Professional Collaboration - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Professional Collaboration


1
Professional Collaboration
  • Adriane Miliotis
  • Delia OMahony
  • Martine Torriero

2
Organization of the Presentation
  • Introduction
  • Issues affecting effective collaboration
  • Ethical Issues
  • Turf issues
  • Professional collaboration with
  • SLP (Speech Language Pathologist)
  • PT (Physical Therapist)
  • OT (Occupational Therapist) Principals
  • Child Study Team
  • Board of Education
  • Other professionals (medical doctor)
  • Suggestions for the future
  • References

3
Discouraging Search
  • Advanced Search
  • Search Terms professional collaboration
  • Journal Applied Behavior Analysis
  • (Searching PsycINFO)  
  • No results were found.

4
What is collaboration?
  • Working together to enhance the learners
    experience
  • Respecting professional expertise

5
What is collaboration? cont
  • participation in identifying, designing, and
    developing inclusive program options
  • with families and other professionals
  • forming partnerships has enhanced professional
    practice
  • early childhood special educator's experiences,
    resources, and contacts can be valuable assets to
    communities as they seek to expand and sustain
    community-based service options
  • (Allen Polaha, 2003)

6
What are the components of collaboration?
  • communication
  • decision making
  • Goal setting
  • organization
  • team process
  • Nijhuis et. al. (2007)

7
Why collaborate?
  • Learners and parents
  • How many different people do they see before
    the child receives instruction?
  • What happens if parents and learners get
    conflicting information?

8
Why collaborate? cont
  • Team Members
  • Can we teach effectively in a vacuum?
  • Consistent instruction
  • Share ideas
  • Learn from each other

9
Effective Collaboration
  • A basic understanding of
  • expertise
  • orientation
  • terminology
  • potential role of the other professionals in the
    collaborating team
  • (Geroski, Rodgers and Breen 1997)

10
Helpful to Know
  • Qualifications
  • Philosophy
  • Professional terms
  • Possible contribution to the team
  • Professional respect

11
Successful Collaborators
  • Willing to try strategies
  • Interested in using something new
  • Quick to implement suggestions
  • High adopters had the most
  • knowledge of curriculum and pedagogy
  • knowledge and student friendly beliefs about
    managing student behavior
  • student-focused views of instruction
  • ability to carefully reflect on students'
    learning
  • (Brownell et. al. 2006)

12
Roadblocks to Effective Collaboration
  • Excessive paperwork
  • Difficulties identifying appropriate
    interventions with existing resources
  • Lack of financial support
  • Inadequate training in problem solving procedures
  • No release time for meetings
  • Meeting times difficult to arrange
  • Meetings last too long
  • (Yetter Doll, 2007)

13
Unsuccessful Collaborators
  • Moderate and low adopters were less knowledgeable
  • took longer to grasp ideas
  • did not always implement them well
  • some of these teachers needed to have ideas
    explained in detail
  • would discard ideas they did not appear to
    comprehend
  • (Brownell et. al. 2006)

14
Educating other professionals
  • Autism is a low-incidence disorder that has
    received increasing attention as parents have
    organized seeking more effective education
    services for their children with autism 1
  • prepare early intervention practitioners to work
    with young children with autism, severe physical
    impairments, and other low incidence disabilities
    1
  • The program features joint course work across the
    Schools of Medicine and Education and seminars on
    collaboration and teaming 2
  • 1 Shriver, Allen, Mathews, 1999
  • 2 Able-Boone, Crais, Downing, 2003

15
Expanding Professional Roles
  • Will the shift from direct to indirect roles
    affect
  • job satisfaction
  • staff turnover
  • potential for burn-out among early childhood
    special educators
  • professionals who were originally attracted to
    the field because of direct work with young
    children and families may be less satisfied with
    roles that are now primarily adult oriented and
    facilitative in nature

16
Ethical Issues
  • Before we can collaborate, we need
  • Mutual consent form signed by parents and student
  • Identify specific professionals to include
  • Hand deliver, fax or mail
  • Make initial contact through a letter
  • Avoid phone tag due to different schedules
  • Send parents a copy of the letter
  • Indicate an interest in collaboration in this
    letter

17
Collaboration with related service providers
18
Why should we collaborate?
  • Coordination between the disciplines is
    important when adding speech-language therapy to
    an applied behavioral program. All objectives
    must reflect a common goal in order to build
    speech, language, play, and social skills.
    (Parker 1996)
  • ... SLPs are not the only professionals who
    target communication outcomes within the scope of
    their practice. Teachers, occupational
    therapists, reading specialists, and behavior
    analysts do so as well, either directly or
    indirectly. Therefore, cross-disciplinary
    collaboration is essential. (Koenig and Gunter
    2005)

19
Benefits of Collaboration
  • The creation of evidence-based therapeutic
    approaches and practices by individuals with
    combined expertise in ABA and SLP
  • The ability to improve the integration of support
    provided by SLP and ABA professionals as
    participants on home-, school-, and center-based
    intervention teams
  • A reduction in the number of reinvented wheels
  • Discrete trial to establish skills and NET to
    generalize
  • (Koenig and Gerenser, 2006)

20
The Role of the SLP
  • From the ASHA Position Statement Roles and
    Responsibilities of Speech-Language Pathologists
    in Diagnosis, Assessment, and Treatment of Autism
    Spectrum Disorders Across the Life Span
  • Collaboration Speech-language pathologists
    should collaborate with families, individuals
    with ASD, other professionals, support personnel,
    peers, and other invested parties to identify
    priorities and build consensus on a service plan
    and functional outcomes.

21
What do the fields of SLP and ABA have in common?
  • ABA and SLP are the treatment components most
    frequently requested by parents
  • ABA and SLP therapists are highly focused on the
    individual, his or her unique learning style, and
    the outcomes of treatment
  • Both ABA and SLP address skill deficits directly
    by teaching specific language behaviors rather
    than treating the problem indirectly using
    specialized diets or sensory stimulation programs
  • Both fields rely on procedures that are supported
    by evidence. Most therapists measure the child's
    performance by collecting data to make decisions
    about progress and potential changes in
    instruction.
  • (Harchik, 2005)

22
Coordinating Speech-Language Pathology with an
Applied Behavior Analysis Program (Parker, 1996)
  • 1. The SLP should develop language goals similar
    to those developed by the behavior program in
    order to facilitate generalization.
  • - Ex. ABA program is working on expressive labels
    with the Sd, What is this? The SLPs goal can
    be to use the same vocabulary to request those
    items in a low structure, play context.

