLan abbreviation for English as a second
    language such as in Singapore
  • EFL an abbreviation for English as a foreign
    language such as Japan

14
  • Deductive learning of grammar is an approach to
    language learning in which learners are taught
    rules and given specific information about a
    language. They then apply these rules when they
    use the language. For example, in the grammar
    translation method, specific grammar rules are
    given to learners and practice subsequently
    follows to familiarize students with the rule.
    The features of it are time-saving and suitable
    for adult learners who can afford abstract
    thinking. Besides it is widely used in EFL
    contexts where exposure to the target language is
    limited and the length of instruction time is
    short. (e.g. GTM, adult learners, FI/analytic
    learners, EFL contexts)

15
  • Inductive learning is an approach to language
    learning in which learners are not taught
    grammatical or other types of rules directly but
    are left to discover or induce rules from their
    experience of using the language. Language
    teaching methods which emphasize use of the
    language rather than presentation of information
    about the language include the direct method, the
    communicative approach and counseling learning.
    The features of it are time-consuming and
    applicable to young learners in natural settings
    such as ESL contexts.

16
  • Performance and competence
  • Performance-- a persons actual use of language
    how a person uses his knowledge of a language in
    producing and understanding sentences.
  • Competence-- a persons knowledge of a language
  • People may have the competence to produce a long
    sentence but when they actually try to use this
    knowledge, there are reasons why they restrict
    it. For example, they may run out of breath or
    their listeners forget what has been said if the
    sentence is too long. Due to performance factors
    such as fatigue, lack of attention, nervousness
    or excitement, their actual use of language may
    not reflect their competence. The errors they
    make are described as examples of performance.

17
the Acquisition-learning hypothesis by Stephen
Krashen-(1941-) http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steph
en_Krashen
  • Acquisition vs. learning
  • Acquisition--the processes by which people
    naturally develop proficiency in a language
  • Learning-- the processes by which people
    formally develop language proficiency.

18
  • bottom-up processing vs. top-down processing
  • Top-down processinga way in which humans
    analyze and process language as part of the
    process of comprehension and learning by making
    use of previous knowledge (higher-level
    knowledge) in analyzing and processing
    information which is received such as ones
    expectations, experience, schemata in reading the
    text.
  • Bottom-up processing a way making use
    principally of information which is already
    present in the data (words, sentences, etc.) such
    as understanding a text mainly by analyzing the
    words and sentences in the text itself.

19
  • Teacher-centered vs. learner-centered teaching
  • Teacher-centered (fronted) teaching a teaching
    style in which instruction is closely managed and
    controlled by the teacher, where students often
    respond in unison to teacher questions, and where
    whole-class instruction is preferred to other
    methods.
  • Learner-centered teaching methods of teaching
    which emphasizes the active role of students in
    learning, tries to give learners more control
    over what and how they learn and encourages
    learners to take more responsibility for their
    own learning. It is encouraged by many current
    teaching approaches.

20
  • Target language vs. native language
  • Target languagethe language which a person is
    learning
  • Native language a first language or mother
    tongue/motherese which is acquired first.

21
  • Form vs. function
  • Form the physical characteristics of a thing-gt
    in language use, a linguistic form is like the
    imperative
  • Function a linguistic form can perform a variety
    of different functions
  • Come here for a drink-gt invitation
  • Watch out-gt warning
  • Turn left at the corner-gt direction
  • Pass the salt-gt request

22
  • CALL-- computer-assisted language learning
  • CAI computer-assisted instruction
  • 3 P- a traditional classroom teaching procedure
    derived from the Situational Approach of
    presentation, practice and production
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