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The French Revolution

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The French Revolution. Absolute monarchs didn't share power with a counsel or parliament ' ... French and English troops fight at the battle of Fort St. Philip ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The French Revolution


1
The French Revolution
2
Absolutism
  • Absolute monarchs didnt share power with a
    counsel or parliament
  • Divine Right of Kings

King James I of England
3
The Seigneurial System
  • Feudal method of land ownership and organization
  • Peasant labor

Receiving a seigneurial grant
4
Louis XIV
  • Ruled from 16431715
  • Reduced the power of the nobility
  • Fought four wars
  • Greatly increased Frances national debt

5
The Seven Years War
Louis XV
French and English troops fight at the battle of
Fort St. Philip on the island of Minorca
  • Louis XV
  • War fought in Europe, India, North America
  • France ends up losing some of its colonial
    possessions
  • Increases French national debt

6
The Three Estates
  • First Estate clergy
  • Second Estate nobility
  • Third Estate the rest of society
  • The Estates General

Cartoon depicting the three Estates
7
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8
The Third Estate
  • Taxation
  • Crop failures

9
The Enlightenment
  • New ideas about society and government
  • The social contract

Jean-Jacques Rousseau
John Locke
10
The American Revolution
  • France supported the colonists against Great
    Britain
  • Revolutionary ideals

Marquis de Lafayette
11
Financial Crisis
  • Jacques Necker
  • Tax on property
  • Calling of the Estates General

Finance Minister Jacques Necker
12
The Estates General
  • One vote per estate
  • Clergy and nobility usually joined together to
    outvote the Third Estate
  • Met in Versailles in May 1789
  • Voting controversy

A meeting of the Estates General
13
The National Assembly
  • The Third Estate took action and established its
    own government
  • On June 17, 1789, the National Assembly was formed

14
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15
Confrontation With the King
  • Louis XVI ordered the Third Estate locked out of
    the National Assemblys meeting hall
  • The Tennis Court Oath
  • The king reverses his position

Artist Jacques Louis Davids depiction of the
Tennis Court Oath
16
Storming of the Bastille
  • Rioting in Paris in early July
  • Firing of Necker
  • July 14th a mob storms and takes the Bastille

17
The Great Fear
  • Rebellion spreads
  • Peasants destroy the countryside
  • End of feudal privileges

18
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
  • Adopted by National Assembly on August 27th
  • Enlightenment ideals
  • Outlined basic freedoms held by all
  • Asserted the sovereignty of the people
  • Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité

19
The March of Women
  • Lower classes still unsatisfied
  • Thousands of starving women and peasants march on
    Versailles
  • Louis forced to return to Paris

20
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
  • Financial crisis
  • National Assembly confiscates and sells off
    church lands
  • Church also secularized, reorganized
  • Clergy oath of loyalty

Cartoon depicting the confiscation of Church lands
21
Flight of the King
  • Émigrés
  • Louis XVI and his family attempted to flee France
  • They were arrested at Varennes

The capture of Louis XVI at Varennes
22
Reaction from Other Countries
  • Declaration of Pillnitz
  • Possible foreign intervention

Illustration depicting Prussian King Frederick
William III, Austrian Emperor Leopold II, and
the Comte dArtois, Louis XVIs brother
23
New Constitution
  • Constitutional monarchy
  • New Legislative Assembly
  • Sans-culottes

Painting depicting the 1791 constitution
24
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25
War With Austria
  • France declares war
  • War of the First Coalition
  • Levee en masse

Painting of the Battle of Valmy, 1792
26
The Radicals Take Over
  • Paris mob stormed Tuileries
  • Louis and family seek aid of Legislative Assembly
  • Arrested and deposed

Paris crowds storm the Tuileries
27
The National Convention
  • First met on September 21, 1792
  • Revolutionary Calendar
  • Monarchy abolished France officially becomes a
    republic
  • Factions Jacobins vs. Girondins

A Jacobin club
28
Leaders in the National Convention
Georges Danton
Jean-Paul Marat
29
Robespierre
  • Lawyer
  • Radical Jacobin
  • Most controversial figure of the French Revolution

30
The Guillotine
  • Dr. Joseph Guillotin
  • Intended as a more humane method of execution
  • Thousands guillotined during the French Revolution

31
Execution of the King
  • On January 17, 1793, Louis XVI was convicted of
    treason
  • He went to the guillotine four days later on
    January 21, 1793

32
The Committee of Public Safety
  • Created to cease an internal rebellion in 1793
  • Given dictatorial power
  • Ruled France for nearly a year

A citizen petitions the Committee of Public Safety
33
The Reign of Terror
  • July 1793July 1794
  • Executions
  • Death of Robespierre

The execution of Marie Antoinette
34
The Thermidorean Reaction
  • Robespierre overthrown on 9 Thermidor
  • Committee of Public Safety dismantled
  • Jacobin clubs disbanded
  • New constitution adopted in August 1795
  • Executive branch known as the Directory

9 Thermidor meeting of the National Convention
35
The Directory
  • Promoted middle class interests
  • Financial crisis
  • Food shortages
  • Riots in Paris
  • Rise of Napoleon

Cartoon depicting the errors and bad judgment of
the Directory
36
Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Popularity rises after victories over the
    Austrians
  • Conflict with Britain
  • 1799 Coup detat
  • The Consulate

37
Napoleon Becomes Emperor
  • 1804 Napoleon crowns himself emperor

38
Legacies of the French Revolution
  • End of absolutism
  • Power of nobles ended
  • Peasants became landowners
  • Nationalism
  • Enlightenment ideals
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