23
  • 2. The SLP should help to make the discrete-trial
    goals of the behavior program as communicative
    and functional as possible.
  • Ex. Work on requesting programs using objects of
    high interest.
  • 3. The SLP can add valuable information about
    speech-language goals that are being addressed in
    the behavior program.
  • Ex. Suggest a prompt to remediate specific sound
    errors such as placing a hand on the students
    throat to teach the /k/ sound.

24
  • 4. The SLP helps to ensure that all therapists
    are attempting to use similar vocabulary,
    commands, and toys in focusing on their goals.
  • 5. The SLP can offer information to the behavior
    team and parents on developmentally appropriate
    linguistic forms and the developmentally normal
    communication sequence.
  • Ex. Assists with the periodic reassessment of
    linguistic goals.

25
  • 6. The SLP can demonstrate how to incorporate
    specific goals into daily, preexisting
    activities, such as dinner, bath, and bedtime,
    which will be helpful with generalization and
    sequencing.
  • Ex. A daily activity such as cooking dinner can
    be used to teach sequencing skills and specific
    language forms. If the child is working on
    prepositions, the parent can say, First we put
    the water in the pot, then the salt in, then the
    spaghetti in.

26
  • 7. The SLP should help develop reinforcers- both
    tangible, such as food, stickers, and toys, and
    social, such as praise, hugs, and tickles.
  • 8. The SLP should assess the manner in which
    speech-language skills are used within the
    classroom or play group in order to ensure
    maximum benefit from these interactions.
  • - Ex. Suggest that the teacher give the child a
    toy that she knows another child likes, then
    encourage the two children to play together.
  • - Ex. Encourage the classroom teacher to set up
    activities that require a buddy, and pair the
    child with a peer who is both a strong language
    model and a friendly child.

27
  • 9. The SLP can also help troubleshoot specific
    linguistic problems.
  • Ex. If the child is having difficulty
    remembering the names of objects, the SLP can
    develop appropriate categorization and world
    knowledge tasks.
  • 10. The SLP can also aid in the diagnosis and
    treatment of concurrent disorders (e.g. apraxia
    or dysarthria)

28
Three models for team interaction
29
Component Multidisciplinary Interdisciplinary Transdisciplinary
Philosophy of team interaction Team members recognize the importance of contributions from other disciplines. Team members are willing and able to share responsibilities for services among disciplines. Team members commit to teach, learn and work across disciplinary boundaries to plan and provide integrated services.
Family Role Generally, families meet with team members separately by discipline. The family may or may not be considered a team member. Families may work with the whole team or team representatives. Families are always members of the team and determine their own roles.
Lines of Communication Typically informal. Members may not think of themselves as part of a team. Team meets regularly for case conferences, consultations, etc. Team meets regularly to share information and to teach and learn across disciplines (for consultation, team building, etc.).
Staff Development Generally is independent and within disciplines. Frequently shared and held across disciplines. Staff development is across disciplines and is critical to team development and role transition.
30
Component Multidisciplinary Interdisciplinary Transdisciplinary
Assessment Process Team members conduct separate assessments by discipline. Team members conduct assessments by discipline and share results. The team participates in an arena assessment, observing and recording across disciplines.
Plan Development Team members develop separate plans for intervention within their own disciplines. Goals are developed by discipline and shared with the rest of the team to develop a single service plan. Staff and family develop plan together based on familys concerns, priorities, and resources.
Plan implementation Team members implement their own plan separately by discipline. Team members implement parts of the plan for which their discipline is responsible. Team members share responsibilities and are accountable for how the plan is implemented by one person, with the family.
http//www.njeis.org/NJFoundationsSP.pdf
31
The Consultative Model of Service Delivery
(Bellone, et. al 2005)
32
Why should we use this model?
  • For individuals with ASD, exclusive provision of
    services through pull-out services does not
    address the underlying challenge of social
    communication inherent in the disorder, the
    issues of generalization, functional outcomes, or
    the importance of collaborating with significant
    communication partners. (ASHA 2006)

33
Why?, cont
  • Research on children with ASD suggests that the
    greatest effects of any direct treatment are
    reflected in the generalization of learning
    achieved by working with parents and classroom
    personnel.(NRC 2001)

34
Traditional SL services are inadequate
  • 1-5 hours treatment per week
  • SLP is sole instructor
  • Isolated setting
  • Skill generalization and maintenance difficult to
    achieve given these limitations
  • (Bellone, et.al., 2005)

35
  • BUT
  • The pull-out model of service delivery continues
    to be the most used model for preschool and
    school-age children. (ASHA, 2004)
  • EVEN THOUGH
  • There is no evidence supporting the long-term
    effectiveness of individual therapies implemented
    infrequently (e.g., once or twice a week), unless
    the strategies are taught to be used regularly by
    communication partners in the natural
    environment. (ASHA 2006)

36
Consultative SL services afford
  • Consistent and continuous instruction throughout
    the childs day
  • Skill generalization across people and settings
    in childs natural environment
  • Skill maintenance through practice in naturally
    occurring and programmed opportunities
  • (Bellone, et.al., 2005)

37
The role of the SLP
  • Develop curriculum
  • Select data collection systems
  • Train teachers
  • Observe teachers students
  • Attend meetings
  • Modify teaching procedures

38
The role of the teaching staff
  • Provide multiple daily opportunities
  • Collect sum data
  • Review data w/ SLP
  • Initiate questions, concerns
  • Troubleshoot w/ SLP
  • Incorporate changes into instruction

39
The consultative model in a public school
  • School administrator contacted NECCs consulting
    department
  • NECC directors met with teachers and
    administrators
  • Defined role of SLPs and teaching staff
  • A letter was sent home to parents inviting them
    to an informational meeting
  • After a follow up letter and phone call, 33
    (n24) selected the consultative model

40
The consultative model in a public school Public
School Contract
  • Services were provided in 8 children in 3
    classrooms
  • 2 hours/mo of consultative (indirect) services
    from SLP
  • 40 hours/mo direct SL instruction from lead
    classroom teacher
  • SLP consult with Head teachers
  • Head teachers train teaching assistants

41
The consultative model in a public school Results
  • Public school students made progress/met 98 of
    objectives (2005)
  • NECC students made progress/met 90 of objectives
    (2004)

42
What do other disciplines have to say about
professional collaboration?
43
Guide for Professional Conduct
  • PRINCIPLE 11
  • A physical therapist shall respect the
    rights, knowledge, and skills of colleagues and
    other healthcare professionals.
  • 11.1 Consultation
  • A physical therapist shall seek consultation
    whenever the welfare of the patient will be
    safeguarded or advanced by consulting those who
    have special skills, knowledge, and experience.
  • 11.2 Patient/Provider Relationships
  • A physical therapist shall not undermine the
    relationship(s) between his/her patient and other
    healthcare professionals.
  • 11.3 Disparagement
  • Physical therapists shall not disparage
    colleagues and other health care professionals.
    See Section 9 and Section 2.4.A.

44
Code of Ethics
  • Principle 7. Occupational therapy personnel shall
    treat colleagues and other professionals with
    respect, fairness, discretion, and integrity.
    (FIDELITY)

45
Guidelines for Responsible Conduct For Behavior
Analysts
  • 9.0 The Behavior Analyst's Responsibility to
    Colleagues.
  • Behavior analysts have an obligation to bring
    attention to and resolve ethical violations by
    colleagues, to make sure their data are accurate
    and presented truthfully, and they share data
    with colleagues.
  • 9.01 Ethical Violations by Colleagues
  • 9.02 Accuracy of Data
  • 9.03 Authorship and Findings
  • 9.04 Publishing Data
  • 9.05 Withholding data

46
Are related service providers a necessary
component of an effective program?
47
  • A public program serving children in preschool
    through eighth grade diagnosed with Autism and
    related disabilities in Bergen County, NJ
  • The speech-language department works
    collaboratively with the classroom teachers to
    promote various communication modes such as the
    Picture Exchange System, computerized voice
    output devices, sign language, and fostering
    expressive language. (McKeon, et.al. 2006)

48
  • Does not employ related service personnel
  • Curriculum includes teaching programs that
    facilitate the development of language and fine
    and gross motor skills
  • Programs are implemented by instructional
    personnel throughout the day
  • Pull-out related services are rarely necessary
    because of the breadth and comprehensiveness of
    the curriculum
  • If services are deemed necessary, appropriate
    referrals or consultations are arranged by ALG
    staff (Meyer, et. al, 2006)

49
  • The Douglass School
  • each class is supported by a half-time
    speech-language specialist who provides
    individual and group therapy as well as
    consultative services to the preschool teachers.
    An adaptive physical education professional
    serves the preschool children on the three times
    a week and acts as a liaison for consulting
    professionals such as physical or occupational
    therapists. (Harris, et. al, 2001)
  • Douglass Outreach
  • Douglass Outreach employs five licensed
    part-time speech pathologists for speech-language
    services. (Harris, et. al, 2001)

50
Princeton Child Development Institute
  • Strong emphasis on language development
  • Does not employ specialists
  • All intervention personnel are trained to teach
    receptive and expressive language in every
    activity
  • Toilet training, outdoor play, lunchtime
  • Language instruction encompasses discrete trials,
    incidental teaching, time-delay procedures, and
    video-modeling procedures.
  • 36 of 41 children entered PCDI before 60 months
    of age and had no functional expressive language
  • The skills of these children currently range from
    using sounds as mands to age appropriate verbal
    repertoires.
  • (McClanahan and Krantz, 2001)

51
Recommendations for Continued Collaboration
  • Share treatment efficacy data
  • Share innovative teaching procedures
  • Share basic information
  • Share successful collaboration experiences
  • Read articles in journals associated with the
    other profession
  • Share your concerns
  • Share lunch
  • (Koenig and Gerenser, 2006)

52
State of New Jersey
Department Of Education
Department of Human Services
BOE - Local School / Sending School District
Board of Education (Receiving School)
The Office of Early Care and Education (OECE)
Director of Special Services
SPAN/COSAC/ Autism Society of America
Child Service Team
School
ST OT PT ART Music BCBA
Parents / Home / Family Physician Dentist, Doctor
Principle
Child
Bus
Teacher
Siblings Family Celebrations
Community
After school services (latch key)
Neighborhood, Shops, Restaurants
DDD DVR
Employment Sheltered Living
53
Collaboration with Administration
  • Who are the possible collaborative partners?
  • How can we develop a collaborative relationship?

54
NJDOE Press Release February 20, 2007
  • Approximately 7,400 New Jersey children between
    the ages of 5 and 21 have been diagnosed with
    autism spectrum disorders.
  • Fifty-five New Jersey school districts will
    share 15 million in state funds to establish,
    expand or enhance public school programs and
    services for students diagnosed with Autism
    Spectrum Disorders..

55
Administration
  • State of New Jersey
  • Department of Human Services
  • The Office of Early Care Education (OECE)
  • Division of Family Development
  • Department of Children and Families
  • Build NJ Partners for Early Learning
  • Coalition of Infant/Toddler Educators (CITE)

56
Administration
  • Child care services are coordinated through
  • Department of Human Services' Office of Early
    Care and Education for information, policy and
    resources
  • the Division of Family Development for child care
    operations
  • the Division of Developmental Disabilities
  • the Office of Licensing in the Department of
    Children and Families (DCF)
  • all in cooperation with Child Care Resource and
    Referral Agencies in every county
  • Services include
  • information and referral to help parents locate
    child care resources and to  answer typical
    questions regarding types of child care
  • how to pay for care
  • how to become family day care and licensed child
    care providers.

57
AdministrationDepartment of Education
  • Division of Early Childhood Education
  • The Division of Early Childhood Education (DECE)
    of the New Jersey Department of Education has
    programmatic responsibility for preschool through
    3rd grade (PK3) programs.
  • responsible for the development, implementation,
    and alignment of program components with a focus
    on standards, curricula, and assessment.
  • The creation of this division
  • Acknowledges that a continuum of developmental
    stages constitute what is traditionally known as
    early childhood,
  • Protects New Jerseys investment in high quality
    preschool by providing high quality kindergarten
    through third grade educational experiences for
    young children.
  • PK3 work will be organized within a framework
    that includes
  • structural (administration, class size,
    teacher-child ratio, etc.)
  • process (quality of classroom environments,
    teacher-child interactions, etc),
  • alignment (standards, curriculum, assessments)
    components that are associated with childrens
    social and academic outcomes.
  • The DECEs work will be
  • Research-based, with a series of advisory
    committees consisting of nationally recognized
    experts representing a range of early
    childhood-related areas
  • Cross-departmental to align all DOE PK3
    initiatives,
  • Supportive of the efforts of the Division of
    School Improvement.

58
Office of Special Education Programs
  • Implements state and federal laws and regulations
    governing special education to ensure that pupils
    with disabilities in New Jersey receive full
    educational opportunities.
  • Provides statewide leadership through the
    development of policy and implementation
    documents and provides guidance to school
    districts and parents regarding the
    implementation of special education programs and
    services.
  • Responsible for administering all federal funds
    received by the state for educating pupils with
    disabilities ages 3 through 21.
  • Monitors the delivery of special education
    programs operated under state authority, provides
    mediation services to parents and school
    districts, processes hearings with the Office of
    Administrative Law, and conducts complaint
    investigations requested by the public.
  • Funds four learning resource centers (LRCs) that
    provide schools and parents with information
    services, materials circulation, technical
    assistance, consultation services and production
    services.
  • Plans and implements program and personnel
    development activities in areas such as
    implementing the least restrictive environment
    provision, planning the transition of students
    with disabilities from school to adulthood,
    planning programs and services for preschool
    children with disabilities,developing
    Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) and
    accessing individual rights and entitlements.

59
LEARNING RESOURCE CENTER - NORTH7 Glenwood
Avenue, 2nd Floor, Suite 201 East Orange, New
Jersey 07017
  • Regions served Bergen, Essex, Hudson, Morris,
    Passaic, Sussex, and Warren Counties
  • (973) 414-4491 - LRC General Service(973)
    414-4496-FAX (973) 266-1849-TTY (973) 631-6349 -
    Preschool Technical Assistancee-mail
    lrcnorth_at_doe.state.nj.us

60
A collaborative modelThe Child Study Team
  • Composed of teachers, specialists,
    administrators, and parents
  • Responsible for identifying and evaluating
    students aged 3 21 for special education
    programs and services.
  • Required to conduct both an educational
    evaluation and a psychological evaluation. (A
    neurological examination is also required before
    a child becomes eligible for special services.)
  • Develops an Individual Education Plan with
    parent/child.
  • Assigns a case manager
  • Visits receiving school or agency with
    parent/child
  • Organizes placement and transportation
  • (Walther-Thomas, Korinek, McLaughlin, 1999)

61
IEP Meeting
  • Who should attend?
  • Student (if appropriate)
  • Parent
  • At least one general (or special) education
    teacher
  • At least one Child Study Team member
  • Students case manager
  • School district representatives
  • Persons invited by parent or school
  • Representatives of agencies providing payment for
    services

62
Typical School Operations NetworkCouncil of the
Borough (duly elected by town)
  • Board of Education (elected by Council)
  • Superintendent
  • Hired by the BOE
  • to direct operations
  • Manage the fiscal year budget
  • Hire all school staff including Child Study Team
    members, teachers, and professional support staff
    (ST, OT, PT, BCBA, librarian, etc.)

63
School
  • Effective collaboration emerges out of concerns
    by individuals who are like-minded in some ways
    and very different in others. Walther-Thomas,
    Korinek, McLaughlin Williams (2000)
  • Principals tend to focus on issues such as
    achievement trends, financial implications,
    professional development, student placement,
    professional schedules, and community relations.
  • Teachers are concerned with individual and group
    performance, IEP planning, and new
    responsibilities.
  • Families care about the impact of new initiatives
    on their children.

64
Improving student bus-riding behavior through a
whole-school intervention (Putnam, Handler
Ramirez-Platt Luiselli, 2003)
  • Intervention developed through collaboration with
    students, school personnel and bus drivers
  • 624 students participated during 5 phases of the
    study
  • Disruptive behavior that resulted in referrals or
    suspensions was targeted and measured in an ABAB
    reversal design
  • Results indicated an overall decrease in bus
    suspensions

65
Parents have power!
  • Parents and children are the service users
  • Parents and children have the most to
  • gain/lose regarding adequate effective
  • services
  • The child is at the center and the parent needs
  • to learn to collaborate with all the service
  • providers and get them to collaborate with
  • each other from the time of diagnosis to
    adult development.
  • Parents can enlist the work of nonprofit agencies
    and foundations to work with one another to map
    the terrain of a problem
  • They should talk to public officials about
    providing long-term funding for vital programs
    both in their community and at the State level.
  • Parents should know their rights and not accept
    anything less.

66
Suggestions for the Future
  • develop and evaluate new methods of preparing
    early childhood special educators whose primary
    role now consists of consultation and
    collaboration, rather than teaching
  • Use the case method of instruction
  • Prepare professionals to become independent and
    competent problem solvers in the role of
    consultant
  • personnel training programs must be systemic in
    nature
  • (Dybvik, 2004)

67
Suggestion for the Future, cont
  • changes in professional roles
  • create opportunities for interactive learning for
    professionals who function in a variety of roles,
    including administrative ones
  • ensure a shared knowledge and values base among
    all professionals who serve young children and
    families
  • Remedy roadblocks
  • (Skrtic, 1991)

68
Suggestion for the Future, cont
  • 21st century changes
  • "the entire history of special education is (and
    should continue to be) one of incremental
    progress toward more socially inclusive
    instructional placements for students with
    disabilities"
  • Efforts aimed at early childhood community
    integration will continue to present profound
    challenges to practitioners in ECSE
  • Effectively change our roles in response to the
    changing times, in support of young children with
    and without disabilities growing up together
  • (Skrtic, 1991)

69
References
  • Able-Boone, H., Crais, E. R., Downing, K.,
    Preparation of Early Intervention Practitioners
    for Working with Young Children with Low
    Incidence Disabilities, Teacher Education and
    Special Education, v26 n1 p79-82
  • Allen K. D., Barone V.J., Kuhn, B., A Behavioral
    Prescription For Promoting Applied Behavior
    Analysis Within Pediatrics, Journal Of Applied
    Behavior Analysis, 1993, 26, 493-502
  • Allen K. D., Polaha J., Bridging The
    Disconnection Between Applied Research And
    Practice A Review Of Treatments That
    WorkEmpirically Supported Strategies For
    Managing Child Behavior Problems by E.
    Christophersen and S. Mortweet, Journal Of
    Applied Behavior Analysis 2003, 36, 141146
  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.
    (2004c). 2004 Schools survey report Caseload
    characteristics. Rockville, MD Author.
  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.
    (2003b). A workload analysis approach for
    establishing speech-language caseload standards
    in the schools Implementation guide. Rockville,
    MD Author.
  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.
    (2006). Guidelines for Speech-Language
    Pathologists in Diagnosis, Assessment, and
    Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders Across the
    Life Span Guidelines. Available from
    www.asha.org/policy.
  • "APTA Guide for Professional Conduct." American
    Physical Therapy Association. Jan. 2004. American
    Physical Therapy Association. 10 Oct. 2007
    ltwww.apta.orggt.
  • Bellone, Beth, Nicole Conley, and Laura Hutt.
    Consultative Services for Children with Autism
    and Severe Developmental Disabilaties. 2005 ASHA
    Convention, 18 Nov. 2005, New England Center for
    Children. 12 Oct. 2007 lthttp//convention.asha.org
    /2005/handouts/293_Hutt_Laura_071407_112905091151.
    pdfgt.

70
  • Fawcett, S. B., 1991, Some values guiding
    community research and action. Journal of applied
    behavior analysis, 24, 621-636
  • Friend, M., Cook, L. (1996). Interactions
    Collaboration skills for school professionals
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  • "Foundations of Service Provision in the New
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    2007 lthttp//www.njeis.org/NJFoundationsSP.pdfgt.
  • Gerenser, Joanne, and Mareile Koenig. "SLP- ABA
    Collaborating to Support Individuals with
    Communication Impairments." The Journal of Speech
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    alyst-today.com/SLP-ABA-VOL-1/SLP-ABA-1-1.pdfgt.
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    DSM-IV to enhance collaboration among school
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    Autism. Austin, TX PRO-ED.
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    .org/expert_autism_speech_language.htmlgt.
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    Therapies for Developmental Disabilities. Mahwah
    Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,, 2005. 215-234.
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    Autism. Austin, TX PRO-ED.

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    Mark Lampert, Michelle Madden-Perez, and Scott
    Rossig. "The Valley Program." School-Age
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    Austin Pro-Ed, Inc., 2006. 247-268.
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    of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.
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Professional Collaboration

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Title: Professional Collaboration


1
Professional Collaboration
  • Adriane Miliotis
  • Delia OMahony
  • Martine Torriero

2
Organization of the Presentation
  • Introduction
  • Issues affecting effective collaboration
  • Ethical Issues
  • Turf issues
  • Professional collaboration with
  • SLP (Speech Language Pathologist)
  • PT (Physical Therapist)
  • OT (Occupational Therapist) Principals
  • Child Study Team
  • Board of Education
  • Other professionals (medical doctor)
  • Suggestions for the future
  • References

3
Discouraging Search
  • Advanced Search
  • Search Terms professional collaboration
  • Journal Applied Behavior Analysis
  • (Searching PsycINFO)  
  • No results were found.

4
What is collaboration?
  • Working together to enhance the learners
    experience
  • Respecting professional expertise

5
What is collaboration? cont
  • participation in identifying, designing, and
    developing inclusive program options
  • with families and other professionals
  • forming partnerships has enhanced professional
    practice
  • early childhood special educator's experiences,
    resources, and contacts can be valuable assets to
    communities as they seek to expand and sustain
    community-based service options
  • (Allen Polaha, 2003)

6
What are the components of collaboration?
  • communication
  • decision making
  • Goal setting
  • organization
  • team process
  • Nijhuis et. al. (2007)

7
Why collaborate?
  • Learners and parents
  • How many different people do they see before
    the child receives instruction?
  • What happens if parents and learners get
    conflicting information?

8
Why collaborate? cont
  • Team Members
  • Can we teach effectively in a vacuum?
  • Consistent instruction
  • Share ideas
  • Learn from each other

9
Effective Collaboration
  • A basic understanding of
  • expertise
  • orientation
  • terminology
  • potential role of the other professionals in the
    collaborating team
  • (Geroski, Rodgers and Breen 1997)

10
Helpful to Know
  • Qualifications
  • Philosophy
  • Professional terms
  • Possible contribution to the team
  • Professional respect

11
Successful Collaborators
  • Willing to try strategies
  • Interested in using something new
  • Quick to implement suggestions
  • High adopters had the most
  • knowledge of curriculum and pedagogy
  • knowledge and student friendly beliefs about
    managing student behavior
  • student-focused views of instruction
  • ability to carefully reflect on students'
    learning
  • (Brownell et. al. 2006)

12
Roadblocks to Effective Collaboration
  • Excessive paperwork
  • Difficulties identifying appropriate
    interventions with existing resources
  • Lack of financial support
  • Inadequate training in problem solving procedures
  • No release time for meetings
  • Meeting times difficult to arrange
  • Meetings last too long
  • (Yetter Doll, 2007)

13
Unsuccessful Collaborators
  • Moderate and low adopters were less knowledgeable
  • took longer to grasp ideas
  • did not always implement them well
  • some of these teachers needed to have ideas
    explained in detail
  • would discard ideas they did not appear to
    comprehend
  • (Brownell et. al. 2006)

14
Educating other professionals
  • Autism is a low-incidence disorder that has
    received increasing attention as parents have
    organized seeking more effective education
    services for their children with autism 1
  • prepare early intervention practitioners to work
    with young children with autism, severe physical
    impairments, and other low incidence disabilities
    1
  • The program features joint course work across the
    Schools of Medicine and Education and seminars on
    collaboration and teaming 2
  • 1 Shriver, Allen, Mathews, 1999
  • 2 Able-Boone, Crais, Downing, 2003

15
Expanding Professional Roles
  • Will the shift from direct to indirect roles
    affect
  • job satisfaction
  • staff turnover
  • potential for burn-out among early childhood
    special educators
  • professionals who were originally attracted to
    the field because of direct work with young
    children and families may be less satisfied with
    roles that are now primarily adult oriented and
    facilitative in nature

16
Ethical Issues
  • Before we can collaborate, we need
  • Mutual consent form signed by parents and student
  • Identify specific professionals to include
  • Hand deliver, fax or mail
  • Make initial contact through a letter
  • Avoid phone tag due to different schedules
  • Send parents a copy of the letter
  • Indicate an interest in collaboration in this
    letter

17
Collaboration with related service providers
18
Why should we collaborate?
  • Coordination between the disciplines is
    important when adding speech-language therapy to
    an applied behavioral program. All objectives
    must reflect a common goal in order to build
    speech, language, play, and social skills.
    (Parker 1996)
  • ... SLPs are not the only professionals who
    target communication outcomes within the scope of
    their practice. Teachers, occupational
    therapists, reading specialists, and behavior
    analysts do so as well, either directly or
    indirectly. Therefore, cross-disciplinary
    collaboration is essential. (Koenig and Gunter
    2005)

19
Benefits of Collaboration
  • The creation of evidence-based therapeutic
    approaches and practices by individuals with
    combined expertise in ABA and SLP
  • The ability to improve the integration of support
    provided by SLP and ABA professionals as
    participants on home-, school-, and center-based
    intervention teams
  • A reduction in the number of reinvented wheels
  • Discrete trial to establish skills and NET to
    generalize
  • (Koenig and Gerenser, 2006)

20
The Role of the SLP
  • From the ASHA Position Statement Roles and
    Responsibilities of Speech-Language Pathologists
    in Diagnosis, Assessment, and Treatment of Autism
    Spectrum Disorders Across the Life Span
  • Collaboration Speech-language pathologists
    should collaborate with families, individuals
    with ASD, other professionals, support personnel,
    peers, and other invested parties to identify
    priorities and build consensus on a service plan
    and functional outcomes.

21
What do the fields of SLP and ABA have in common?
  • ABA and SLP are the treatment components most
    frequently requested by parents
  • ABA and SLP therapists are highly focused on the
    individual, his or her unique learning style, and
    the outcomes of treatment
  • Both ABA and SLP address skill deficits directly
    by teaching specific language behaviors rather
    than treating the problem indirectly using
    specialized diets or sensory stimulation programs
  • Both fields rely on procedures that are supported
    by evidence. Most therapists measure the child's
    performance by collecting data to make decisions
    about progress and potential changes in
    instruction.
  • (Harchik, 2005)

22
Coordinating Speech-Language Pathology with an
Applied Behavior Analysis Program (Parker, 1996)
  • 1. The SLP should develop language goals similar
    to those developed by the behavior program in
    order to facilitate generalization.
  • - Ex. ABA program is working on expressive labels
    with the Sd, What is this? The SLPs goal can
    be to use the same vocabulary to request those
    items in a low structure, play context.

23
  • 2. The SLP should help to make the discrete-trial
    goals of the behavior program as communicative
    and functional as possible.
  • Ex. Work on requesting programs using objects of
    high interest.
  • 3. The SLP can add valuable information about
    speech-language goals that are being addressed in
    the behavior program.
  • Ex. Suggest a prompt to remediate specific sound
    errors such as placing a hand on the students
    throat to teach the /k/ sound.

24
  • 4. The SLP helps to ensure that all therapists
    are attempting to use similar vocabulary,
    commands, and toys in focusing on their goals.
  • 5. The SLP can offer information to the behavior
    team and parents on developmentally appropriate
    linguistic forms and the developmentally normal
    communication sequence.
  • Ex. Assists with the periodic reassessment of
    linguistic goals.

25
  • 6. The SLP can demonstrate how to incorporate
    specific goals into daily, preexisting
    activities, such as dinner, bath, and bedtime,
    which will be helpful with generalization and
    sequencing.
  • Ex. A daily activity such as cooking dinner can
    be used to teach sequencing skills and specific
    language forms. If the child is working on
    prepositions, the parent can say, First we put
    the water in the pot, then the salt in, then the
    spaghetti in.

26
  • 7. The SLP should help develop reinforcers- both
    tangible, such as food, stickers, and toys, and
    social, such as praise, hugs, and tickles.
  • 8. The SLP should assess the manner in which
    speech-language skills are used within the
    classroom or play group in order to ensure
    maximum benefit from these interactions.
  • - Ex. Suggest that the teacher give the child a
    toy that she knows another child likes, then
    encourage the two children to play together.
  • - Ex. Encourage the classroom teacher to set up
    activities that require a buddy, and pair the
    child with a peer who is both a strong language
    model and a friendly child.

27
  • 9. The SLP can also help troubleshoot specific
    linguistic problems.
  • Ex. If the child is having difficulty
    remembering the names of objects, the SLP can
    develop appropriate categorization and world
    knowledge tasks.
  • 10. The SLP can also aid in the diagnosis and
    treatment of concurrent disorders (e.g. apraxia
    or dysarthria)

28
Three models for team interaction
29
Component Multidisciplinary Interdisciplinary Transdisciplinary
Philosophy of team interaction Team members recognize the importance of contributions from other disciplines. Team members are willing and able to share responsibilities for services among disciplines. Team members commit to teach, learn and work across disciplinary boundaries to plan and provide integrated services.
Family Role Generally, families meet with team members separately by discipline. The family may or may not be considered a team member. Families may work with the whole team or team representatives. Families are always members of the team and determine their own roles.
Lines of Communication Typically informal. Members may not think of themselves as part of a team. Team meets regularly for case conferences, consultations, etc. Team meets regularly to share information and to teach and learn across disciplines (for consultation, team building, etc.).
Staff Development Generally is independent and within disciplines. Frequently shared and held across disciplines. Staff development is across disciplines and is critical to team development and role transition.
30
Component Multidisciplinary Interdisciplinary Transdisciplinary
Assessment Process Team members conduct separate assessments by discipline. Team members conduct assessments by discipline and share results. The team participates in an arena assessment, observing and recording across disciplines.
Plan Development Team members develop separate plans for intervention within their own disciplines. Goals are developed by discipline and shared with the rest of the team to develop a single service plan. Staff and family develop plan together based on familys concerns, priorities, and resources.
Plan implementation Team members implement their own plan separately by discipline. Team members implement parts of the plan for which their discipline is responsible. Team members share responsibilities and are accountable for how the plan is implemented by one person, with the family.
http//www.njeis.org/NJFoundationsSP.pdf
31
The Consultative Model of Service Delivery
(Bellone, et. al 2005)
32
Why should we use this model?
  • For individuals with ASD, exclusive provision of
    services through pull-out services does not
    address the underlying challenge of social
    communication inherent in the disorder, the
    issues of generalization, functional outcomes, or
    the importance of collaborating with significant
    communication partners. (ASHA 2006)

33
Why?, cont
  • Research on children with ASD suggests that the
    greatest effects of any direct treatment are
    reflected in the generalization of learning
    achieved by working with parents and classroom
    personnel.(NRC 2001)

34
Traditional SL services are inadequate
  • 1-5 hours treatment per week
  • SLP is sole instructor
  • Isolated setting
  • Skill generalization and maintenance difficult to
    achieve given these limitations
  • (Bellone, et.al., 2005)

35
  • BUT
  • The pull-out model of service delivery continues
    to be the most used model for preschool and
    school-age children. (ASHA, 2004)
  • EVEN THOUGH
  • There is no evidence supporting the long-term
    effectiveness of individual therapies implemented
    infrequently (e.g., once or twice a week), unless
    the strategies are taught to be used regularly by
    communication partners in the natural
    environment. (ASHA 2006)

36
Consultative SL services afford
  • Consistent and continuous instruction throughout
    the childs day
  • Skill generalization across people and settings
    in childs natural environment
  • Skill maintenance through practice in naturally
    occurring and programmed opportunities
  • (Bellone, et.al., 2005)

37
The role of the SLP
  • Develop curriculum
  • Select data collection systems
  • Train teachers
  • Observe teachers students
  • Attend meetings
  • Modify teaching procedures

38
The role of the teaching staff
  • Provide multiple daily opportunities
  • Collect sum data
  • Review data w/ SLP
  • Initiate questions, concerns
  • Troubleshoot w/ SLP
  • Incorporate changes into instruction

39
The consultative model in a public school
  • School administrator contacted NECCs consulting
    department
  • NECC directors met with teachers and
    administrators
  • Defined role of SLPs and teaching staff
  • A letter was sent home to parents inviting them
    to an informational meeting
  • After a follow up letter and phone call, 33
    (n24) selected the consultative model

40
The consultative model in a public school Public
School Contract
  • Services were provided in 8 children in 3
    classrooms
  • 2 hours/mo of consultative (indirect) services
    from SLP
  • 40 hours/mo direct SL instruction from lead
    classroom teacher
  • SLP consult with Head teachers
  • Head teachers train teaching assistants

41
The consultative model in a public school Results
  • Public school students made progress/met 98 of
    objectives (2005)
  • NECC students made progress/met 90 of objectives
    (2004)

42
What do other disciplines have to say about
professional collaboration?
43
Guide for Professional Conduct
  • PRINCIPLE 11
  • A physical therapist shall respect the
    rights, knowledge, and skills of colleagues and
    other healthcare professionals.
  • 11.1 Consultation
  • A physical therapist shall seek consultation
    whenever the welfare of the patient will be
    safeguarded or advanced by consulting those who
    have special skills, knowledge, and experience.
  • 11.2 Patient/Provider Relationships
  • A physical therapist shall not undermine the
    relationship(s) between his/her patient and other
    healthcare professionals.
  • 11.3 Disparagement
  • Physical therapists shall not disparage
    colleagues and other health care professionals.
    See Section 9 and Section 2.4.A.

44
Code of Ethics
  • Principle 7. Occupational therapy personnel shall
    treat colleagues and other professionals with
    respect, fairness, discretion, and integrity.
    (FIDELITY)

45
Guidelines for Responsible Conduct For Behavior
Analysts
  • 9.0 The Behavior Analyst's Responsibility to
    Colleagues.
  • Behavior analysts have an obligation to bring
    attention to and resolve ethical violations by
    colleagues, to make sure their data are accurate
    and presented truthfully, and they share data
    with colleagues.
  • 9.01 Ethical Violations by Colleagues
  • 9.02 Accuracy of Data
  • 9.03 Authorship and Findings
  • 9.04 Publishing Data
  • 9.05 Withholding data

46
Are related service providers a necessary
component of an effective program?
47
  • A public program serving children in preschool
    through eighth grade diagnosed with Autism and
    related disabilities in Bergen County, NJ
  • The speech-language department works
    collaboratively with the classroom teachers to
    promote various communication modes such as the
    Picture Exchange System, computerized voice
    output devices, sign language, and fostering
    expressive language. (McKeon, et.al. 2006)

48
  • Does not employ related service personnel
  • Curriculum includes teaching programs that
    facilitate the development of language and fine
    and gross motor skills
  • Programs are implemented by instructional
    personnel throughout the day
  • Pull-out related services are rarely necessary
    because of the breadth and comprehensiveness of
    the curriculum
  • If services are deemed necessary, appropriate
    referrals or consultations are arranged by ALG
    staff (Meyer, et. al, 2006)

49
  • The Douglass School
  • each class is supported by a half-time
    speech-language specialist who provides
    individual and group therapy as well as
    consultative services to the preschool teachers.
    An adaptive physical education professional
    serves the preschool children on the three times
    a week and acts as a liaison for consulting
    professionals such as physical or occupational
    therapists. (Harris, et. al, 2001)
  • Douglass Outreach
  • Douglass Outreach employs five licensed
    part-time speech pathologists for speech-language
    services. (Harris, et. al, 2001)

50
Princeton Child Development Institute
  • Strong emphasis on language development
  • Does not employ specialists
  • All intervention personnel are trained to teach
    receptive and expressive language in every
    activity
  • Toilet training, outdoor play, lunchtime
  • Language instruction encompasses discrete trials,
    incidental teaching, time-delay procedures, and
    video-modeling procedures.
  • 36 of 41 children entered PCDI before 60 months
    of age and had no functional expressive language
  • The skills of these children currently range from
    using sounds as mands to age appropriate verbal
    repertoires.
  • (McClanahan and Krantz, 2001)

51
Recommendations for Continued Collaboration
  • Share treatment efficacy data
  • Share innovative teaching procedures
  • Share basic information
  • Share successful collaboration experiences
  • Read articles in journals associated with the
    other profession
  • Share your concerns
  • Share lunch
  • (Koenig and Gerenser, 2006)

52
State of New Jersey
Department Of Education
Department of Human Services
BOE - Local School / Sending School District
Board of Education (Receiving School)
The Office of Early Care and Education (OECE)
Director of Special Services
SPAN/COSAC/ Autism Society of America
Child Service Team
School
ST OT PT ART Music BCBA
Parents / Home / Family Physician Dentist, Doctor
Principle
Child
Bus
Teacher
Siblings Family Celebrations
Community
After school services (latch key)
Neighborhood, Shops, Restaurants
DDD DVR
Employment Sheltered Living
53
Collaboration with Administration
  • Who are the possible collaborative partners?
  • How can we develop a collaborative relationship?

54
NJDOE Press Release February 20, 2007
  • Approximately 7,400 New Jersey children between
    the ages of 5 and 21 have been diagnosed with
    autism spectrum disorders.
  • Fifty-five New Jersey school districts will
    share 15 million in state funds to establish,
    expand or enhance public school programs and
    services for students diagnosed with Autism
    Spectrum Disorders..

55
Administration
  • State of New Jersey
  • Department of Human Services
  • The Office of Early Care Education (OECE)
  • Division of Family Development
  • Department of Children and Families
  • Build NJ Partners for Early Learning
  • Coalition of Infant/Toddler Educators (CITE)

56
Administration
  • Child care services are coordinated through
  • Department of Human Services' Office of Early
    Care and Education for information, policy and
    resources
  • the Division of Family Development for child care
    operations
  • the Division of Developmental Disabilities
  • the Office of Licensing in the Department of
    Children and Families (DCF)
  • all in cooperation with Child Care Resource and
    Referral Agencies in every county
  • Services include
  • information and referral to help parents locate
    child care resources and to  answer typical
    questions regarding types of child care
  • how to pay for care
  • how to become family day care and licensed child
    care providers.

57
AdministrationDepartment of Education
  • Division of Early Childhood Education
  • The Division of Early Childhood Education (DECE)
    of the New Jersey Department of Education has
    programmatic responsibility for preschool through
    3rd grade (PK3) programs.
  • responsible for the development, implementation,
    and alignment of program components with a focus
    on standards, curricula, and assessment.
  • The creation of this division
  • Acknowledges that a continuum of developmental
    stages constitute what is traditionally known as
    early childhood,
  • Protects New Jerseys investment in high quality
    preschool by providing high quality kindergarten
    through third grade educational experiences for
    young children.
  • PK3 work will be organized within a framework
    that includes
  • structural (administration, class size,
    teacher-child ratio, etc.)
  • process (quality of classroom environments,
    teacher-child interactions, etc),
  • alignment (standards, curriculum, assessments)
    components that are associated with childrens
    social and academic outcomes.
  • The DECEs work will be
  • Research-based, with a series of advisory
    committees consisting of nationally recognized
    experts representing a range of early
    childhood-related areas
  • Cross-departmental to align all DOE PK3
    initiatives,
  • Supportive of the efforts of the Division of
    School Improvement.

58
Office of Special Education Programs
  • Implements state and federal laws and regulations
    governing special education to ensure that pupils
    with disabilities in New Jersey receive full
    educational opportunities.
  • Provides statewide leadership through the
    development of policy and implementation
    documents and provides guidance to school
    districts and parents regarding the
    implementation of special education programs and
    services.
  • Responsible for administering all federal funds
    received by the state for educating pupils with
    disabilities ages 3 through 21.
  • Monitors the delivery of special education
    programs operated under state authority, provides
    mediation services to parents and school
    districts, processes hearings with the Office of
    Administrative Law, and conducts complaint
    investigations requested by the public.
  • Funds four learning resource centers (LRCs) that
    provide schools and parents with information
    services, materials circulation, technical
    assistance, consultation services and production
    services.
  • Plans and implements program and personnel
    development activities in areas such as
    implementing the least restrictive environment
    provision, planning the transition of students
    with disabilities from school to adulthood,
    planning programs and services for preschool
    children with disabilities,developing
    Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) and
    accessing individual rights and entitlements.

59
LEARNING RESOURCE CENTER - NORTH7 Glenwood
Avenue, 2nd Floor, Suite 201 East Orange, New
Jersey 07017
  • Regions served Bergen, Essex, Hudson, Morris,
    Passaic, Sussex, and Warren Counties
  • (973) 414-4491 - LRC General Service(973)
    414-4496-FAX (973) 266-1849-TTY (973) 631-6349 -
    Preschool Technical Assistancee-mail
    lrcnorth_at_doe.state.nj.us

60
A collaborative modelThe Child Study Team
  • Composed of teachers, specialists,
    administrators, and parents
  • Responsible for identifying and evaluating
    students aged 3 21 for special education
    programs and services.
  • Required to conduct both an educational
    evaluation and a psychological evaluation. (A
    neurological examination is also required before
    a child becomes eligible for special services.)
  • Develops an Individual Education Plan with
    parent/child.
  • Assigns a case manager
  • Visits receiving school or agency with
    parent/child
  • Organizes placement and transportation
  • (Walther-Thomas, Korinek, McLaughlin, 1999)

61
IEP Meeting
  • Who should attend?
  • Student (if appropriate)
  • Parent
  • At least one general (or special) education
    teacher
  • At least one Child Study Team member
  • Students case manager
  • School district representatives
  • Persons invited by parent or school
  • Representatives of agencies providing payment for
    services

62
Typical School Operations NetworkCouncil of the
Borough (duly elected by town)
  • Board of Education (elected by Council)
  • Superintendent
  • Hired by the BOE
  • to direct operations
  • Manage the fiscal year budget
  • Hire all school staff including Child Study Team
    members, teachers, and professional support staff
    (ST, OT, PT, BCBA, librarian, etc.)

63
School
  • Effective collaboration emerges out of concerns
    by individuals who are like-minded in some ways
    and very different in others. Walther-Thomas,
    Korinek, McLaughlin Williams (2000)
  • Principals tend to focus on issues such as
    achievement trends, financial implications,
    professional development, student placement,
    professional schedules, and community relations.
  • Teachers are concerned with individual and group
    performance, IEP planning, and new
    responsibilities.
  • Families care about the impact of new initiatives
    on their children.

64
Improving student bus-riding behavior through a
whole-school intervention (Putnam, Handler
Ramirez-Platt Luiselli, 2003)
  • Intervention developed through collaboration with
    students, school personnel and bus drivers
  • 624 students participated during 5 phases of the
    study
  • Disruptive behavior that resulted in referrals or
    suspensions was targeted and measured in an ABAB
    reversal design
  • Results indicated an overall decrease in bus
    suspensions

65
Parents have power!
  • Parents and children are the service users
  • Parents and children have the most to
  • gain/lose regarding adequate effective
  • services
  • The child is at the center and the parent needs
  • to learn to collaborate with all the service
  • providers and get them to collaborate with
  • each other from the time of diagnosis to
    adult development.
  • Parents can enlist the work of nonprofit agencies
    and foundations to work with one another to map
    the terrain of a problem
  • They should talk to public officials about
    providing long-term funding for vital programs
    both in their community and at the State level.
  • Parents should know their rights and not accept
    anything less.

66
Suggestions for the Future
  • develop and evaluate new methods of preparing
    early childhood special educators whose primary
    role now consists of consultation and
    collaboration, rather than teaching
  • Use the case method of instruction
  • Prepare professionals to become independent and
    competent problem solvers in the role of
    consultant
  • personnel training programs must be systemic in
    nature
  • (Dybvik, 2004)

67
Suggestion for the Future, cont
  • changes in professional roles
  • create opportunities for interactive learning for
    professionals who function in a variety of roles,
    including administrative ones
  • ensure a shared knowledge and values base among
    all professionals who serve young children and
    families
  • Remedy roadblocks
  • (Skrtic, 1991)

68
Suggestion for the Future, cont
  • 21st century changes
  • "the entire history of special education is (and
    should continue to be) one of incremental
    progress toward more socially inclusive
    instructional placements for students with
    disabilities"
  • Efforts aimed at early childhood community
    integration will continue to present profound
    challenges to practitioners in ECSE
  • Effectively change our roles in response to the
    changing times, in support of young children with
    and without disabilities growing up together
  • (Skrtic, 1991)

69
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